Abengozar M.A.,Proteomics Unit |
De Frutos S.,Autonomous University of Madrid |
Ferreiro S.,Animal Facility |
Soriano J.,Confocal Microscopy Unit |
And 8 more authors.
Blood | Year: 2012
Membrane-anchored ephrinB2 and its receptor EphB4 are involved in the formation of blood and lymphatic vessels in normal and pathologic conditions. Eph/ ephrin activation requires cell-cell interactions and leads to bidirectional signaling pathways in both ligand- and receptorexpressing cells. To investigate the functional consequences of blocking ephrinB2 activity, 2 highly specific human single-chain Fv (scFv) Ab fragments against ephrinB2 were generated and characterized. Both Ab fragments suppressed endothelial cell migration and tube formation in vitro in response to VEGF and provoked abnormal cell motility and actin cytoskeleton alterations in isolated endothelial cells. As only one of them (B11) competed for binding of ephrinB2 to EphB4, these data suggest an EphB-receptor-independent blocking mechanism. Anti-ephrinB2 therapy reduced VEGF-induced neovascularization in a mouse Matrigel plug assay. Moreover, systemic administration of ephrinB2- blocking Abs caused a drastic reduction in the number of blood and lymphatic vessels in xenografted mice and a concomitant reduction in tumor growth. Our results show for the first time that specific Ab-based ephrinB2 targeting may represent an effective therapeutic strategy to be used as an alternative or in combination with existing antiangiogenic drugs for treating patients with cancer and other angiogenesis-related diseases. © 2012 by The American Society of Hematology.
PubMed | University of Veterinary Medicine, University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca, Animal Facility., Victor Babes University of Medicine and Pharmacy Timisoara and 3 more.
Type: | Journal: International journal of nanomedicine | Year: 2016
The present study aimed at evaluating the biodistribution of Tween() 20-gold nanoparticle (GNP) conjugates and their potential toxicity on the bone marrow before moving on to Phase I clinical trials.Tween() 20-conjugated GNPs were injected intravenously for 21 days in male Crl:CD1(ICR) mice. Body weight of the mice was evaluated each day. After the sub-chronic Tween() 20-GNPs administration, blood samples were harvested, and a full blood count was done individually. Total Au quantity from all major organs was assessed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. One femur and the sternum obtained from each animal were used for histological assessment.Our data showed that the Tween() 20-GNP conjugates were found in large quantities in the bladder. Au was shown to accumulate in the hematopoietic bone tissue, with significant side effects such as leucopoiesis and megakaryopoiesis. The mice had a higher white blood cell and platelet count as opposed to the control group. This suggested that the previously described leukopenic effects of isoflurane were overridden by the leucopoietic effects of Tween() 20-GNPs.It was uncertain whether the mice were reactive to Au as it is a foreign substance to the tissues or whether the side effects observed were a precursor condition of a more severe hematological condition. Au was found to be hepatotoxic, urging the need for further studies in order to achieve better in vivo compliance and exploit the immense potential of GNPs in cancer pharmacology.
PubMed | Molecular Immunology and Immune regulation, The Second University of Naples, University of Naples Federico II, Animal Facility and 2 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Nanoscale | Year: 2016
The chemokine CXCL12 activates CXCR4, initiating multiple pathways that control immune cell trafficking, angiogenesis and embryogenesis; CXCR4 is also overexpressed in multiple tumors affecting metastatic dissemination. While there has been great enthusiasm for exploiting the CXCR4-CXCL12 axis as a target in cancer therapy, to date the promise has yet to be fulfilled. A new class of CXCR4-antagonist cyclic peptides was recently developed and the compound named Peptide R was identified as the most active. With the intent to improve the efficacy and biodistribution of Peptide R, stealth liposomes decorated with Peptide R were developed (PL-Peptide R). In vitro PL-Peptide R efficiently inhibited CXCR4-dependent migration and in vivo it significantly reduced lung metastases and increased overall survival in B16-CXCR4 injected C57BL/6 mice. To evaluate if PL-Peptide R could also be a drug delivery system for CXCR4 expressing tumors, the PL-Peptide R was loaded with doxorubicin (DOX) (PL-Peptide R-DOX). PL-Peptide R-DOX efficiently delivered DOX to CXCR4 expressing cell lines with a consequent decrease in the DOX IC50 efficient dose. In vivo, B16-CXCR4 injected C57BL/6 mice treated with PL-Peptide R-DOX developed fewer lung metastases compared to PL-DOX treated mice. This work provides the proof-of-concept to prevent metastasis by using combined nanomedicine.
