Animal Health Trust

Kentford, United Kingdom

Animal Health Trust

Kentford, United Kingdom
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Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-CA | Phase: KBBE.2010.1.3-05 | Award Amount: 1.21M | Year: 2010

This European surveillance network for influenza in pigs (ESNIP) 3 will maintain and expand surveillance networks established during previous EC concerted actions (ESNIP 1, QLK2-CT-2000-01636; ESNIP 2, SSPE-022749). Three work packages (WP 2, 3, 4) aim to increase the knowledge of the epidemiology and evolution of swine influenza (SI) virus (SIV) in European pigs through organised field surveillance programmes (WP2). Virus strains detected in these programmes will be subjected to detailed characterisation both antigenically (WP3) and genetically (WP4) using standardised methodology. Specifically this will involve timely information on genomic data and generation of antigenic maps using the latest technology. These analyses will provide significant and timely added value to knowledge of SIV. A strong focus will be monitoring spread and independent evolution of pandemic H1N1 2009 virus in pigs. All these data will in turn be used to improve the diagnosis of SI by updating the reagents used in the recommended techniques (WP2). The virus bank and electronic database that were established during ESNIPs 1 and 2 will also be expanded and formally curated with relevant SIV isolates and information for global dissemination within and outwith the consortium (WP5). ESNIP 3 represents the only organised surveillance network for influenza in pigs and seeks to strengthen formal interactions with human and avian surveillance networks previously established in ESNIP 2. A timely and transparent interaction with these networks will be a key output. These approaches are entirely consistent with improved pandemic preparedness and planning for human influenza whilst providing an evidence base for decisions in relation to veterinary health. The project consortium consists of 24 participants, which contribute a blend of different specialisms and skills ensuring multi-disciplinary cutting-edge outputs. The vast majority of the partners are actively working with SIV including in a field setting. Twenty-one participants are from 11 EU member states, seven of which were actively involved in ESNIP 2. Co-operation with partners in China and North America will continue to promote a greater understanding of the epidemiology of SIVs at a global level.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: HEALTH-2007-2.1.1-7 | Award Amount: 15.68M | Year: 2008

Despite major efforts, identifying susceptibility genes for common human diseases - cancer, cardiovascular, inflammatory and neurological disorders - is difficult due to the complexity of the underlying causes. The dog population is composed of ~ 400 purebred breeds; each one is a genetic isolate with unique characteristics resulting from persistent selection for desired attributes or from genetic drift / inbreeding. Dogs tend to suffer from the same range of diseases than human but the genetic complexity of these diseases within a breed is reduced as a consequence of the genetic drift and due to long-range linkage disequilibrium the number of SNP markers needed to perform whole genome scans is divided by at least ten. Here, we propose a European effort gathering experts in genomics to take advantage of this extraordinary genetic model. Veterinary clinics from 12 European countries will collect DNA samples from large cohorts of dogs suffering from a range of thoroughly defined diseases of relevance to human health. Once these different cohorts will be built, DNA samples will be sent to a centralized, high-throughput SNP genotyping facility. The SNP genotypes will be stored in central database and made available to participating collaborating centres, who will analyze the data with the support of dedicated statistical genetics platforms. Following genome wide association and fine-mapping candidate genes will be followed up at the molecular level by expert animal and human genomics centers. This innovative approach using the dog model will ultimately provide insights into the pathogenesis of common human diseases its primary goal.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: BSG-SME-AG | Phase: SME-2013-2 | Award Amount: 2.44M | Year: 2014

The project will use reliable state-of-the-art genomic technologies for the rapid identification of genetic markers for heritable diseases in horses, which will facilitate effective genomics based selection against disease susceptibility. The diseases of particular focus for this project are osteochondrosis (OC), insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH) and chronic progressive lymphedema (CPL). The occurrence of these diseases is a significant problem for horse owners and breeders and leads to poor animal welfare and severe economic losses. The initiative of this project is mainly based on the strong wish from the studbooks to obtain a genetic alternative to the more traditional breeding methods which are often not feasible in the smaller breeds. For each disease, a genetic component to disease susceptibility has been confirmed and several research groups in Europe have independently carried out small to medium-sized studies in order to find the causative genetic mechanisms underlying the disorder. However, the mode of inheritance for these diseases appears to be complex, and no genes or mutations have been identified yet, suggesting that analysis of much larger sample sizes is required or across datasets. This project aims to bring together the efforts of European research groups that are currently working on the genetics of disease susceptibility in horses. This collaboration will enable the groups to pool data for meta-analysis leading to more rapid progress in the identification of the genes and suitable gene markers for use in genomic selection against disease susceptibility. The SME associations, in close collaboration with the RTD performers, will develop breeding strategies that are optimized to the specific situation of that SME association. Once genetic markers are found, these markers will be implemented in the breeding programs of the different SME associations and can be commercialized. This will improve the competitive position of the SME partners represented by the associations. The breeding organisations will have direct access to the tests through commercial labs and through the labs they already collaborate with for their parentage control.

The Broad Institute Inc., Tufts University and Animal Health Trust | Date: 2014-03-13

Provided herein are methods and compositions for identifying subjects, including canine subjects, as having an elevated risk of developing cancer or having an undiagnosed cancer. These subjects are identified based on the presence of germ-line risk markers.

