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Singh R.K.,National Research Center on Equines | Balamurugan V.,Animal Disease Monitoring and Surveillance | Bhanuprakash V.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Venkatesan G.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Hosamani M.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute
Indian Journal of Virology | Year: 2012

Among the members of the genus Orthopoxvirus (OPXV), vaccinia virus (VACV), the type species of the genus is a double-stranded DNA virus, belongs to the subfamily Chordopoxvirinae of the family Poxviridae. The causative agents of smallpox, VACV and Variola virus are mutually immunogenic and the type species of Orthopoxvirus, cause only mild complications in humans. Therefore, the VACV was used as a smallpox vaccine world over under mass immunization program promoted by World Health Organization, which lead to the variola eradication globally in 1979. Since then, no vaccination of human population has been carried out; however, vaccination has been continued for at-risk laboratory workers, military personnel and others working with recombinant VACV or other non-variola orthopoxviruses (OPXVs). There has now been a surge in the development of safer smallpox vaccines and understanding of the biology of VACV necessitating reuse of this vaccine in most vulnerable population, because of rise in bioterrorist threats globally. Also, globally there has been the emergence and re-emergence of vaccinia-like viruses (VLVs) in Brazil, buffalopox viruses in Egypt, Indonesia, India and its neighbouring countries like Nepal, Pakistan. Bioterrorism as well as emergence and re-emergence of the VLVs constitute a concern as 50% of the population globally (40% in USA)\30 years are unvaccinated and most vulnerable for smallpox reemergence. Thus, the search for new generation safer smallpox vaccine entails review of biology of VLVs in the smallpox-free world. In this review, we present occurrence of VLVs in the world with exhaustive discussion particularly on the emergence and re-emergence of these viruses in India and Brazil where VLVs are sufficiently studied. © 2012 Indian Virological Society. Source


Kumar N.,National Institute of High Security Animal Diseases | Malik Y.S.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Sharma K.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Balamurugan V.,Animal Disease Monitoring and Surveillance | And 2 more authors.
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences | Year: 2015

Rotaviruses of group A (RVA) are foremost cause of diarrhoeal diseases in neonates of animals and humans worldwide leading to substantial economic losses. The RVA non-structural protein-4 (NSP-4), a viral enterotoxin, is known to be associated with infantile gastroenteritis/secretory diarrhoea by inducing pathological changes in the mature enterocytes. In this study, the carboxyl terminus of NSP4 protein (73M to 175M) from a bovine RVA was expressed in Escherichia coli Tuner (DE3) pLysS cells. The fusion protein (rNSP4ct, ~31 kDa) with hexa-histidine tags on its both termini was purified by affinity chromatography under native condition using Nickel-Nitrilotriacetic acid (Ni-NTA) agarose resin. The purified soluble recombinant NSP4ct was confirmed by Western blot. The structural analysis of rNSP4 protein revealed similarity between bovine RVA and human RVA (central tetrameric coiled-coil region) and confirmed that it was composed of mainly alpha helix (85%), lacking the beta strands. The rNSP4ct protein of bovine RVA has the potential of being used in developing diagnostics, assessing the biological activity (enterotoxin property) of rNSP4ct in understanding the pathogenesis in intestinal mucosa which would reveal the role of anti-NSP4 antibodies in protection against rotavirus infection and stimulation of mucosal immunity in animal model. © 2015 Asian Network for Scientific Information. Source


Murthy A.K.,Mr Ambedkar Dental College | Kumar V.,Geetam Dental College | Suresh K.P.,Animal Disease Monitoring and Surveillance
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention | Year: 2013

Background: Studies of associations between genetic polymorphism of glutathione S-transferase M1 (GSTM1) and glutathione S-transferase T1 (GSTT1) with risk of nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) have generated conflicting results. Thus, a meta-analysis was performed to clarify the effects of GSTM1 and GSTT1 polymorphisms on the risk of developing NPC. Materials and Methods: A literature search in two electronic databases namely PubMed and EMBASE up to December 2012 was conducted and eligible papers were finally selected based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The pooled odds ratio (OR) and presence of heterogeneity and publication bias in those studies were evaluated. Results: A total of 9 studies concerning nasopharyngeal cancer were evaluated. Analyses of all relevant studies showed increased NPC risk to be significantly associated with the null genotypes of GSTMI (OR=1.43, 95%CI 1.24-1.66) and GSTT1 (OR=1.28, 95%CI=1.09-1.51). In addition, evidence of publication bias was detected among the studies on GSTM1 polymorphism. Conclusions: This meta-analysis demonstrated the GSTM1 G STM1 and GSTT1 null genotypes are associated with an increased risk of NPC. Source


Yogisharadhya R.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Bhanuprakash V.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Hosamani M.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Venkatesan G.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | And 5 more authors.
Biologicals | Year: 2011

In the present study, two sheeppox vaccines made from strains [sheeppox virus-Srinagar (SPPV-Srin) and Ranipet (SPPV-R)] indigenous to India and adapted to Vero cells were compared in terms of their safety, potency, efficacy and antigenic value with the commercial in-use Roumanian Fanar (SPPV-RF) vaccine, a foreign strain adapted in primary lamb testes cells. The safety test indicated that the SPPV (Sri and RF) vaccines were safe while SPPV-R was not completely attenuated and caused excessive adverse reactions at the passage level tested. The immunized animals showed DTH reaction and resisted virulent SPPV challenge, while control animals developed disease. Specific virus could be detected in the controls and animals immunized with lower dilutions of vaccines after challenge but not in any of the sheep immunized with 1 and 100 doses of each vaccine. All vaccines were found potent and the PD 50 was highest for SPPV (Srin and R) followed by RF. The immunized animals were seroconverted following vaccination with sustained antibody responses after challenge. In conclusion, indigenous SPPV-Srin vaccine was found to be as efficacious as SPPV-R and SPPV-RF vaccines. Thus, there is potential benefit in replacing the currently used commercial vaccine SPPV-RF with indigenous SPPV-Srin vaccine for use in India. © 2011 The International Alliance for Biological Standardization. Source


Balamurugan V.,Animal Disease Monitoring and Surveillance | Saravanan P.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Sen A.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Rajak K.K.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | And 3 more authors.
OIE Revue Scientifique et Technique | Year: 2011

This study describes the serosurveillance of peste des petits ruminants (PPR) in sheep and goats that was carried out between 2003 and 2009 using serum samples from animals suspected of PPR that were submitted to the Rinderpest and Allied Disease Laboratory (Division of Virology of the Indian Veterinary Research Institute [IVRI]). A total of 2,197 serum samples from sheep and 2,687 from goats were screened for PPR virus (PPRV) antibody using a monoclonal antibody-based competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay developed at IVRI. Screening of the 4,884 serum samples showed that the prevalence of PPRV antibody in sheep and goats was 41.01% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 31.86 to 50.16) and 46.11% (95% CI: 37.18 to 55.04), respectively, with an overall prevalence of 43.56% (95% CI: 36.78 to 50.34) during the period. This indicates increased and widespread infection with the virus in India compared with earlier reports, which is attributed to the variations in sheep and goat husbandry practices in different regions, the agro-climatic conditions, the topography of different states, the socio-economic status of individual farmers and the migration of livestock in India. Source

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