PubMed | University of Genoa, Statistics and Epidemiology Unit, Animal facility, CNR Institute of Molecular Bioimaging and Physiology and 2 more.
Type: | Journal: Scientific reports | Year: 2016
Emerging evidence demonstrates that targeting energy metabolism is a promising strategy to fight cancer. Here we show that combining metformin and short-term starvation markedly impairs metabolism and growth of colon and breast cancer. The impairment in glycolytic flux caused by starvation is enhanced by metformin through its interference with hexokinase II activity, as documented by measurement of 18F-fluorodeoxyglycose uptake. Oxidative phosphorylation is additively compromised by combined treatment: metformin virtually abolishes Complex I function; starvation determines an uncoupled status of OXPHOS and amplifies the activity of respiratory Complexes II and IV thus combining a massive ATP depletion with a significant increase in reactive oxygen species. More importantly, the combined treatment profoundly impairs cancer glucose metabolism and virtually abolishes lesion growth in experimental models of breast and colon carcinoma. Our results strongly suggest that energy metabolism is a promising target to reduce cancer progression.
PubMed | Hematology Unit, University of Genoa, University of Ferrara, IRCCS A.O.U. San Martino IST and 6 more.
Type: | Journal: Leukemia | Year: 2017
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) clones are characterized by loss of a critical region in 13q14.3, [del(13)(q14)] involving the microRNA (miRNA) cluster miR-15a and miR-16-1. We have investigated the effects of replacement of miR-15a and miR-16-1. CLL cells transfected with these miRNA mimics exhibited a decrease in cell viability in vitro and impaired capacity for engraftment and growth in NOD/Shi-scid,cnull (NSG) mice. No synergistic effects were observed when the two miRNA mimics were combined. The phenomena were not restricted to CLL with the del(13)(q14) lesion. Similar effects induced by miRNA mimics were seen in cells with additional chromosomal abnormalities with the exception of certain CLL clones harboring TP53 alterations. Administration of miRNA mimics to NSG mice previously engrafted with CLL clones resulted in substantial tumor regression. CLL cell transfection with miR-15a and miR-16-1 specific inhibitors resulted in increased cell viability in vitro and in an enhanced capacity of the engrafted cells to grow in NSG mice generating larger splenic nodules. These data demonstrate that the strong control by miR-15a and miR-16-1 on CLL clonal expansion is exerted also at the level of full-blown leukemia and provide indications for a miRNA based therapeutic strategy.Leukemia accepted article preview online, 05 January 2017. doi:10.1038/leu.2016.394.
Garcia-Garcera M.,Institute Of Biologia Evolutiva Csic Upf |
Garcia-Garcera M.,University of Valencia |
Coscolla M.,Institute Of Biologia Evolutiva Csic Upf |
Coscolla M.,Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute |
And 5 more authors.
