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Souza Monteiro D.M.,University of Kent | Carrasco L.R.,National University of Singapore | Moffitt L.J.,University of Massachusetts Amherst | Cook A.J.C.,Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency AHVLA
Preventive Veterinary Medicine | Year: 2012

Control of endemic, exotic, and emerging animal diseases critically depends on their early detection and timely management. This paper proposes a novel approach to evaluate alternative surveillance programs based on info-gap theory. A general modeling framework is developed explicitly accounting for severe uncertainty about the incursion, detection, spread, and control of exotic and emergent diseases. The model is illustrated by an evaluation of bluetongue disease surveillance strategies. Key results indicate that, when available, vaccination of the entire population is the most robust strategy. If vaccines are not available then active reporting of suspect clinical signs by farmers is a very robust surveillance policy. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Arnold M.E.,Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency AHVLA | Martelli F.,AHVLA | Mclaren I.,AHVLA | Davies R.H.,AHVLA
Zoonoses and Public Health | Year: 2014

Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) is one of the most prevalent causes for human gastroenteritis and is by far the predominant Salmonella serovar among human cases, followed by Salmonella Typhimurium. Contaminated eggs produced by infected laying hens are thought to be the main source of human infection with S. Enteritidis throughout the world. Although previous studies have looked at the proportion of infected eggs from infected flocks, there is still uncertainty over the rate at which infected birds produce contaminated eggs. The aim of this study was to estimate the rate at which infected birds produce contaminated egg shells and egg contents. Data were collected from two studies, consisting of 15 and 20 flocks, respectively. Faecal and environmental sampling and testing of ovaries/caeca from laying hens were carried out in parallel with (i) for the first study, testing 300 individual eggs, contents and shells together and (ii) for the second study, testing 4000 eggs in pools of six, with shells and contents tested separately. Bayesian methods were used to estimate the within-flock prevalence of infection from the faecal and hen post-mortem data, and this was related to the proportion of positive eggs. Results indicated a linear relationship between the rate of contamination of egg contents and the prevalence of infected chickens, but a nonlinear (quadratic) relationship between infection prevalence and the rate of egg shell contamination, with egg shell contamination occurring at a much higher rate than that of egg contents. There was also a significant difference in the rate of egg contamination between serovars, with S. Enteritidis causing a higher rate of contamination of egg contents and a lower rate of contamination of egg shells compared to non-S. Enteritidis serovars. These results will be useful for risk assessments of human exposure to Salmonella-contaminated eggs. © 2013 Crown.

Arnold M.E.,Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency AHVLA | Martelli F.,AHVLA | Mclaren I.,AHVLA | Davies R.H.,AHVLA
Epidemiology and Infection | Year: 2014

SUMMARY A key element of national control programmes (NCPs) for Salmonella in commercial laying flocks, introduced across the European Union, is the identification of infected flocks and holdings through statutory sampling. It is therefore important to know the sensitivity of the sampling methods, in order to design effective and efficient surveillance for Salmonella. However, improved Salmonella control in response to the NCP may have influenced key factors that determine the sensitivity of the sampling methods used to detect Salmonella in NCPs. Therefore the aim of this study was to compare estimates of the sensitivity of the sampling methods using data collected before and after the introduction of the NCP, using Bayesian methods. There was a large reduction in the sensitivity of dust in non-cage flocks between the pre-NCP studies (81% of samples positive in positive flocks) and post-NCP studies (10% of samples positive in positive flocks), leading to the conclusion that sampling dust is not recommended for detection of Salmonella in non-cage flocks. However, cage dust (43% of samples positive in positive flocks) was found to be more sensitive than cage faeces (29% of samples positive in positive flocks). To have a high probability of detection, several NCP-style samples need to be used. For confirmation of Salmonella, five NCP faecal samples for cage flocks, and three NCP faecal boot swab samples for non-cage flocks would be required to have the equivalent sensitivity of the EU baseline survey method, which was estimated to have an 87% and 75% sensitivity to detect Salmonella at a 5% within-flock prevalence in cage and non-cage flocks, respectively. © Cambridge University Press 2013.

Berg S.,Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency AHVLA | Smith N.H.,Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency AHVLA
Trends in Microbiology | Year: 2014

Tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis is an important bacterial pathogen of man. This human-adapted pathogen was ancestral to a lineage of animal-adapted strains which cause similar disease in many different mammals but are unable to transmit between humans. How did the animal-adapted strains lose the ability to transmit between humans? © 2014.