Mellersh C.,Animal Health Trust
Mammalian Genome | Year: 2012

There are currently about 80 different DNA tests available for mutations that are associated with inherited disease in the domestic dog, and as the tools available with which to dissect the canine genome become increasingly sophisticated, this number can be expected to rise dramatically over the next few years. With unrelenting media pressure focused firmly on the health of the purebred domestic dog, veterinarians and dog breeders are turning increasingly to DNA tests to ensure the health of their dogs. It is ultimately the responsibility of the scientists who identify disease-associated genetic variants to make sensible choices about which discoveries are appropriate to develop into commercially available DNA tests for the lay dog breeder, who needs to balance the need to improve the genetic health of their breed with the need to maintain genetic diversity. This review discusses some of the factors that should be considered along the route from mutation discovery to DNA test and some representative examples of DNA tests currently available. © 2011 The Author(s).

Waller A.S.,Animal Health Trust
Veterinary Record | Year: 2016

Strangles, characterised by pyrexia followed by abscessation of the lymph nodes of the head and neck, was first described in 1251 (Rufus 1251) and the causative agent, Streptococcus equi, was identified in 1888 (Schutz 1888). However, despite more than a century of research into this disease, strangles remains the most frequently diagnosed infection of horses with over 600 outbreaks being identified in the UK alone each year (Parkinson and others 2011). Here, Andrew Waller reviews some of the recent advances in the understanding of the evolution of S equi and puts this into the context of preventing and resolving outbreaks of infection. © 2016, British Veterinary Association. All rights reserved.

The invention relates to a method for detecting the presence or absence of a bacterial pathogen in a biological sample obtained from a human or animal subject, using an internal control. In particular, the invention relates to a method for detecting the presence or absence of Streptococcus equi in an equine sample using a control bacterial strain as internal control for DNA extraction and PCR. The invention also relates to host cells (such as bacterial cells) and nucleic acids for use as internal standard in said method in addition to diagnostic kits comprising said host cells and nucleic acids.

Animal Health Trust | Date: 2013-05-24

The invention relates to the use of the TTC8 gene as a biomarker for the prognosis of a canine mammal developing progressive retinal atrophy. The invention also relates to in vitro methods of prognosing progressive retinal atrophy in a canine mammal by detecting a genetic variation within the TTC8 gene and to primers and prognostic kits for use in said method.

Evans K.M.,Animal Health Trust | Adams V.J.,Animal Health Trust
Journal of Small Animal Practice | Year: 2010

Objectives: To estimate breed-specific risk of death due to, and prevalence of, gastric dilatation-volvulus (GDV) in UK pedigree dogs.Methods: Data were available on the reported cause of and age at death and occurrence of and age at diagnosis of disease from the 2004 purebred dog health survey. A total of 15,881 dogs of 165 breeds had died in the previous 10 years; GDV was the cause of death in 65 breeds. There were 36,006 live dogs of 169 breeds of which 48 breeds had experienced ≥1 episodes of GDV. Prevalence ratios were used to estimate breed-specific GDV mortality and morbidity risks.Results: Gastric dilatation-volvulus was the cause of death for 389 dogs, representing 2.5% (95% CI: 2.2-2.7) of all deaths reported and the median age at death was 7.92 years. There were 253 episodes in 238 live dogs. The median age at first diagnosis was five years. Breeds at greatest risk of GDV mortality were the bloodhound, Grand Bleu de Gascogne, German longhaired pointer and Neapolitan mastiff. Breeds at greatest risk of GDV morbidity were the Grand Bleu de Gascogne, bloodhound, otterhound, Irish setter and Weimaraner. Clinical Significance: These results suggest that 16 breeds, mainly large/giant, are at increased risk of morbidity/mortality due to GDV. © 2010 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

Girard N.M.,Animal Health Trust | Leece E.A.,Animal Health Trust
Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia | Year: 2010

Observations: Anaphylactoid reactions were suspected in three dogs following the intravenous administration of the contrast agent gadobenate dimeglumine 0.05 mmol kg-1 (Multihance®).Case 1: A 14 kg 6-year-old atopic female dog was anaesthetized for brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). All monitored parameters remained stable during the procedure. Fifteen minutes following MR completion; facial, peri-orbital and sublingual oedema were noted. Resolution of the oedema was rapid and uneventful following treatment of clinical signs over 2 hours.Case 2: A 16 kg 10-month-old male dog was anaesthetized for brain and neck MRI. Ten minutes after MR contrast intravenous (IV) injection; heart rate (HR) increased (85-120 beats minute-1), mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) decreased (from 70 to 43 mmHg) and PE′CO2 decreased (from 4.66 to 3.19 kPa). Labial, periorbital and lingual oedema were noted. Clinical signs responded to fluid bolus administration. The dog vomited in recovery but oedema resolved within one hour.Case 3: A 34 kg 2-year-old atopic male dog was anaesthetized for head MRI. Within 5 minutes of MR contrast IV injection; the dog suffered severe cardiovascular collapse. MRI procedure was aborted and administration of anaesthetics discontinued. Aggressive IV fluid resuscitation and IV epinephrine administration were necessary to re-establish cardiovascular stability. Some periorbital and labial oedema were noted. The dog vomited once and had soft faeces but made a complete recovery. Conclusions: The administration of contrast medium may result in mild to severe anaphylactoid reactions. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesiologists.

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