Environmental Microbiology | Year: 2012
Host-commensal relationships in the skin are a complex system governed by variables related to the host, the bacteria and the environment. A disruption of this system may lead to new steady states, which, in turn, may lead to disease. We have studied one such disruption by characterizing the skin microbiota in healthy and immunodepressed (ID) mice. A detailed anatomopathological study failed to reveal any difference between the skin of healthy and ID mice. We sequenced the 16S rDNA V1-V2 gene region to saturation in 10 healthy and 10 ID 8 week-old mice, and found than all of the healthy and two of the ID mice had bacterial communities that were similar in composition to that of human skin, although, presumably because of the uniform raising conditions, less interindividual variation was found in mice. However, eight ID mice showed microbiota dominated by Staphylococcus epidermidis. Quantitative PCR amplification of 16S rDNA gene and of the Staphylococcus-specific TstaG region confirmed the previous results and indicated that the quantitative levels of Staphylococcus were similar in both groups while the total number of 16S copies was greater in the healthy mice. Thus, it is possible that, under long-term immunodeficiency, which removes the acquired but not the native immune system, S. epidermidis may inhibit the growth of other bacteria but does not cause a pathogenic state. © 2012 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
PubMed | Animal facility, CNR Institute of Molecular Bioimaging and Physiology, University of Genoa, Stem Cell Center and Laboratorio Of Oncologia
Type: | Journal: Scientific reports | Year: 2016
Cancer metabolism is characterized by an accelerated glycolytic rate facing reduced activity of oxidative phosphorylation. This Warburg effect represents a standard to diagnose and monitor tumor aggressiveness with (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose whose uptake is currently regarded as an accurate index of total glucose consumption. Studying cancer metabolic response to respiratory chain inhibition by metformin, we repeatedly observed a reduction of tracer uptake facing a marked increase in glucose consumption. This puzzling discordance brought us to discover that (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose preferentially accumulates within endoplasmic reticulum by exploiting the catalytic function of hexose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase. Silencing enzyme expression and activity decreased both tracer uptake and glucose consumption, caused severe energy depletion and decreased NADPH content without altering mitochondrial function. These data document the existence of an unknown glucose metabolism triggered by hexose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase within endoplasmic reticulum of cancer cells. Besides its basic relevance, this finding can improve clinical cancer diagnosis and might represent potential target for therapy.
PubMed | Animal Facility, University of Genoa and CNR Institute of Neuroscience
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Biochimica et biophysica acta | Year: 2016
Abscisic acid (ABA) is a plant hormone also present in animals, where it is involved in the regulation of innate immune cell function and of glucose disposal, through its receptor LANCL2. ABA stimulates glucose uptake by myocytes and pre-adipocytes in vitro and oral ABA improves glycemic control in rats and in healthy subjects. Here we investigated the role of the ABA/LANCL2 system in the regulation of glucose uptake and metabolism in adipocytes. Silencing of LANCL2 abrogated both the ABA- and insulin-induced increase of glucose transporter-4 expression and of glucose uptake in differentiated 3T3-L1 murine adipocytes; conversely, overexpression of LANCL2 enhanced basal, ABA- and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. As compared with insulin, ABA treatment of adipocytes induced lower triglyceride accumulation, CO
Batlle R.,IMIM Hospital Del Mar |
Alba-Castellon L.,IMIM Hospital Del Mar |
Loubat-Casanovas J.,IMIM Hospital Del Mar |
Armenteros E.,IMIM Hospital Del Mar |
And 10 more authors.
Oncogene | Year: 2013
The Snail1 transcriptional repressor plays a key role in triggering epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. Although Snail1 is widely expressed in early development, in adult animals it is limited to a subset of mesenchymal cells where it has a largely unknown function. Using a mouse model with inducible depletion of Snail1, here we demonstrate that Snail1 is required to maintain mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). This effect is associated to the responsiveness to transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 that shows a strong Snail1 dependence. Snail1 depletion in conditional knockout adult animals causes a significant decrease in the number of bone marrow-derived MSCs. In culture, Snail1-deficient MSCs prematurely differentiate to osteoblasts or adipocytes and, in contrast to controls, are resistant to the TGF-β1-induced differentiation block. These results demonstrate a new role for Snail1 in TGF-β response and MSC maintenance. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited.