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Ahmed Kamal S.,Animal Health Research Institute
Virology Journal | Year: 2011

Rift Valley Fever virus (RVFV, genus: Phlebovirus, family: Bunyaviridae), is an arbovirus which causes significant morbidity and mortality in animals and humans. RVFV was introduced for the first time in Egypt in 1977. In endemic areas, the insect vector control and vaccination is considering appropriate measures if applied properly and the used vaccine is completely safe and the vaccination programs cover all the susceptible animals. Egypt is importing livestock and camels from the African Horn & the Sudan for human consumption. The imported livestock and camels were usually not vaccinated against RVFV. But in rare occasions, the imported livestock were vaccinated but with unknown date of vaccination and the unvaccinated control contacts were unavailable for laboratory investigations. Also, large number of the imported livestock and camels are often escaped slaughtering for breeding which led to the spread of new strains of FMD and the introduction of RVFV from the enzootic African countries. This article provide general picture about the present situation of RVFV in Egypt to help in controlling this important disease. © 2011 Kamal; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Yones D.A.,Assiut University | Taher G.A.,Animal Health Research Institute | Ibraheim Z.Z.,Assiut University
Korean Journal of Parasitology | Year: 2011

The present work evaluated the effects of alcoholic extracts of salvia (Salvia officinalis), thyme (Thymus vulgaris), and 2 pure compounds (thymol and menthol) on the viability of Echinococcus granulosus protoscolices in vitro. Four different concentrations of each extract (2,500, 1,500, 1,000, and 500 μg/ml) and 3 different concentrations each of thymol and menthol (50, 10, and 1 μg/ml) were used. Concentration of 2,500 μg/ml of both extracts showed a significant protoscolicidal activity on the 6th day. Complete loss of viability of protoscolices occurred with 500 μg/ml concentration of both extracts at day 6 and day 7 post-treatment (PT), respectively. Pure compounds, i.e., menthol and thymol, showed potent effects with 50 μg/ml concentration at day 2 and day 5 PT, respectively. These effects were compared with those of albendazole sulfoxide (800 μg/ml), a commonly used treatment drug for hydatidosis. Krebs-Ringer solution and the hydatid cystic fluid at a ratio of 4:1 was a good preservative solution which kept the protoscolices viable for 15 days. © 2011, Korean Society for Parasitology.


Harfoush M.,Animal Health Research Institute
Journal of the Egyptian Society of Parasitology | Year: 2010

In Kafr El-Sheikh, Capital of Kafr El-Sheikh Governorate, Toxoplasma-IHAT was performed on locally bred domestic ducks, free-range chickens, turkey and domestic rabbits. The results revealed an infection rate of 55, 38.1, 29.4, and 37.5% respectively which indicates a soil contamination and environmental zoonotic risk.


Selim K.M.,Zagazig University | El-hofy H.,Animal Health Research Institute | Khalil R.H.,Alexandria University
Aquaculture International | Year: 2014

Aflatoxicosis, toxicity of aflatoxin, is of great concern in aquaculture. This study was conducted to assess the efficacies of three adsorbents, a hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicates (HSCAS), Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S.C.) and an esterified glucomannan (EGM), against feed contaminated with contained 200 μg/kg (ppb) aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). A total of 240 Nile tilapia fingerlings, Oreochromis niloticus (15 ± 2 g), were randomly divided into eight experimental groups (30 fish per group) with three replicates. Group T1 represented the negative control fed on a basal diet, and T2 was the positive control group fed on a basal diet supplemented with 200 ppb AFB1. Groups T3, T4 and T5 were fed the AFB1-contaminated diet (200 ppb) supplemented with 0.5 % HSCAS, 0.25 % S.C or 0.25 % EGM, respectively. Groups T6, T7 and T8 were fed a basal diet supplemented with 0.5 % HSCAS, 0.25 % S.C or 0.25 % EGM, respectively. The reduction in AFB1-bioavailability was judged by toxin residues in fish musculature throughout the study beginning at the second week of exposure. AFB1 reduced the survivability, total weight gain, average daily gain and specific growth rate, evident as early as the second week of exposure. The total erythrocyte count, hemoglobin content and total leukocyte count were significantly decreased after AFB1 exposure for 6, 8 and 10 weeks, respectively. Prolonged administration of AFB1 led to significant increases in serum alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase and creatinine activity, and produced significant decreases in plasma proteins, including serum globulin. The specific immune response was assessed by an agglutinating antibody titer after immunization of the fish with an Aeromonas hydrophila vaccine. The antibody titer and relative level of protection of fish challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila were reduced throughout the period of examination in AFB1-exposed fish. Supplementation with HSCAS, S.C. or EGM significantly improved growth performance, blood parameters and immune status; in addition, these groups showed decreased AFB1 residues in fish musculature when compared with AFB1-treated fish. HSCAS effectively reduced AFB1 toxicity, whereas S.C. and EGM were less efficacious. © 2013 The Author(s).


Harfoush M.A.,Animal Health Research Institute
Journal of the Egyptian Society of Parasitology | Year: 2010

The study investigated some anticoccidial resistance for Amprol, Toltrazuril and sulfaclozine in experimental infected broiler. Eimeria identification depended on necropsy and coproscopic examination. 140 day-old chicks allotted into 7 groups and infected with Eimeria in 2nd day of age. G1: neither infected nor treated (negative control), G2: infected but not treated (positive control), Infected and treated with toltrazuril (G3), or with Amprol+Allicin (G4), or with Amprol+ethobabate (G5), or with Amprol (G6) or with Sulfaclozine (G7). Eimeria infection caused decrease in body gain, total protein, albumin but increase in FCR, ALT, AST, Uric acid, Creatinine. Treatment decreased the harmful effect of infection but some significant differences were between infected treated groups and non infected non-treated one.

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