Animal Disease Monitoring and Surveillance

Bangalore, India

Animal Disease Monitoring and Surveillance

Bangalore, India
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Yogisharadhya R.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Bhanuprakash V.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Venkatesan G.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Balamurugan V.,Animal Disease Monitoring and Surveillance | And 2 more authors.
Veterinary Microbiology | Year: 2012

Thirteen orf virus (ORFV) isolates from natural outbreaks in sheep and goats belonging to different geographical regions of India were analysed on the basis of ORF108 (a homologue of poxviral A32 gene), which is known to encode for ATPase and involved in virion DNA packaging. Comparative sequence analysis of ATPase proteins revealed highly conserved N-terminal region with five different motifs [Walker A, Walker B, A32L specific motifs (III and IV) and a novel AYDG (motif-V)] among all poxviruses and divergent carboxyl terminus with either single or double RGD sequences among all Indian ORFV isolates. A homology model and secondary structure predictions of N-terminal region of ORFV A32 revealed that most of the poxviruses including ORFV ATPase protein belong to a distinct clade of the HerA/FtsK super family of DNA packaging proteins. Despite differences in host cell specificity and poxvirus infections among animals, DNA packaging motor domain of poxviruses presumed to share remarkable similarities as indicated by the presence of conserved ATPase motifs in the present investigation. The study also indicated the circulation of heterogenous strains of ORFV in India and possibilities of differentiation of ORFV strains based on C-terminal heterogeneity. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Balamurugan V.,Animal Disease Monitoring and Surveillance | Saravanan P.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Sen A.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Rajak K.K.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | And 3 more authors.
OIE Revue Scientifique et Technique | Year: 2011

This study describes the serosurveillance of peste des petits ruminants (PPR) in sheep and goats that was carried out between 2003 and 2009 using serum samples from animals suspected of PPR that were submitted to the Rinderpest and Allied Disease Laboratory (Division of Virology of the Indian Veterinary Research Institute [IVRI]). A total of 2,197 serum samples from sheep and 2,687 from goats were screened for PPR virus (PPRV) antibody using a monoclonal antibody-based competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay developed at IVRI. Screening of the 4,884 serum samples showed that the prevalence of PPRV antibody in sheep and goats was 41.01% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 31.86 to 50.16) and 46.11% (95% CI: 37.18 to 55.04), respectively, with an overall prevalence of 43.56% (95% CI: 36.78 to 50.34) during the period. This indicates increased and widespread infection with the virus in India compared with earlier reports, which is attributed to the variations in sheep and goat husbandry practices in different regions, the agro-climatic conditions, the topography of different states, the socio-economic status of individual farmers and the migration of livestock in India.

Yogisharadhya R.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Bhanuprakash V.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Hosamani M.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Venkatesan G.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | And 5 more authors.
Biologicals | Year: 2011

In the present study, two sheeppox vaccines made from strains [sheeppox virus-Srinagar (SPPV-Srin) and Ranipet (SPPV-R)] indigenous to India and adapted to Vero cells were compared in terms of their safety, potency, efficacy and antigenic value with the commercial in-use Roumanian Fanar (SPPV-RF) vaccine, a foreign strain adapted in primary lamb testes cells. The safety test indicated that the SPPV (Sri and RF) vaccines were safe while SPPV-R was not completely attenuated and caused excessive adverse reactions at the passage level tested. The immunized animals showed DTH reaction and resisted virulent SPPV challenge, while control animals developed disease. Specific virus could be detected in the controls and animals immunized with lower dilutions of vaccines after challenge but not in any of the sheep immunized with 1 and 100 doses of each vaccine. All vaccines were found potent and the PD 50 was highest for SPPV (Srin and R) followed by RF. The immunized animals were seroconverted following vaccination with sustained antibody responses after challenge. In conclusion, indigenous SPPV-Srin vaccine was found to be as efficacious as SPPV-R and SPPV-RF vaccines. Thus, there is potential benefit in replacing the currently used commercial vaccine SPPV-RF with indigenous SPPV-Srin vaccine for use in India. © 2011 The International Alliance for Biological Standardization.

