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PubMed | Animal Health Research Center and French National Institute for Agricultural Research
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of virology | Year: 2016

The genome of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV), a salmonid novirhabdovirus, has been engineered to modify the gene order and to evaluate the impact on a possible attenuation of the virus in vitro and in vivo By reverse genetics, eight recombinant IHNVs (rIHNVs), termed NxGy according to the respective positions of the nucleoprotein (N) and glycoprotein (G) genes along the genome, have been recovered. All rIHNVs have been fully characterized in vitro for their cytopathic effects, kinetics of replication, and profiles of viral gene transcription. These rIHNVs are stable through up to 10 passages in cell culture. Following bath immersion administration of the various rIHNVs to juvenile trout, some of the rIHNVs were clearly attenuated (N2G3, N2G4, N3G4, and N4G1). The position of the N gene seems to be one of the most critical features correlated to the level of viral attenuation. The induced immune response potential in fish was evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot assay (ELISPOT) and seroneutralization assays. The recombinant virus N2G3 induced a strong antibody response in immunized fish and conferred 86% of protection against wild-type IHNV challenge in trout, thus representing a promising starting point for the development of a live attenuated vaccine candidate.In Europe, no vaccines are available against infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV), one of the major economic threats in fish aquaculture. Live attenuated vaccines are conditioned by a sensible balance between attenuation and pathogenicity. Moreover, nonsegmented negative-strain RNA viruses (NNSV) are subject to a transcription gradient dictated by the order of the genes in their genomes. With the perspective of developing a vaccine against IHNV, we engineered various recombinant IHNVs with reordered genomes in order to artificially attenuate the virus. Our results validate the gene rearrangement approach as a potent and stable attenuation strategy for fish novirhabdovirus and open a new perspective for design of vaccines against other NNSV.


De la Torre A.,Animal Health Research Center | Bosch J.,Animal Health Research Center | Iglesias I.,Animal Health Research Center | Munoz M.J.,Animal Health Research Center | And 5 more authors.
Transboundary and Emerging Diseases | Year: 2015

The presence of African swine fever (ASF) in the Caucasus region and Russian Federation has increased concerns that wild boars may introduce the ASF virus into the European Union (EU). This study describes a semi-quantitative approach for evaluating the risk of ASF introduction into the EU by wild boar movements based on the following risk estimators: the susceptible population of (1) wild boars and (2) domestic pigs in the country of origin; the outbreak density in (3) wild boars and (4) domestic pigs in the countries of origin, the (5) suitable habitat for wild boars along the EU border; and the distance between the EU border and the nearest ASF outbreak in (6) wild boars or (7) domestic pigs. Sensitivity analysis was performed to identify the most influential risk estimators. The highest risk was found to be concentrated in Finland, Romania, Latvia and Poland, and wild boar habitat and outbreak density were the two most important risk estimators. Animal health authorities in at-risk countries should be aware of these risk estimators and should communicate closely with wild boar hunters and pig farmers to rapidly detect and control ASF. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.


Costard S.,Veterinary Epidemiology and Public Health Group | Jones B.A.,Veterinary Epidemiology and Public Health Group | Martinez-Lopez B.,Complutense University of Madrid | Mur L.,Complutense University of Madrid | And 8 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Transboundary animal diseases can have very severe socio-economic impacts when introduced into new regions. The history of disease incursions into the European Union suggests that initial outbreaks were often initiated by illegal importation of meat and derived products. The European Union would benefit from decision-support tools to evaluate the risk of disease introduction caused by illegal imports in order to inform its surveillance strategy. However, due to the difficulty in quantifying illegal movements of animal products, very few studies of this type have been conducted. Using African swine fever as an example, this work presents a novel risk assessment framework for disease introduction into the European Union through illegal importation of meat and products. It uses a semi-quantitative approach based on factors that likely influence the likelihood of release of contaminated smuggled meat and products, and subsequent exposure of the susceptible population. The results suggest that the European Union is at non-negligible risk of African swine fever introduction through illegal importation of pork and products. On a relative risk scale with six categories from negligible to very high, five European Union countries were estimated at high (France, Germany, Italy and United Kingdom) or moderate (Spain) risk of African swine fever release, five countries were at high risk of exposure if African swine fever were released (France, Italy, Poland, Romania and Spain) and ten countries had a moderate exposure risk (Austria, Bulgaria, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Portugal, Sweden and United Kingdom). The approach presented here and results obtained for African swine fever provide a basis for the enhancement of risk-based surveillance systems and disease prevention programmes in the European Union. © 2013 Costard et al.


