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Arnold M.E.,Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency AHVLA | Martelli F.,AHVLA | Mclaren I.,AHVLA | Davies R.H.,AHVLA
Zoonoses and Public Health | Year: 2014

Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) is one of the most prevalent causes for human gastroenteritis and is by far the predominant Salmonella serovar among human cases, followed by Salmonella Typhimurium. Contaminated eggs produced by infected laying hens are thought to be the main source of human infection with S. Enteritidis throughout the world. Although previous studies have looked at the proportion of infected eggs from infected flocks, there is still uncertainty over the rate at which infected birds produce contaminated eggs. The aim of this study was to estimate the rate at which infected birds produce contaminated egg shells and egg contents. Data were collected from two studies, consisting of 15 and 20 flocks, respectively. Faecal and environmental sampling and testing of ovaries/caeca from laying hens were carried out in parallel with (i) for the first study, testing 300 individual eggs, contents and shells together and (ii) for the second study, testing 4000 eggs in pools of six, with shells and contents tested separately. Bayesian methods were used to estimate the within-flock prevalence of infection from the faecal and hen post-mortem data, and this was related to the proportion of positive eggs. Results indicated a linear relationship between the rate of contamination of egg contents and the prevalence of infected chickens, but a nonlinear (quadratic) relationship between infection prevalence and the rate of egg shell contamination, with egg shell contamination occurring at a much higher rate than that of egg contents. There was also a significant difference in the rate of egg contamination between serovars, with S. Enteritidis causing a higher rate of contamination of egg contents and a lower rate of contamination of egg shells compared to non-S. Enteritidis serovars. These results will be useful for risk assessments of human exposure to Salmonella-contaminated eggs. © 2013 Crown.

Arnold M.E.,Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency AHVLA | Martelli F.,AHVLA | Mclaren I.,AHVLA | Davies R.H.,AHVLA
Epidemiology and Infection | Year: 2014

SUMMARY A key element of national control programmes (NCPs) for Salmonella in commercial laying flocks, introduced across the European Union, is the identification of infected flocks and holdings through statutory sampling. It is therefore important to know the sensitivity of the sampling methods, in order to design effective and efficient surveillance for Salmonella. However, improved Salmonella control in response to the NCP may have influenced key factors that determine the sensitivity of the sampling methods used to detect Salmonella in NCPs. Therefore the aim of this study was to compare estimates of the sensitivity of the sampling methods using data collected before and after the introduction of the NCP, using Bayesian methods. There was a large reduction in the sensitivity of dust in non-cage flocks between the pre-NCP studies (81% of samples positive in positive flocks) and post-NCP studies (10% of samples positive in positive flocks), leading to the conclusion that sampling dust is not recommended for detection of Salmonella in non-cage flocks. However, cage dust (43% of samples positive in positive flocks) was found to be more sensitive than cage faeces (29% of samples positive in positive flocks). To have a high probability of detection, several NCP-style samples need to be used. For confirmation of Salmonella, five NCP faecal samples for cage flocks, and three NCP faecal boot swab samples for non-cage flocks would be required to have the equivalent sensitivity of the EU baseline survey method, which was estimated to have an 87% and 75% sensitivity to detect Salmonella at a 5% within-flock prevalence in cage and non-cage flocks, respectively. © Cambridge University Press 2013.

Lyons N.A.,Veterinary Epidemiology and Public Health Group | Smith R.P.,Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency AHVLA | Rushton J.,Veterinary Epidemiology and Public Health Group
Epidemiology and Infection | Year: 2013

A randomized control trial on verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC)-infected farms found evidence that: (1) keeping animals in the same group; (2) maintaining dry bedding; (3) preventing direct contact with neighbouring cattle; and (4) maintaining a closed herd, were associated with a reduced risk of infection in youngstock aged 3-18 months. This study evaluated these interventions using a cost-effectiveness framework for UK dairy farms. Keeping animals in the same group was considered to have negligible cost and was feasible for herds containing over 77 dairy cows. Assuming equal efficacy of the remaining interventions, preventing direct contact between neighbouring cattle is most cost-effective with a median annual cost of £2.76 per cow. This compares to £4.18 for maintaining dry bedding and £17.42 for maintaining a closed herd using quarantine procedures. Further model validation and exploration of other potential benefits are required before making policy decisions on VTEC control. Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2012.

Carare R.O.,University of Southampton | Hawkes C.A.,University of Southampton | Jeffrey M.,Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency AHVLA | Kalaria R.N.,Northumbria University | Weller R.O.,University of Southampton
Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology | Year: 2013

Failure of elimination of proteins from the brain is a major feature in many neurodegenerative diseases. Insoluble proteins accumulate in brain parenchyma and in walls of cerebral capillaries and arteries. Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is a descriptive term for amyloid in vessel walls. Here, we adopt the term protein elimination failure angiopathy (PEFA) to focus on mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of a spectrum of disorders that exhibit both unique and common features of protein accumulation in blood vessel walls. We review (a) normal pathways and mechanisms by which proteins and other soluble metabolites are eliminated from the brain along 100- to 150-nm-thick basement membranes in walls of cerebral capillaries and arteries that serve as routes for lymphatic drainage of the brain; (b) a spectrum of proteins involved in PEFA; and (c) changes that occur in artery walls and contribute to failure of protein elimination. We use accumulation of amyloid beta (Aβ), prion protein and granular osmiophilic material (GOM) in cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) as examples of different factors involved in the aetiology and pathogenesis of PEFA. Finally, we discuss how knowledge of factors involved in PEFA may help to focus on new therapies for neurodegenerative diseases. When Aβ (following immunotherapy) and prion protein are released from brain parenchyma they deposit in walls of cerebral capillaries and arteries; GOM in CADASIL accumulates primarily in artery walls. Therefore, the focus of therapy for protein clearance in neurodegenerative disease should perhaps be on facilitating perivascular elimination of proteins and reducing PEFA. © 2013 British Neuropathological Society.

Souza Monteiro D.M.,University of Kent | Carrasco L.R.,National University of Singapore | Moffitt L.J.,University of Massachusetts Amherst | Cook A.J.C.,Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency AHVLA
Preventive Veterinary Medicine | Year: 2012

Control of endemic, exotic, and emerging animal diseases critically depends on their early detection and timely management. This paper proposes a novel approach to evaluate alternative surveillance programs based on info-gap theory. A general modeling framework is developed explicitly accounting for severe uncertainty about the incursion, detection, spread, and control of exotic and emergent diseases. The model is illustrated by an evaluation of bluetongue disease surveillance strategies. Key results indicate that, when available, vaccination of the entire population is the most robust strategy. If vaccines are not available then active reporting of suspect clinical signs by farmers is a very robust surveillance policy. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

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