Singh R.K.,National Research Center on Equines | Balamurugan V.,Animal Disease Monitoring and Surveillance | Bhanuprakash V.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Venkatesan G.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Hosamani M.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute
Indian Journal of Virology | Year: 2012

Among the members of the genus Orthopoxvirus (OPXV), vaccinia virus (VACV), the type species of the genus is a double-stranded DNA virus, belongs to the subfamily Chordopoxvirinae of the family Poxviridae. The causative agents of smallpox, VACV and Variola virus are mutually immunogenic and the type species of Orthopoxvirus, cause only mild complications in humans. Therefore, the VACV was used as a smallpox vaccine world over under mass immunization program promoted by World Health Organization, which lead to the variola eradication globally in 1979. Since then, no vaccination of human population has been carried out; however, vaccination has been continued for at-risk laboratory workers, military personnel and others working with recombinant VACV or other non-variola orthopoxviruses (OPXVs). There has now been a surge in the development of safer smallpox vaccines and understanding of the biology of VACV necessitating reuse of this vaccine in most vulnerable population, because of rise in bioterrorist threats globally. Also, globally there has been the emergence and re-emergence of vaccinia-like viruses (VLVs) in Brazil, buffalopox viruses in Egypt, Indonesia, India and its neighbouring countries like Nepal, Pakistan. Bioterrorism as well as emergence and re-emergence of the VLVs constitute a concern as 50% of the population globally (40% in USA)\30 years are unvaccinated and most vulnerable for smallpox reemergence. Thus, the search for new generation safer smallpox vaccine entails review of biology of VLVs in the smallpox-free world. In this review, we present occurrence of VLVs in the world with exhaustive discussion particularly on the emergence and re-emergence of these viruses in India and Brazil where VLVs are sufficiently studied. © 2012 Indian Virological Society.

Murthy A.K.,MR Ambedkar Dental College | Kumar V.,Geetam Dental College | Suresh K.P.,Animal Disease Monitoring and Surveillance
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention | Year: 2013

Background: Studies of associations between genetic polymorphism of glutathione S-transferase M1 (GSTM1) and glutathione S-transferase T1 (GSTT1) with risk of nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) have generated conflicting results. Thus, a meta-analysis was performed to clarify the effects of GSTM1 and GSTT1 polymorphisms on the risk of developing NPC. Materials and Methods: A literature search in two electronic databases namely PubMed and EMBASE up to December 2012 was conducted and eligible papers were finally selected based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The pooled odds ratio (OR) and presence of heterogeneity and publication bias in those studies were evaluated. Results: A total of 9 studies concerning nasopharyngeal cancer were evaluated. Analyses of all relevant studies showed increased NPC risk to be significantly associated with the null genotypes of GSTMI (OR=1.43, 95%CI 1.24-1.66) and GSTT1 (OR=1.28, 95%CI=1.09-1.51). In addition, evidence of publication bias was detected among the studies on GSTM1 polymorphism. Conclusions: This meta-analysis demonstrated the GSTM1 G STM1 and GSTT1 null genotypes are associated with an increased risk of NPC.

Mitra S.D.,Animal Disease Monitoring and Surveillance | Mitra S.D.,Assam University | Velu D.,Animal Disease Monitoring and Surveillance | Bhuvana M.,Animal Disease Monitoring and Surveillance | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Applied Microbiology | Year: 2013

Aim: To evaluate the virulence determinants and genetic diversity of Staphylococcus aureus from bovine subclinical mastitis milk. Methods and Results: PCR detection of virulence genes was performed for 173 Staph. aureus from bovine subclinical mastitis milk. Further, genetic diversity was analysed by agr and spa typing followed by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of selected isolates. Screening of virulence genes (n = 19) showed the adherence genes viz. fnbA, clfA, fnbB and cna in 98·8, 97·1, 68·8 and 28·3 percentage of isolates, respectively, and 80 strains (46·24%) positive for enterotoxin genes were distributed as 23 toxinotypes, of which, 5 genotypes contained a single gene and the rest comprised of multiple toxin genes. Out of agr type-1 (87·3%), 74·2 per cent belonged to the three predominant spa types. Of 27 spa types, 11 were identified for the first time. The predominant spa types were t267 (N =44), t359 (N = 42) and t6877 (N =29), which together accounts to 66·5 per cent of isolates. PFGE analysis of isolates (N = 45) covering all the spa types revealed mostly similar or closely related pulsotypes. Local emergence of spa type t6877 in herd-dependant manner was observed. spa sequence-based phylogenetic analysis suggested t267 as the ancestral clone of t359, t6877 and other spa types except two. Conclusion: Heterogenous virulence profile of the isolates had no significant association with the genotype. High prevalence of agr group I reaffirms their association with persistent subclinical mastitis. The spa type t267 appears to be the ancestral clone endemic in the region causing subclinical mastitis. In addition, few new spa types have emerged in the geographic region. Significance and Impact of Study: Gives an insight into the genetic and evolutionary behaviour of Staph. aureus associated with bovine subclinical mastitis in India. The study would pave the way for devising effective control strategy for bovine mastitis in Indian context. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

Kumar N.,National Institute of High Security Animal Diseases | Malik Y.S.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Sharma K.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Balamurugan V.,Animal Disease Monitoring and Surveillance | And 2 more authors.
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences | Year: 2015

