Animal Health Supervision Institute of Heilongjiang Province

Harbin, China

Animal Health Supervision Institute of Heilongjiang Province

Harbin, China
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Wang X.,Northeast Agricultural University | Xing H.,Northeast Agricultural University | Xing H.,Animal Health Supervision Institute of Heilongjiang Province | Jiang Y.,Northeast Agricultural University | And 4 more authors.
Food and Chemical Toxicology | Year: 2013

This study assessed the impacts of atrazine (ATR), chlorpyrifos (CPF) and combined ATR/CPF exposure on the immune organs of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). The carp were sampled after a 40-d exposure to CPF and ATR, individually or in combination, followed by a 20-d recovery to measure the acid phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), Na+/K+-ATPase, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) content. In addition, we also investigated histopathological changes and pesticide residues in the spleen and head kidney. The results revealed that the responses of SOD, MDA, ALP, ACP, and Na+/K+-ATPase to ATR, CPF and ATR/CPF combination exposure presented in a dose-dependent manner. The ACP activity and MDA content were significantly induced with increasing concentrations of ATR, CPF and combined ATR/CPF. However, the enzyme activities (SOD, ALP, and Na+/K+-ATPase) were reduced under exposure to increasing concentrations of these compounds. The accumulated amounts of ATR, CPF, and their metabolites in the spleens and head kidneys tissues exhibited dose-dependency. Pathological changes included tissue damage that was more severe with increasing exposure doses. SOD activity negatively correlated with MDA accumulation. The biochemical parameters exhibited sensitivity to ATR and CPF, suggesting that they may act as potential biomarkers for assessing the environmental ATR and CPF risk for carp. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Fu Y.,Northeast Agricultural University | Li M.,Northeast Agricultural University | Li M.,Daqing Normal University | Liu C.,Northeast Agricultural University | And 5 more authors.
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety | Year: 2013

Chlorpyrifos (CPF) and atrazine (ATR) are the most widely used organophosphate insecticides and triazine herbicides, respectively, worldwide. This study aimed at investigating the effects of ATR, CPF and mixture on common carp gills following 40-d exposure and 40-d recovery experiments. Cytochrome P450 content, activities of aminopyrine N-demethylase (APND) and erythromycin N-demethylase (ERND) and the mRNA levels of the CYP1 family (CYP1A, CYP1B, and CYP1C) were determined. In total, 220 common carps were divided into eleven groups, and each group was treated with a specific concentration of ATR (4.28, 42.8 and 428. μg/L), CPF (1.16, 11.6 and 116. μg/L) or ATR-CPF mixture (1.13, 11.3 and 113. μg/L). The results showed that P450 content and activities of APND and ERND in fish exposed to ATR and mixture were significantly higher than those in the control group. After the 40-d recovery treatment (i.e., depuration), the P450 content and the activities of APND and ERND in fish decreased to the background levels. A similar tendency was also found in the mRNA levels of the CYP1 family (CYP1A, CYP1B, and CYP1C) in common carp gills. The CPF-treated fish showed no significant difference from the control groups, except for a significant CYP1C induction. These results indicated that CYP enzyme levels are induced by ATR but were only slightly affected by CPF in common carp gills. In addition, the ATR and CPF exposure showed an antagonistic effect on P450 enzymes in common carp gills. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.


Xing H.,Northeast Agricultural University | Xing H.,Animal Health Supervision Institute of Heilongjiang Province | Li S.,Northeast Agricultural University | Wang X.,Northeast Agricultural University | And 3 more authors.
Chemosphere | Year: 2013

Although the chaperone role of heat shock proteins (HSPs) has been demonstrated in invertebrates, the function of HSPs in vertebrates, especially in fish, remains unclear. In this study, relative changes in the mRNA abundance of the HSP70 gene were examined by real-time PCR in the muscle, spleen, head kidney, heart, liver, brain, kidney and gill of common carp. Results indicated that the highest and lowest levels of HSP70 expression were found in the heart and muscle, respectively, and the highest and lowest levels of HSC70 expression were found in the spleen and muscle, respectively. In addition, we investigated differential HSP70 gene expression in common carp after a 40-d exposure to chlorpyrifos (CPF) and atrazine (ATR), alone or in combination, and after a 20-d recovery. Results indicated that the expression of carp HSP70 and 70-kDa heat shock cognate protein (HSC70) with ATR and CPF treatment alone or in combination was significantly upregulated. The present results provide new insights into the mechanisms used by fish to adapt to stressful environments. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Xing H.,Northeast Agricultural University | Xing H.,Animal Health Supervision Institute of Heilongjiang Province | Li S.,Northeast Agricultural University | Wang Z.,Animal Health Supervision Institute of Heilongjiang Province | And 3 more authors.
Chemosphere | Year: 2012

