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Hansbro P.M.,University of Newcastle | Warner S.,Australian Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries | Tracey J.P.,Orange Agricultural Institute | Arzey K.E.,Elizabeth Macarthur Agriculture Institute | And 9 more authors.
Emerging Infectious Diseases | Year: 2010

We investigated carriage of avian influenza viruses by wild birds in Australia, 2005-2008, to assess the risks to poultry industries and human health. We collected 21,858 (7,357 cloacal, 14,501 fecal) samples and detected 300 viruses, representing a detection rate of ≈1.4%. Rates were highest in autumn (March-May) and differed substantially between bird types, areas, and years. We typed 107 avian influenza viruses and identified 19 H5, 8 H7, and 16 H9 (40% of typed viruses). All were of low pathogenicity. These viruses formed clearly different phylogenetic clades to lineages from Eurasia or North America, suggesting the potential existence of Australian lineages. H7 viruses were similar to highly pathogenic H7 strains that caused outbreaks in poultry in Australia. Several periods of increased detection rates (numbers or subtypes of viruses) were identified. This study demonstrates the need for ongoing surveillance to detect emerging pathogenic strains and facilitate prevention of outbreaks.

Rockman S.,CSL Ltd | Middleton D.J.,Australian Animal Health Laboratories | Pearse M.J.,CSL Ltd | Barr I.G.,Collaborating Center for Influenza Reference and Research | And 2 more authors.
Vaccine | Year: 2012

The pandemic H1N1 2009 influenza virus caused relatively mild disease in most infected people but some suffered extensively from primary lung infection, many more than would have occurred with seasonal influenza infection. Early commercially available pandemic H1N1 vaccines did not contain adjuvant, as did many of the subsequent vaccines, and could not stop infection with the pandemic virus in vaccinated ferrets. Nevertheless, we showed that virus loads in the lungs were greatly diminished in ferrets vaccinated once with an unadjuvanted pandemic vaccine and challenged with 10 6EID 50 wildtype A/California/07/2009 (H1N1). In addition, a single inoculation with seasonal vaccine showed beneficial reduction in pandemic pulmonary virus loads in the absence of any detectable cross-reactive serological responses. Ferrets primed with either seasonal or pandemic vaccine and then boosted with pandemic vaccine also showed less extensive lung infection when challenged with a tenfold higher dose of pandemic virus. These results implicate non-classical protective mechanisms that prevent severe pulmonary disease but not viral shedding and imply that particular non-adjuvanted vaccines may have retained the ability to induce these responses. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

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