Rubio-Guerri C.,Complutense University of Madrid | Melero M.,Complutense University of Madrid | Esperon F.,Animal Health Research Center | Belliere E.N.,Animal Health Research Center | And 5 more authors.
BMC Veterinary Research | Year: 2013

Background: In the last 20 years, Cetacean Morbillivirus (CeMV) has been responsible for many die-offs in marine mammals worldwide, as clearly exemplified by the two dolphin morbillivirus (DMV) epizootics of 1990-1992 and 2006-2008, which affected Mediterranean striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba). Between March and April 2011, the number of strandings on the Valencian Community coast (E Spain) increased.Case presentation: Necropsy and sample collection were performed in all stranded animals, with good state of conservation. Subsequently, histopathology, immunohistochemistry, conventional reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Universal Probe Library (UPL) RT-PCR assays were performed to identify Morbillivirus. Gross and microscopic findings compatible with CeMV were found in the majority of analyzed animals. Immunopositivity in the brain and UPL RT-PCR positivity in seven of the nine analyzed animals in at least two tissues confirmed CeMV systemic infection. Phylogenetic analysis, based on sequencing part of the phosphoprotein gene, showed that this isolate is a closely related dolphin morbillivirus (DMV) to that responsible for the 2006-2008 epizootics.Conclusion: The combination of gross and histopathologic findings compatible with DMV with immunopositivity and molecular detection of DMV suggests that this DMV strain could cause this die-off event. © 2013 Rubio-Guerri et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


PubMed | Animal Health Research Center and Complutense University of Madrid
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2016

We analyzed six apiaries in several natural environments with a Mediterranean ecosystem in Madrid, central Spain, in order to understand how landscape and management characteristics may influence apiary health and bee production in the long term. We focused on five criteria (habitat quality, landscape heterogeneity, climate, management and health), as well as 30 subcriteria, and we used the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) to rank them according to relevance. Habitat quality proved to have the highest relevance, followed by beehive management. Within habitat quality, the following subcriteria proved to be most relevant: orographic diversity, elevation range and important plant species located 1.5 km from the apiary. The most important subcriteria under beehive management were honey production, movement of the apiary to a location with a higher altitude and wax renewal. Temperature was the most important subcriterion under climate, while pathogen and Varroa loads were the most significant under health. Two of the six apiaries showed the best values in the AHP analysis and showed annual honey production of 70 and 28 kg/colony. This high productivity was due primarily to high elevation range and high orographic diversity, which favored high habitat quality. In addition, one of these apiaries showed the best value for beehive management, while the other showed the best value for health, reflected in the low pathogen load and low average number of viruses. These results highlight the importance of environmental factors and good sanitary practices to maximize apiary health and honey productivity.


PubMed | Animal Health Research Center, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, University of Melbourne and Jordan University of Science and Technology
Type: | Journal: Infection, genetics and evolution : journal of molecular epidemiology and evolutionary genetics in infectious diseases | Year: 2016

This study was designed to genetically characterise the larval stage (coenurus) of Taenia multiceps from ruminants in Greece, utilising DNA regions within the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (partial cox1) and NADH dehydrogenase 1 (pnad1) mitochondrial (mt) genes, respectively. A molecular-phylogenetic approach was used to analyse the pcox1 and pnad1 amplicons derived from genomic DNA samples from individual cysts (n=105) from cattle (n=3), goats (n=5) and sheep (n=97). Results revealed five and six distinct electrophoretic profiles for pcox1 and pnad1, respectively, using single-strand conformation polymorphism. Direct sequencing of selected amplicons representing each of these profiles defined five haplotypes each for pcox1 and pnad1, among all 105 isolates. Phylogenetic analysis of individual sequence data for each locus, including a range of well-defined reference sequences, inferred that all isolates of T. multiceps cysts from ruminants in Greece clustered with previously published sequences from different continents. The present study provides a foundation for future large-scale studies on the epidemiology of T. multiceps in ruminants as well as dogs in Greece.


