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Deventer, Netherlands

Jahfari S.,National Institute for Public Health and Environment RIVM | Coipan E.C.,National Institute for Public Health and Environment RIVM | Coipan E.C.,Wageningen University | Fonville M.,National Institute for Public Health and Environment RIVM | And 17 more authors.
Parasites and Vectors | Year: 2014

Background: Anaplasma phagocytophilum is the etiological agent of granulocytic anaplasmosis in humans and animals. Wild animals and ticks play key roles in the enzootic cycles of the pathogen. Potential ecotypes of A. phagocytophilum have been characterized genetically, but their host range, zoonotic potential and transmission dynamics has only incompletely been resolved. Methods. The presence of A. phagocytophilum DNA was determined in more than 6000 ixodid ticks collected from the vegetation and wildlife, in 289 tissue samples from wild and domestic animals, and 69 keds collected from deer, originating from various geographic locations in The Netherlands and Belgium. From the qPCR-positive lysates, a fragment of the groEL-gene was amplified and sequenced. Additional groEL sequences from ticks and animals from Europe were obtained from GenBank, and sequences from human cases were obtained through literature searches. Statistical analyses were performed to identify A. phagocytophilum ecotypes, to assess their host range and their zoonotic potential. The population dynamics of A. phagocytophilum ecotypes was investigated using population genetic analyses. Results: DNA of A. phagocytophilum was present in all stages of questing and feeding Ixodes ricinus, feeding I. hexagonus, I. frontalis, I. trianguliceps, and deer keds, but was absent in questing I. arboricola and Dermacentor reticulatus. DNA of A. phagocytophilum was present in feeding ticks and tissues from many vertebrates, including roe deer, mouflon, red foxes, wild boar, sheep and hedgehogs but was rarely found in rodents and birds and was absent in badgers and lizards. Four geographically dispersed A. phagocytophilum ecotypes were identified, that had significantly different host ranges. All sequences from human cases belonged to only one of these ecotypes. Based on population genetic parameters, the potentially zoonotic ecotype showed significant expansion. Conclusion: Four ecotypes of A. phagocytophilum with differential enzootic cycles were identified. So far, all human cases clustered in only one of these ecotypes. The zoonotic ecotype has the broadest range of wildlife hosts. The expansion of the zoonotic A. phagocytophilum ecotype indicates a recent increase of the acarological risk of exposure of humans and animals. © 2014 Jahfari et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source


Lamb J.,Exponent, Inc. | Hentz K.,Exponent, Inc. | Schmitt D.,Exponent, Inc. | Tran N.,Exponent, Inc. | And 2 more authors.
Food and Chemical Toxicology | Year: 2010

The toxicity of sodium stearoyl lactylate (SSL) was examined in Wistar rats fed diets containing 0, 1.25, 2.5, and 5% SSL for one year, equivalent to mean daily intakes of 558, 1115, and 2214. mg/kg/day in males and 670, 1339, and 2641. mg/kg/day in females, respectively. SSL was well tolerated at these dietary levels as evidenced by the absence of toxicologically significant changes in the general condition and appearance of the rats, survival, neurobehavioral endpoints, growth, feed and water intake, ophthalmoscopic examinations, hematology and clinical chemistry parameters, urinalysis, or necropsy findings. The occurrence of uterine endometrial stromal polyps was the only finding of potential significance. Given the frequent occurrence of these benign tumors in rats, wide variability in the reported incidence of this type of polyps in rats, the lack of statistical significance and lack of biological evidence to suggest a mechanism for the slightly greater incidence in the groups fed 2.5 and 5% SSL, it was concluded that the endometrial stromal polyps observed in females fed SSL were not related to treatment. The no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) of SSL was placed at 5%, the highest dietary level tested (equivalent to 2214. mg/kg/day for males and 2641. mg/kg/day for females). © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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