We investigated oxidative stress response and histopathological changes in the brain and kidney of the common carp after a 40-d exposure to CPF and ATR, alone or in combination, and a 20-d recovery. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities and malondialdehyde (MDA) content were measured using standard assays. Our results indicated that exposure to ATR, CPF or a combination of the two for 40. d induced significant changes in antioxidant enzyme (SOD, CAT and GSH-Px) activities and MDA content in the brain and kidney of the common carp. Pathological changes included tissue damage that was more severe with increased of exposure dose. To our knowledge, this is the first report to study oxidative stress and histopathological effects caused by subchronic exposure to ATR, CPF and ATR/CPF combination on common carp. The information presented in this study may be helpful to understanding the mechanisms of ATR-, CPF- and ATR/CPF combination-induced oxidative stress in fish. © 2012.


Xing H.,Northeast Agricultural University | Xing H.,Animal Health Supervision Institute of Heilongjiang Province | Wang X.,Northeast Agricultural University | Sun G.,Animal Health Supervision Institute of Heilongjiang Province | And 3 more authors.
Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology | Year: 2012

Glutathione S-transferase isoenzymes (GSTs) play a critical role in detoxification pathways. Here we report the tissue distribution of four antioxidant GSTs gene in common carp, and their expression profiles. We also investigated the GSTs activity in different tissues after exposure to the agricultural chemicals atrazine (ATR), chlorpyrifos (CPF), and their mixture. Relative changes in the mRNA abundance of the GST isoforms were examined by real time PCR in liver, brain, kidney and gill of common carp. After exposure and recovery, we observed a statistically significant decrease in the GSTs activity in animals exposed to high concentrations of ATR (428 μg/L), CPF (116 μg/L), and their mixture (113 μg/L). At basal levels of tissue expression, four GSTs transcript were detected in liver, brain, kidney, and gill. High expression levels were found in all examined tissues. Transcription of some GST isoforms, GST kappa (GSTK), GST theta (GSTT) and GST rho (GSTR), decreased after exposure to CPF and ATR for the entire experimental period in both the kidney and gill. However, increased transcription of GST mu (GSTM) was observed in the kidney or gill 20. d after exposure to ATR or CPF, respectively. Transcription of both GSTT and GSTR was inhibited for the entire experimental period in the brain, kidney and gill of animals exposed to the ATR/CPF mixture, but transcription of GSTM was induced in the liver after 40. d of exposure. In summary, changes in the GSTs activity and their transcription varied within each organ and among organs of common carp after exposure to ATR, CPF, and their mixture. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Xing H.,Northeast Agricultural University | Xing H.,Animal Health Supervision Institute of Heilongjiang Province | Li S.,Northeast Agricultural University | Wang Z.,Animal Health Supervision Institute of Heilongjiang Province | And 3 more authors.
Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology | Year: 2012

Atrazine (ATR) and chlorpyrifos (CPF) are the most common pesticides found in freshwater ecosystems throughout the world. Herein, we investigated the oxidative stress responses and histopathological changes in the liver and gill of common carp after a 40-d exposure to CPF and ATR, alone or in combination, and a 20-d recovery treatment. We found that exposure to ATR, CPF or their mixture for 40. d could induce decrease in antioxidant enzyme (SOD, CAT and GSH-Px) activities and increase in MDA content in a dose-dependent manner in the liver and gill of common carp. Especially with regard to the pathological changes, the tissue damage increased in severity in a dose-dependent manner. The liver tissue of common carp revealed different degree of hydropic degeneration, vacuolisation, pyknotic nuclei, and fatty infiltration. The gills of common carp displayed varied degrees of epithelial hypertrophy, telangiectasis, oedema with epithelial separation from basement membranes, general necrosis, and epithelial desquamation. After a 20-d recovery treatment, the antioxidant enzyme activities and MDA content were significantly lower (. p<. 0.05) than in the corresponding exposure groups in all of the highest doses, but not in the lower doses. To our knowledge, this is the first report of subchronic oxidative stress and histopathological effects caused by ATR, CPF and their mixture in the common carp. Thus, the information presented in this study is helpful to understand the mechanism of ATR-, CPF- and ATR/CPF-mixture-induced oxidative stress in fish. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.