PubMed | Animal Health Research Center, Autonomous University of Barcelona and University of Aberdeen
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Oncotarget | Year: 2016

CK9 is a rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) CC chemokine phylogenetically related to mammalian CCL25. Although CK9 is known to be transcriptionally regulated in response to inflammation particularly in mucosal tissues, its functionality has never been revealed. In the current work, we have demonstrated that CK9 is chemoattractant for antigen presenting cells (APCs) expressing major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC II) on the cell surface. Among these APCs, CK9 has a strong chemotactic capacity for both B cells (IgM+ and IgT+) and macrophages. Along with its chemotactic capacities, CK9 modulated the MHC II turnover of B lymphocytes and up-regulated the phagocytic capacity of both IgM+ cells and macrophages. Although CK9 had no lymphoproliferative effects, it increased the survival of IgT+ lymphocytes. Furthermore, we have established that the chemoattractant capacity of CK9 is strongly increased after pre-incubation of leukocytes with a T-independent antigen, whereas B cell receptor (BCR) cross-linking strongly abrogated their capacity to migrate to CK9, indicating that CK9 preferentially attracts B cells at the steady state or under BCR-independent stimulation. These results point to CK9 being a key regulator of B lymphocyte trafficking in rainbow trout, able to modulate innate functions of teleost B lymphocytes and macrophages.


Colino-Rabanal V.J.,University of Salamanca | Bosch J.,Animal Health Research Center | Munoz M.J.,Animal Health Research Center | Peris S.J.,University of Salamanca
Animal Biodiversity and Conservation | Year: 2012

In recent decades, wild boar populations have increased both in number and distribution. This rise is partly related to the increase in cropland devoted to maize (Zea mays) cultivation, as wild boar find food and refuge in these areas. This population expansion has led to an increase in the number of wild boar vehicle collisions (WBVCs). The goal of the present study was to evaluate a set of spatio-temporal factors that influence WBVCs related to maize crops on the Northern Spanish Plateau (the region of Castile and Leon). We compared the maize pattern with the factors related to total WBVC numbers. We observed that whereas the total occurrence of WBVCs usually increased with forest cover and speed and traffic volumes, maize areas were one of the main explanatory variables in plateau models. To avoid collisions in these areas in future, a number of mitigation measures are outlined.


Bird S.,University of Waikato | Tafalla C.,Animal Health Research Center
Biology | Year: 2015

Chemokines are a superfamily of cytokines that appeared about 650 million years ago, at the emergence of vertebrates, and are responsible for regulating cell migration under both inflammatory and physiological conditions. The first teleost chemokine gene was reported in rainbow trout in 1998. Since then, numerous chemokine genes have been identified in diverse fish species evidencing the great differences that exist among fish and mammalian chemokines, and within the different fish species, as a consequence of extensive intrachromosomal gene duplications and different infectious experiences. Subsequently, it has only been possible to establish clear homologies with mammalian chemokines in the case of some chemokines with well-conserved homeostatic roles, whereas the functionality of other chemokine genes will have to be independently addressed in each species. Despite this, functional studies have only been undertaken for a few of these chemokine genes. In this review, we describe the current state of knowledge of chemokine biology in teleost fish. We have mainly focused on those species for which more research efforts have been made in this subject, specially zebrafish (Danio rerio), rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), outlining which genes have been identified thus far, highlighting the most important aspects of their expression regulation and addressing any known aspects of their biological role in immunity. Finally, we summarise what is known about the chemokine receptors in teleosts and provide some analysis using recently available data to help characterise them more clearly. © 2015 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


Al-Kitani F.,Sultan Qaboos University | Al-Kitani F.,Animal Health Research Center | Baqir S.,Sultan Qaboos University | Hussain M.H.,Animal Health Research Center | Roberts D.,Sultan Qaboos University
Tropical Animal Health and Production | Year: 2014

A passive surveillance study was conducted from April 2012 to April 2013 to determine the incidence, the affect of age, sex and cyst location, fertility, and viability on the occurrence of cystic hydatidosis in slaughtered goats from six municipal abattoirs around Oman. Morphologic characterization of suspected visceral organs has shown that Echinococcos granulosus (E. granulosus) metacestodes were present in 9.2 % of the total samples (682). Incidence (per 10,000) varied from 1.4 to 1.5. There was a significant difference between abattoirs, with Salalah having the highest infection (63.2 %), followed by Nizwa (27.2 %), Al Buraimi (10.8 %), Bousher (7.2 %), and the lowest in Sohar (1.6 %). Infection was significantly higher in indigenous goats (22.1 %) compared with imported breeds (2.5 %) from Somalia. The visceral organs were found harboring one or more hydatid cysts. Greatest cyst infection was recorded in lungs (53.4 %), followed by heart (50 %), liver (6.2 %), and multiple organs (14 %). A significant difference was observed between females (25 %) and male goats (6 %). Furthermore, the fertility of the hydatid cysts was found higher in heart and lungs (100 %, 51.6 %) and the viability rate of protoscolices was high (64 %). The findings of this study demonstrated that cystic hydatidosis is common and widely distributed in local goats, and they might play an important role in the life cycle and transmission of this zoonosis in Oman. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

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