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Catry B.,Scientific Institute of Public Health WIVISP | Catry B.,Ghent University | Dewulf J.,Ghent University | Maes D.,Ghent University | And 6 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2016

The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between antimicrobial use and the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance in the digestive and respiratory tract in three different production systems of food producing animals. A longitudinal study was set up in 25 Belgian bovine herds (10 dairy, 10 beef, and 5 veal herds) for a 2 year monitoring of antimicrobial susceptibilities in E. coli and Pasteurellaceae retrieved from the rectum and the nasal cavity, respectively. During the first year of observation, the antimicrobial use was prospectively recorded on 15 of these farms (5 of each production type) and transformed into the treatment incidences according to the (animal) defined daily dose (TIADD) and (actually) used daily dose (TIUDD). Antimicrobial resistance rates of 4,174 E. coli (all herds) and 474 Pasteurellaceae (beef and veal herds only) isolates for 12 antimicrobial agents demonstrated large differences between intensively reared veal calves (abundant and inconstant) and more extensively reared dairy and beef cattle (sparse and relatively stable). Using linear mixed effect models, a strong relation was found between antimicrobial treatment incidences and resistance profiles of 1,639 E. coli strains (p<0.0001) and 309 Pasteurellaceae (p≤0.012). These results indicate that a high antimicrobial selection pressure, here found to be represented by low dosages of oral prophylactic and therapeutic group medication, converts not only the commensal microbiota from the digestive tract but also the opportunistic pathogenic bacteria in the respiratory tract into reservoirs of multi-resistance. © 2016 Catry et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Dewaele I.,Belgium Institute for Agricultural and Fisheries Research | Rasschaert G.,Belgium Institute for Agricultural and Fisheries Research | Wildemauwe C.,Scientific Institute of Public Health WIV ISP | van Meirhaeghe H.,Formerly at Animal Health Care Flanders DGZ | And 7 more authors.
Poultry Science | Year: 2012

Since 2007, a national Salmonella control program including obligatory vaccination has been ongoing in Belgium. In this context, the aim of the present study was to investigate the diversity of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis isolates on 5 persistently contaminated Belgian layer farms and to examine the potential sources and transmission routes of Salmonella Enteritidis contamination on the farms during successive laying rounds. A collection of 346 Salmonella isolates originating from the sampled farms were characterized using a combination of multilocus variable number of tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) and phage typing (PT). On each farm, one or 2 dominant MLVAPT types were found during successive laying cycles. The dominant MLVA type was different for each of the individual farms, but some farms shared the same dominant phage type. Isolates recovered from hens' feces and ceca, egg contents, eggshells, vermin (mice, rats, red mites, and flies), and pets (dog and cat feces) had the same MLVA-PT type also found in the inside henhouse environment of the respective layer farm. Persistent types were identified in the layer farm inside environment (henhouse and egg collecting area). Furthermore, this study demonstrated cross-contamination of Salmonella between henhouses and between the henhouse and the egg collecting area. Additional isolates with a different MLVA-PT type were also recovered, mainly from the egg collecting area. A potential risk for cross-contamination of Salmonella between the individual layer farms and their egg trader was identified. © 2012 Poultry Science Association Inc.

Dewaele I.,Belgium Institute for Agricultural and Fisheries Research | van Meirhaeghe H.,Formerly at Animal Health Care Flanders DGZ | Rasschaert G.,Belgium Institute for Agricultural and Fisheries Research | Vanrobaeys M.,Animal Health Care Flanders DGZ | And 6 more authors.
Poultry Science | Year: 2012