Vidal A.B.,Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency AHVLA | Rodgers J.,Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency AHVLA | Arnold M.,Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency AHVLA | Clifton-Hadley F.,Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency AHVLA
Zoonoses and Public Health | Year: 2013

The objective of the study was to evaluate the performance of different combinations of sample type, transport medium and culture methods for the recovery of Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli from broiler flocks at primary production. Boot swabs moistened with one of four different transport media [maximum recovery diluent (n=120), Exeter broth (EX) (n=120), buffered peptone water (n=120) and modified semi-solid Cary-Blair (n=120)], caecal samples (n=40) and faecal samples (n=120) from 40 broiler flocks were compared and sensitivity estimates obtained using a Bayesian model. Samples were cultured onto mCCDA before and after enrichment in EX and incubated microaerobically at 41.5°C. Campylobacter suspect colonies were identified to the species level by multiplex PCR. Results from the Bayesian model indicated that boot swabs after enrichment had higher sensitivity (90-94%) than caecal contents before or after enrichment (84% and 89%, respectively) and faecal samples after enrichment (82%) for the detection of Campylobacter spp., although these differences were not statistically significant. Enrichment significantly increased the sensitivity of boot swab and caecal samples for detection of Campylobacter spp. and C. jejuni, respectively. However, the enrichment of caecal samples resulted in a significant decrease in the sensitivity of these samples for detection of C. coli. There was much greater variation in the sensitivity estimates of the methods for detecting C. coli than for C. jejuni, and the ranking of methods was different between the two species. Boot swabs gave the best sensitivity values for detection of C. jejuni, and enrichment culture of faecal samples was the most sensitive method for detection of C. coli. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

Fooks A.R.,Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency AHVLA | Fooks A.R.,University of Liverpool | Banyard A.C.,Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency AHVLA | Horton D.L.,Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency AHVLA | And 6 more authors.
The Lancet | Year: 2014

Rabies is one of the most deadly infectious diseases, with a case-fatality rate approaching 100%. The disease is established on all continents apart from Antarctica; most cases are reported in Africa and Asia, with thousands of deaths recorded annually. However, the estimated annual figure of almost 60 000 human rabies fatalities is probably an underestimate. Almost all cases of human rabies result from bites from infected dogs. Therefore, the most cost-effective approach to elimination of the global burden of human rabies is to control canine rabies rather than expansion of the availability of human prophylaxis. Mass vaccination campaigns with parenteral vaccines, and advances in oral vaccines for wildlife, have allowed the elimination of rabies in terrestrial carnivores in several countries worldwide. The subsequent reduction in cases of human rabies in such regions advocates the multidisciplinary One Health approach to rabies control through the mass vaccination of dogs and control of canine populations. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Carare R.O.,University of Southampton | Hawkes C.A.,University of Southampton | Jeffrey M.,Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency AHVLA | Kalaria R.N.,Northumbria University | Weller R.O.,University of Southampton
Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology | Year: 2013

Failure of elimination of proteins from the brain is a major feature in many neurodegenerative diseases. Insoluble proteins accumulate in brain parenchyma and in walls of cerebral capillaries and arteries. Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is a descriptive term for amyloid in vessel walls. Here, we adopt the term protein elimination failure angiopathy (PEFA) to focus on mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of a spectrum of disorders that exhibit both unique and common features of protein accumulation in blood vessel walls. We review (a) normal pathways and mechanisms by which proteins and other soluble metabolites are eliminated from the brain along 100- to 150-nm-thick basement membranes in walls of cerebral capillaries and arteries that serve as routes for lymphatic drainage of the brain; (b) a spectrum of proteins involved in PEFA; and (c) changes that occur in artery walls and contribute to failure of protein elimination. We use accumulation of amyloid beta (Aβ), prion protein and granular osmiophilic material (GOM) in cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) as examples of different factors involved in the aetiology and pathogenesis of PEFA. Finally, we discuss how knowledge of factors involved in PEFA may help to focus on new therapies for neurodegenerative diseases. When Aβ (following immunotherapy) and prion protein are released from brain parenchyma they deposit in walls of cerebral capillaries and arteries; GOM in CADASIL accumulates primarily in artery walls. Therefore, the focus of therapy for protein clearance in neurodegenerative disease should perhaps be on facilitating perivascular elimination of proteins and reducing PEFA. © 2013 British Neuropathological Society.

