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Bird S.,University of Waikato | Tafalla C.,Animal Health Research Center
Biology | Year: 2015

Chemokines are a superfamily of cytokines that appeared about 650 million years ago, at the emergence of vertebrates, and are responsible for regulating cell migration under both inflammatory and physiological conditions. The first teleost chemokine gene was reported in rainbow trout in 1998. Since then, numerous chemokine genes have been identified in diverse fish species evidencing the great differences that exist among fish and mammalian chemokines, and within the different fish species, as a consequence of extensive intrachromosomal gene duplications and different infectious experiences. Subsequently, it has only been possible to establish clear homologies with mammalian chemokines in the case of some chemokines with well-conserved homeostatic roles, whereas the functionality of other chemokine genes will have to be independently addressed in each species. Despite this, functional studies have only been undertaken for a few of these chemokine genes. In this review, we describe the current state of knowledge of chemokine biology in teleost fish. We have mainly focused on those species for which more research efforts have been made in this subject, specially zebrafish (Danio rerio), rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), outlining which genes have been identified thus far, highlighting the most important aspects of their expression regulation and addressing any known aspects of their biological role in immunity. Finally, we summarise what is known about the chemokine receptors in teleosts and provide some analysis using recently available data to help characterise them more clearly. © 2015 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

Colino-Rabanal V.J.,University of Salamanca | Bosch J.,Animal Health Research Center | Munoz M.J.,Animal Health Research Center | Peris S.J.,University of Salamanca
Animal Biodiversity and Conservation | Year: 2012

In recent decades, wild boar populations have increased both in number and distribution. This rise is partly related to the increase in cropland devoted to maize (Zea mays) cultivation, as wild boar find food and refuge in these areas. This population expansion has led to an increase in the number of wild boar vehicle collisions (WBVCs). The goal of the present study was to evaluate a set of spatio-temporal factors that influence WBVCs related to maize crops on the Northern Spanish Plateau (the region of Castile and Leon). We compared the maize pattern with the factors related to total WBVC numbers. We observed that whereas the total occurrence of WBVCs usually increased with forest cover and speed and traffic volumes, maize areas were one of the main explanatory variables in plateau models. To avoid collisions in these areas in future, a number of mitigation measures are outlined.

Al-Kitani F.,Sultan Qaboos University | Al-Kitani F.,Animal Health Research Center | Baqir S.,Sultan Qaboos University | Hussain M.H.,Animal Health Research Center | Roberts D.,Sultan Qaboos University
Tropical Animal Health and Production | Year: 2014

A passive surveillance study was conducted from April 2012 to April 2013 to determine the incidence, the affect of age, sex and cyst location, fertility, and viability on the occurrence of cystic hydatidosis in slaughtered goats from six municipal abattoirs around Oman. Morphologic characterization of suspected visceral organs has shown that Echinococcos granulosus (E. granulosus) metacestodes were present in 9.2 % of the total samples (682). Incidence (per 10,000) varied from 1.4 to 1.5. There was a significant difference between abattoirs, with Salalah having the highest infection (63.2 %), followed by Nizwa (27.2 %), Al Buraimi (10.8 %), Bousher (7.2 %), and the lowest in Sohar (1.6 %). Infection was significantly higher in indigenous goats (22.1 %) compared with imported breeds (2.5 %) from Somalia. The visceral organs were found harboring one or more hydatid cysts. Greatest cyst infection was recorded in lungs (53.4 %), followed by heart (50 %), liver (6.2 %), and multiple organs (14 %). A significant difference was observed between females (25 %) and male goats (6 %). Furthermore, the fertility of the hydatid cysts was found higher in heart and lungs (100 %, 51.6 %) and the viability rate of protoscolices was high (64 %). The findings of this study demonstrated that cystic hydatidosis is common and widely distributed in local goats, and they might play an important role in the life cycle and transmission of this zoonosis in Oman. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

De la Torre A.,Animal Health Research Center | Bosch J.,Animal Health Research Center | Iglesias I.,Animal Health Research Center | Munoz M.J.,Animal Health Research Center | And 5 more authors.
Transboundary and Emerging Diseases | Year: 2015

The presence of African swine fever (ASF) in the Caucasus region and Russian Federation has increased concerns that wild boars may introduce the ASF virus into the European Union (EU). This study describes a semi-quantitative approach for evaluating the risk of ASF introduction into the EU by wild boar movements based on the following risk estimators: the susceptible population of (1) wild boars and (2) domestic pigs in the country of origin; the outbreak density in (3) wild boars and (4) domestic pigs in the countries of origin, the (5) suitable habitat for wild boars along the EU border; and the distance between the EU border and the nearest ASF outbreak in (6) wild boars or (7) domestic pigs. Sensitivity analysis was performed to identify the most influential risk estimators. The highest risk was found to be concentrated in Finland, Romania, Latvia and Poland, and wild boar habitat and outbreak density were the two most important risk estimators. Animal health authorities in at-risk countries should be aware of these risk estimators and should communicate closely with wild boar hunters and pig farmers to rapidly detect and control ASF. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

Iglesias I.,Animal Health Research Center | Perez A.M.,University of California at Davis | Perez A.M.,CONICET | De la Torre A.,Animal Health Research Center | And 4 more authors.
Preventive Veterinary Medicine | Year: 2010

A large number (n=591) of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) outbreaks have been reported in wild birds of Europe from October 2005 through January 2009. Consequently, prevention and control strategies have been implemented in response to the outbreaks and considerable discussion has taken place regarding the need for implementing surveillance programs in high-risk areas with the objective of early detecting and preventing HPAIV epidemics. However countries ability to define the temporal and spatial extension of the high risk areas has been impaired by the lack of information on the distribution of susceptible wild bird populations in the region. Here, a technique for the detection of time-space disease clustering that does not require information on the distribution of susceptible populations and that has been referred to as the time-space permutation model of the scan statistic was used to identify areas and times of the year in which epidemics of H5N1 HPAIV were most likely to occur in wild bird populations of Europe from October, 2005, through December, 2008. The scan statistic was parameterized considering pre-existing knowledge on the epidemiological and ecological characteristics of the disease in the region. Robustness of the results was assessed using a generalized linear regression model to compare the outcomes of 36 alternative parameterizations of the scan statistic. Ten significant time-space clusters of H5N1 HPAI outbreaks were detected in six European countries. Results were sensitive (P<0.05) to the definition of the maximum spatial size defined for the clusters. Results presented here will help to identify high risk areas for HPAIV surveillance in the European Union. Assumptions, results, and implications of the analytical model are extensively presented and discussed in order to facilitate the use of this approach for the identification of high risk areas for infectious animal disease surveillance in the absence of population data. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

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