The aim of this study was to closely examine the Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis environmental contamination on persistently positive layer farms in Belgium during successive laying cycles. All of the farms were required to vaccinate their layers under the national control program for Salmonella. Seven farms with previous or current Salmonella Enteritidis contamination were monitored during different stages of the laying period and after cleaning and disinfection (CD). Environmental samples, including from the equipment and vermin, were taken in the henhouse and egg-collecting area. Dilutions were performed to define the degree of Salmonella Enteritidis contamination. Eggshells, egg contents, and ceca were also tested for Salmonella. At the end of the first sampled laying period, 41.6% of the environmental samples were contaminated with Salmonella Enteritidis. After CD, the prevalence dropped to 11.4%. On average, the prevalence in the second laying period increased again: 17.8, 18.4, and 22.3% at the onset, middle, and end of the lay period, respectively. After CD before the third laying period, the prevalence decreased to 6.6% and stabilized at the onset of lay (6.3%). During lay, as well as after CD, a wide variety of contaminated environmental samples were found; for example, in the henhouse, in the egg-collecting area, on mobile equipment and in or on vermin. In the henhouse during laying, the most recurrent and highly contaminated sites were the overshoes, floor, manure belt, and hen feces. The egg-collecting area had a significantly higher number of contaminated samples compared with that of the henhouse. For both sites, the floor appeared to be the most suitable sampling site to estimate the Salmonella Enteritidis status of the farms. Eggshell and egg content contamination varied between 0.18 and 1.8% and between 0.04 and 0.4%, respectively. In total, 2.2% of the analyzed ceca contained Salmonella Enteritidis. This study revealed that Salmonella Enteritidis is present in the environment of persistently Salmonella Enteritidis-contaminated layer farms, demonstrated that in many cases Salmonella Enteritidis contamination was not eliminated after CD, and identified the egg-collecting area as a critical point on most farms. © 2012 Poultry Science Association Inc.

Verhegghe M.,Belgium Institute for Agricultural and Fisheries Research | Verhegghe M.,Ghent University | Pletinckx L.J.,West-Flanders College | Pletinckx L.J.,Catholic University of Leuven | And 9 more authors.
Zoonoses and Public Health | Year: 2013

During the last few years, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) ST398 has been isolated frequently from livestock, especially from pigs and to a lesser extent from cattle and poultry. To gain insight into the distribution of this bacterium in pig farms versus multispecies farms, 30 Belgian farms (10 pig, 10 pig/poultry and 10 pig/cattle farms) were screened for the presence of MRSA. On each farm, 10 nasal swabs were taken from pigs. When present, cattle (n=10) were sampled in the nares and poultry (n=10) in the nares, earlobes and cloaca. A selection of the obtained isolates were further characterized using multilocus sequence typing (MLST), spa typing, SCCmec typing, pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. On 26 of 30 farms, MRSA was isolated from pigs. Furthermore, MRSA was also isolated from poultry and cattle on one pig/poultry and five pig/cattle farms, respectively. All tested MRSA isolates belonged to ST398. Eight spa types (t011, t034, t567, t571, t1451, t2974, t3423 and t5943) were detected, among which t011 predominated. SCCmec cassettes type IVa and V were present in 20% and 72% of the isolates, respectively. When combining the results of the two remaining typing methods, PFGE and MLVA, eighteen genotypes were obtained of which one genotype predominated (56% of the positive farms). All MRSA isolates were resistant to tetracycline. Resistance to trimethoprim, aminoglycosides, macrolides, lincosamides, fluoroquinolones and chloramphenicol was also observed. In conclusion, there was no effect of the farm type on the MRSA status of the pigs. A statistically significant difference was observed when comparing the pig/poultry or the pig/cattle MRSA status on the multispecies farms. Additionally, a wide variety of MRSA ST398 strains was found within certain farms when combining different typing methods. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

Van Immerseel F.,Ghent University | Studholme D.J.,University of Exeter | Eeckhaut V.,Ghent University | Heyndrickx M.,Ghent University | And 9 more authors.
Vaccine | Year: 2013

Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serotype Gallinarum can cause severe systemic disease in chickens and a live Salmonella Gallinarum 9R vaccine (SG9R) has been used widely to control disease. Using whole-genome sequencing we found point mutations in the pyruvate dehydrogenase (aceE) and/or lipopolysaccharide 1,2-glucosyltransferase (rfaJ) genes that likely explain the attenuation of the SG9R vaccine strain. Molecular typing using Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis and Multiple-Locus Variable number of tandem repeat Analysis showed that strains isolated from different layer flocks in multiple countries and the SG9R vaccine strain were similar. The genome of one Salmonella Gallinarum field strain, isolated from a flock with a mortality peak and selected on the basis of identical PFGE and MLVA patterns with SG9R, was sequenced. We found 9 non-silent single-nucleotide differences distinguishing the field strain from the SG9R vaccine strain. Our data show that a Salmonella Gallinarum field strain isolated from laying hens is almost identical to the SG9R vaccine. Mutations in the aceE and rfaJ genes could explain the reversion to a more virulent phenotype. Our results highlight the importance of using well defined gene deletion mutants as vaccines. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

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