Rotaviruses of group A (RVA) are foremost cause of diarrhoeal diseases in neonates of animals and humans worldwide leading to substantial economic losses. The RVA non-structural protein-4 (NSP-4), a viral enterotoxin, is known to be associated with infantile gastroenteritis/secretory diarrhoea by inducing pathological changes in the mature enterocytes. In this study, the carboxyl terminus of NSP4 protein (73M to 175M) from a bovine RVA was expressed in Escherichia coli Tuner (DE3) pLysS cells. The fusion protein (rNSP4ct, ~31 kDa) with hexa-histidine tags on its both termini was purified by affinity chromatography under native condition using Nickel-Nitrilotriacetic acid (Ni-NTA) agarose resin. The purified soluble recombinant NSP4ct was confirmed by Western blot. The structural analysis of rNSP4 protein revealed similarity between bovine RVA and human RVA (central tetrameric coiled-coil region) and confirmed that it was composed of mainly alpha helix (85%), lacking the beta strands. The rNSP4ct protein of bovine RVA has the potential of being used in developing diagnostics, assessing the biological activity (enterotoxin property) of rNSP4ct in understanding the pathogenesis in intestinal mucosa which would reveal the role of anti-NSP4 antibodies in protection against rotavirus infection and stimulation of mucosal immunity in animal model. © 2015 Asian Network for Scientific Information.

Shome B.R.,Animal Disease Monitoring and Surveillance | Das Mitra S.,Animal Disease Monitoring and Surveillance | Bhuvana M.,Animal Disease Monitoring and Surveillance | Krithiga N.,Animal Disease Monitoring and Surveillance | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Applied Microbiology | Year: 2011

Aim: To develop and evaluate a multiplex PCR (mPCR) assay for simultaneous detection of 10 bacterial species causing bovine mastitis namely, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus chromogenes, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus sciuri, Staphylococcus haemolyticus, Staphylococcus simulans, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Streptococcus uberis and Escherichia coli in milk. Methods and Results: A two-tube mPCR assay was developed. The accuracy of the mPCR was evaluated using 56 standard reference strains and 705 strains comprising of E. coli (n=99), staphylococci (n=522) and streptococci (n=84). The threshold of detection of the mPCR assay was 10fg of genomic DNA and <10 3CFUml -1. A comparative evaluation of mPCR with culture method using 115 milk samples from subclinical mastitis showed mPCR to be more efficacious. Subsequently, the mPCR showed successful detection of target bacteria, when applied directly for the assessment of 36 bulk milk samples. Conclusion: The developed mPCR assay was found to be simple, rapid, reliable and specific in species identification of 10 bacteria at a time. Significance and Impact of the Study: The assay will be useful for the detection of mastitis, testing bacteriological safety of milk and for species level differentiation. The assay will be of value in the dairy sector for diagnosis and research. The early and accurate identification of pathogens will enable timely interventions for the treatment and control of bovine mastitis. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

Patil S.S.,Animal Disease Monitoring and Surveillance | Hemadri D.,Animal Disease Monitoring and Surveillance | Veeresh H.,Animal Disease Monitoring and Surveillance | Sreekala K.,Animal Disease Monitoring and Surveillance | And 2 more authors.
Virus Genes | Year: 2012

Twenty-three CSFV isolates recovered from field outbreaks in various parts of India during 2006-2009 were used for genetic analysis in the NS5B region (409 nts). Seventeen of these were studied earlier [16] in the 50UTR region. Phylogenetic analysis indicated the continued dominance of subgroup 1.1 strains in the country. Detailed analysis of a subgroup 2.2 virus indicated the plausible Chinese origin of this subgroup in India and provided indirect evidence of routes of CSFV movement within South East Asia region. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011.

Bhuvana M.,Animal Disease Monitoring and Surveillance | Mitra S.D.,Animal Disease Monitoring and Surveillance | Krithiga N.,Animal Disease Monitoring and Surveillance | Shome R.,Animal Disease Monitoring and Surveillance | And 4 more authors.
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences | Year: 2012

To improve mastitis diagnosis and achieve rapid, specific, reliable and cost effective test, a multiplex PCR for simultaneous detection and differentiation of major streptococcal species, viz. Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus uberis and Streptococcus dysgalactiae was developed. Evaluation with 24 ATCC strains and 606 strains comprising streptococci (84) and staphylococci (522) showed the assay to be highly accurate. The threshold of detection of the mPCR assay was 10fg of genomic DNA and < 102 CFU ml-1. Assessment of 115 milk samples collected from subclinically infected herd, showed mPCR assay to be more efficacious than culture method. Identification of Streptococcus species using this assay will be crucial to determine prevalence of Streptococcus in a herd. This will facilitate early diagnosis, treatment and control of the rate of infection at farm level. The assay can be implemented for routine monitoring of herd health and can be of great value for promoting prevention of streptococcal mastitis.

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