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Newbury, United Kingdom

Oura C.A.L.,Institute for Animal Health | El Harrak M.,Biopharma Laboratory
Epidemiology and Infection | Year: 2011

The role of domestic dogs in the long-distance spread of bluetongue virus (BTV) remains unproven. It is currently known that dogs are capable of being infected with BTV, can mount an antibody response to the virus and in some cases die showing severe clinical signs of disease. Infection of dogs is currently thought to be by oral ingestion of infected meat or meat products rather than through vector feeding. In this study we show that a high percentage of domestic dogs in Morocco (21%) were seropositive for BTV and, as these dogs were fed tinned commercial food only, and had no access to other meat products, the most likely source of infection was through Culicoides midges. This finding increases the chances of dogs being infected with BTV during an outbreak but their role in the onward transmission of BTV remains unproven. © Copyright Cambridge University Press 2010. Source

Institute For Animal Health | Date: 2010-07-05

The present invention provides a chimaeric coronavirus S protein which is based on an S protein from a coronavirus strain with restricted tissue tropism, but which comprises at least part of the S2 subunit from a coronavirus strain with extended tissue tropism, such that a virus comprising the chimaeric S protein has extended tissue tropism. The present invention also provides a virus comprising such a chimaeric S protein.

Biggs P.M.,The Willows | Nair V.,Institute for Animal Health
Avian Pathology | Year: 2012

Marek's disease (MD), named after the Hungarian veterinary pathologist over 100 years ago, is a major disease affecting poultry health worldwide. Research in the late 1960s that led to the identification of the causative herpesvirus and the development of a highly successful vaccine is undoubtedly one of the best success stories in veterinary medicine. As Avian Pathology is celebrating its 40th anniversary, we review the last four decades of MD research that has provided major advances in our understanding of the virus, the pathogenic mechanisms of the disease, methods of diagnosis and the control through different generations of vaccines. Particular attention has been paid to the contributions made by publications in Avian Pathology. Despite this tremendous progress, MD continues to pose major challenges particularly from increasing virulence and emergence of new pathotypes. Further research on the molecular mechanisms of the disease, genetic resistance, vaccine-induced protection and evolution of virulence will be needed to develop more sustainable control strategies in the coming years. © 2012 Copyright Houghton Trust Ltd. Source

Fowler V.L.,Institute for Animal Health | Barnett P.V.,Institute for Animal Health
Expert Review of Vaccines | Year: 2012

DNA vaccines are, in principle, the simplest yet most versatile methods of inducing protective humoral and cellular immune responses. Research involving this type of vaccine against veterinary diseases began in the early 1990s and has since seen the evaluation of more than 30 important viral pathogens, including the economically important foot-and-mouth disease. With the demonstration that DNA vaccines protect against foot-and-mouth disease in sheep and pigs, and the advantages these DNA vaccines have over the conventional formulations, this approach may provide a better solution to the control of this disease. In this review, we provide a comprehensive overview of DNA vaccination strategies for foot-and-mouth disease reported in the literature, in which we highlight the studies that have reported protection in the key target species. © 2012 Expert Reviews Ltd. Source

Paton D.J.,Institute for Animal Health | Taylor G.,Institute for Animal Health
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences | Year: 2011

Vaccines remain the main tool for the control of livestock viral diseases that pose a serious threat to animal and occasionally human health, reduce food security, distort trade in animals and their products, and undermine agricultural development in poor countries. Globalization and climate change increase the likelihood for new patterns of emergence and spread of livestock viruses. Conventionally attenuated and killed virus products have had spectacular success, and recent examples include the global eradication of rinderpest and the control of bluetongue in the UK and northern Europe. However, in many cases, livestock vaccines could benefit from improvement in some properties (e.g. stability, speed of onset and duration of immunity, and breadth of crossprotection to different serotypes or strains) and in some cases are not available at all. Compared with human vaccines, uptake of livestock products is highly cost-sensitive and their use may also need to be compatible with post-vaccination screening methods to determine whether or not animals continue to be infected. Requirements and prospects for new or improved vaccines are described for some priority viral diseases with potential for transboundary spread, particularly for foot-and-mouth disease. © 2011 The Royal Society. Source

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