Lyons N.A.,Veterinary Epidemiology and Public Health Group | Smith R.P.,Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency AHVLA | Rushton J.,Veterinary Epidemiology and Public Health Group
Epidemiology and Infection | Year: 2013

A randomized control trial on verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC)-infected farms found evidence that: (1) keeping animals in the same group; (2) maintaining dry bedding; (3) preventing direct contact with neighbouring cattle; and (4) maintaining a closed herd, were associated with a reduced risk of infection in youngstock aged 3-18 months. This study evaluated these interventions using a cost-effectiveness framework for UK dairy farms. Keeping animals in the same group was considered to have negligible cost and was feasible for herds containing over 77 dairy cows. Assuming equal efficacy of the remaining interventions, preventing direct contact between neighbouring cattle is most cost-effective with a median annual cost of £2.76 per cow. This compares to £4.18 for maintaining dry bedding and £17.42 for maintaining a closed herd using quarantine procedures. Further model validation and exploration of other potential benefits are required before making policy decisions on VTEC control. Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2012.

Kaveh D.A.,Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency AHVLA | Bachy V.S.,Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency AHVLA | Hewinson R.G.,Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency AHVLA | Hogarth P.J.,Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency AHVLA
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

To more closely understand the mechanisms of how BCG vaccination confers immunity would help to rationally design improved tuberculosis vaccines that are urgently required. Given the established central role of CD4 T cells in BCG induced immunity, we sought to characterise the generation of memory CD4 T cell responses to BCG vaccination and M. bovis infection in a murine challenge model. We demonstrate that a single systemic BCG vaccination induces distinct systemic and mucosal populations of T effector memory (TEM) cells in vaccinated mice. These CD4+CD44hiCD62LloCD27- T cells concomitantly produce IFN-γ and TNF-α, or IFN-γ, IL-2 and TNF-α and have a higher cytokine median fluorescence intensity MFI or 'quality of response' than single cytokine producing cells. These cells are maintained for long periods (>16 months) in BCG protected mice, maintaining a vaccine-specific functionality. Following virulent mycobacterial challenge, these cells underwent significant expansion in the lungs and are, therefore, strongly associated with protection against M. bovis challenge. Our data demonstrate that a persistent mucosal population of TEM cells can be induced by parenteral immunization, a feature only previously associated with mucosal immunization routes; and that these multifunctional TEM cells are strongly associated with protection. We propose that these cells mediate protective immunity, and that vaccines designed to increase the number of relevant antigen-specific TEM in the lung may represent a new generation of TB vaccines. © 2011 Kaveh et al.

Kaveh D.A.,Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency AHVLA | Whelan A.O.,Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency AHVLA | Hogarth P.J.,Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency AHVLA
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

The assessment of antigen-specific T cell responses by intracellular cytokine staining (ICS) has become a routine technique in studies of vaccination and immunity. Here, we highlight how the duration of in vitro antigen pre-stimulation, combined with the cytokine accumulation period, are critical parameters of these methods. The effect of varying these parameters upon the diversity and frequency of multifunctional CD4 T cell subsets has been investigated using a murine model of TB vaccination and in cattle naturally infected with Mycobacterium bovis. We demonstrate a substantial influence of the duration of the antigen pre-stimulation period on the repertoire of the antigen-specific CD4 T cell responses. Increasing pre-stimulation from 2 to 6 hours amplified the diversity of the seven potential multifunctional CD4 T cell subsets that secreted any combination of IFN-γ, IL-2 and TNF-α. However, increasing pre-stimulation from 6 to 16 hours markedly altered the multifunctional CD4 T cell repertoire to a dominant IFN-γ+ only response. This was observed in both murine and cattle models. Whilst these data are of particular relevance to the measurement of vaccine and infection induced immunity in TB, more generally, they demonstrate the importance of the empirical determination of the optimum duration of the individual culture steps of ICS assays for any model. We highlight the potential significance of variations in these parameters, particularly when comparing data between studies and/or models including clinical trials. © 2012 Kaveh et al.

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