Gao X.,Northeast Agricultural University | Xing H.,Northeast Agricultural University | Xing H.,Animal Health Supervision Institute of Heilongjiang Province | Li S.,Northeast Agricultural University | And 3 more authors.
Biological Trace Element Research | Year: 2012

Selenoprotein W (SelW) is an existing form of selenium (Se). Se influences the levels of SelW in mammals. However, little is known about the pattern of SelW expression in the gastrointestinal tract tissue of bird. The present paper describes the effects of different dietary levels of Se on the SelW mRNA expression in the gastrointestinal tract tissue of chicken. The expression levels of SelW mRNA and the Se contents in the gastrointestinal tract tissues (glandular stomach, gizzard, duodenum, small intestine, and rectum) were determined on days 15, 25, 35, 45, and 55, respectively. The results showed that the Se contents and the SelW mRNA expression were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in the high-Se group, and the Se contents and SelW mRNA expression in the low-Se group were significantly lower (p < 0.05) than in the controls. The Se contents were the highest in the duodenum and the lowest in the rectum, while the SelW mRNA expression was the highest in the gizzard and the lowest in the rectum. In addition, the SelW mRNA levels in the gastrointestinal tract tissue were found to increase in a time-dependent manner with increasing feeding time. Furthermore, the expression of the SelW mRNA in the gastrointestinal tract tissues of chickens was found to correlate with the dietary Se concentrations, but not with the tissue Se contents. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.


Xing H.,Northeast Agricultural University | Xing H.,Animal Health Supervision Institute of Heilongjiang Province | Zhang Z.,Northeast Agricultural University | Yao H.,Northeast Agricultural University | And 4 more authors.
Chemosphere | Year: 2014

Atrazine (ATR) and chlorpyrifos (CPF), widely used in agriculture, have resulted in a series of toxicological and environmental problems. We investigated the activities of the biotransformation enzymes ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) and pentoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (PROD), total cytochrome P450 (CYP), CYP1A mRNA level and level of tissue ATR, CPF, and their metabolites in the liver of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) after a 40-d exposure to CPF and ATR, alone or in combination, and a 20-d recovery. In the present study, juvenile common carp was exposed to ATR (at concentrations of 4.28, 42.8 and 428μgL-1), CPF (1.16, 11.6 and 116μgL-1), and ATR/CPF mixture (at concentrations of 1.13, 11.3 and 113μgL-1). A general increasing trend for the activity of the biotransformation enzymes (EROD and PROD), CYP and CYP1A mRNA level was observed in the liver of common carp exposed to ATR, CPF and the ATR/CPF mixture. In addition, ATR, CPF, and their metabolites demonstrated a high accumulation in the liver. These results demonstrated that the CYP system in fish could be used as a biomarkers in evaluating the impact of ATR and CPF exposure on the common carp. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Xing H.,Northeast Agricultural University | Xing H.,Animal Health Supervision Institute of Heilongjiang Province | Wu H.,Academy of Agricultural science of Heilongjiang Province | Sun G.,Animal Health Supervision Institute of Heilongjiang Province | And 3 more authors.
Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology | Year: 2013

Insecticides and herbicides are widely used in modern agricultural production. The intensive use of insecticide chlorpyrifos (CPF) and herbicide atrazine (ATR) has resulted in serious environmental problems. Herein, we investigated alteration in activity and mRNA levels of AChE in the liver, kidney and gill from common carp after 40. d exposure to CPF and ATR alone or in combination and 20. d recovery treatment. Results indicated that activity and mRNA levels of AChE at all high-dose groups have been significantly decreased after CPF and ATR alone or ATR/CPF mixture exposure, and the changes were improved in the end of recovery tests in varying degrees, the activity and gene expression of AChE in the joint toxicity of ATR and CPF groups were significantly lower than that in the single toxicant group. Our study suggests that the decrease of AChE activity observed at all high-dose groups (CPF and ATR alone or in combination) may be directly related to a lower AChE expression, and the joint toxicity of ATR and CPF is higher than ATR and CPF alone. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Xing H.,Northeast Agricultural University | Xing H.,Animal Health Supervision Institute of Heilongjiang Province | Han Y.,Northeast Agricultural University | Li S.,Northeast Agricultural University | And 3 more authors.
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety | Year: 2010

The uses of pesticides and herbicides have become an integral part of modern agricultural systems. The intensive use of pesticides chlorpyrifos (CPF) and herbicides atrazine (ATR) has resulted in serious environmental problems. Herein, we have developed real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction assays for common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) mRNA. The levels of AChE mRNA were evaluated in brain and muscle collected from common carp by treatment of ATR, CPF, and their mixture. The decreased transcription of AChE was detected in both tissues at different doses of the toxicants in the end of exposure tests, and the changes were improved in the end of recovery tests in varying degrees. It is suggested that transcription inhibition of AChE might be significant in long-playing single or associated exposure of ATR and CPF in common carp. Alteration in transcription of AChE caused by ATR, CPF, and their mixture could reveal the toxic mechanisms related to cholinergic signaling. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.

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