Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratory Agency AHVLA

Weybridge, United Kingdom

Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratory Agency AHVLA

Weybridge, United Kingdom
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Terregino C.,Viale dellUniversita | Aldous E.W.,Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratory Agency AHVLA | Aldous E.W.,The Pirbright Institute | Heidari A.,Viale dellUniversita | And 9 more authors.
Archives of Virology | Year: 2013

Isolate wigeon/Italy/3920-1/2005 (3920-1) was obtained during surveillance of wild birds in November 2005 in the Rovigo province of Northern Italy and shown to be a paramyxovirus. Analysis of cross-haemagglutination-inhibition tests between 3920-1 and representative avian paramyxoviruses showed only a low-level relationship to APMV-1. Phylogenetic analysis of the whole genome and each of the six genes indicated that while 3920-1 grouped with APMV-1 and APMV-9 viruses, it was quite distinct from these two. In the whole-genome analysis, 3920-1 had 52.1 % nucleotide sequence identity to the closest APMV-1 virus, 50.1 % identity to the APMV-9 genome, and less than 42 % identity to representatives of the other avian paramyxovirus groups. We propose isolate wigeon/Italy/3920-1/2005 as the prototype strain of a further APMV group, APMV-12. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Wien.


Laws T.R.,UK Defence Science and Technology Laboratory | Nelson M.,UK Defence Science and Technology Laboratory | Bonnafous C.,Innate Pharma | Sicard H.,Innate Pharma | And 5 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Burkholderia pseudomallei is a dangerous human pathogen. Phosphoantigens specifically the target primate specific γ9+δ2+ T cells subset and some have been developed as potential immunotherapeutics. Previously, we demonstrated that, when stimulated with the phosphoantigen CHDMAPP, γ9+δ2+ T cells aid in the killing of intracellular B. pseudomallei bacteria. Moreover, we found that common marmoset (Callithrix Jacchus) γ9+ T cells increase in frequency and respond to the phosphoantigen CHDMAPP and/or B. pseudomallei, in combination with IL-2, in a similar manner to human γ9+δ2+ T cells. Here we evaluate the efficacy of the phosphoantigen CHDMAPP, in combination with IL-2, as a therapy against B. pseudomallei infection, in vivo. We found that the previous studies predicted the in vivo responsiveness of γ9+ T cells to the CHDMAPP+IL-2 treatment and significant expansion of the numbers of peripheral and splenic γ9+ T cells were observed. This effect was similar to those reported in other primate species treated with phosphoantigen. Furthermore, splenocytes were retrieved 7 days post onset of treatment, restimulated with CHDMAPP or heat-killed B. pseudomallei and the cultured γ9+ T cells demonstrated no reduction in IFN-γ response when CHDMAPP+IL-2 animals were compared to IL-2 only treated animals. Using an established model of B. pseudomallei infection in the marmoset, we assessed the potential for using phosphoantigen as a novel immunotherapy. The CHDMAPP treatment regime had no effect on the progression of respiratory melioidosis and this was despite the presence of elevated numbers of γ9+ T cells in the spleen, liver and lung and an increased proportion of IFN-γ+ cells in response to infection. We therefore report that the common marmoset has proven a good model for studying the effect in vivo of γ9+ T cell stimulation; however, γ9+ T cells have little or no effect on the progression of lethal, respiratory B. pseudomallei infection. © 2013 Laws et al.

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