Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory

Reynoldsburg, OH, United States

Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory

Reynoldsburg, OH, United States
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Didugu H.,Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory | Narasimha Reddy C.E.,Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory
Buffalo Bulletin | Year: 2017

Incidence S. nasale (causative agent of nasal schistosomiasis) in graded murrah buffaloes was studied. 4(8%) among healthy and 46(92%) among suspected buffaloes were diagnosed with nasal schistosomiasis. Area under investigation was highly irrigated giving ample scope for exposure of animals to cercaria of S. nasale. Buffaloes showing signs of reduced water intake, reduced milk yield, normal body temperature and normal feed intake were suspected with S. nasale and the results obtained are in agreement with these observations. It is concluded that buffaloes showing above signs may be suspected with nasal schistosomiasis, especially in highly irrigated areas. © 2017, Kasetsart University. All rights reserved.

This is the first study analyzing Pacific oyster microbiota in the Puget Sound estuarine system using a next-generation sequencing method. Taxonomic analysis indicated that Tenericutes, Chlamydiae, Proteobacteria, and Firmicutes were the most abundant phyla. Small numbers of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) belonging to the Vibrio genus were detected in all the oyster microbiome samples. © 2017 Li and Wang.

PubMed | University of Kentucky, GeneReach United States, University of Caen Lower Normandy and Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory
Type: | Journal: Journal of virological methods | Year: 2016

Equine herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy (EHM), a major problem for the equine industry in the United States, is caused by equine herpesvirus-1 (EHV-1). In addition, EHV-1 is associated with upper respiratory disease, abortion, and chorioretinal lesions in horses. Here we describe the development and evaluation of an inexpensive, user-friendly insulated isothermal PCR (iiPCR) method targeting open reading 30 (ORF30) to detect both neuropathogenic and non-neuropathogenic strains on the field-deployable POCKIT device for point-of-need detection of EHV-1. The analytical sensitivity of the EHV-1 iiPCR assay was 13 genome equivalents per reaction. The assay did not cross react with ten non-target equine viral pathogens. Performance of the EHV-1 iiPCR assay was compared to two previously described real-time PCR (qPCR) assays in two laboratories by using 104 archived clinical samples. All 53 qPCR-positive and 46 of the 51 qPCR-negative samples tested positive and negative, respectively, by the iiPCR. The agreement between the two assays was 95.19% (confidence interval 90.48-99.90%) with a kappa value of 0.90. In conclusion, the newly developed EHV-1 iiPCR assay is robust to provide specificity and sensitivity comparable to qPCR assays for the detection of EHV-1 nucleic acid in clinical specimens.

Killian M.L.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Swenson S.L.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Vincent A.L.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Landgraf J.G.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | And 6 more authors.
Zoonoses and Public Health | Year: 2013

Influenza-like illness was noted in people and pigs in attendance at an Ohio county fair in August 2007. The morbidity rate in swine approached 100% within 1-2days of initial clinical signs being recognized, and approximately two dozen people developed influenza-like illness. Triple-reassortant swine H1N1 influenza viruses were identified in both pigs and people at the fair. The identified viruses (A/Sw/OH/511445/2007, A/Ohio/01/2007, and A/Ohio/02/2007) were similar to H1N1 swine influenza viruses currently found in the U.S. swine population. This case illustrates the possibility of transmission of swine influenza in settings where there is close human/swine interaction. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

Oka T.,Ohio State University | Oka T.,Japan National Institute of Infectious Diseases | Saif L.J.,Ohio State University | Marthaler D.,University of Minnesota | And 7 more authors.
Veterinary Microbiology | Year: 2014

The highly contagious and deadly porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) first appeared in the US in April 2013. Since then the virus has spread rapidly nationwide and to Canada and Mexico causing high mortality among nursing piglets and significant economic losses. Currently there are no efficacious preventive measures or therapeutic tools to control PEDV in the US. The isolation of PEDV in cell culture is the first step toward the development of an attenuated vaccine, to study the biology of PEDV and to develop in vitro PEDV immunoassays, inactivation assays and screen for PEDV antivirals. In this study, nine of 88 US PEDV strains were isolated successfully on Vero cells with supplemental trypsin and subjected to genomic sequence analysis. They differed genetically mainly in the N-terminal S protein region as follows: (1) strains (n=7) similar to the highly virulent US PEDV strains; (2) one similar to the reportedly US S INDEL PEDV strain; and (3) one novel strain most closely related to highly virulent US PEDV strains, but with a large (197aa) deletion in the S protein. Representative strains of these three genetic groups were passaged serially and grew to titers of ~5-6log10 plaque forming units/mL. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the isolation in cell culture of an S INDEL PEDV strain and a PEDV strain with a large (197aa) deletion in the S protein. We also designed primer sets to detect these genetically diverse US PEDV strains. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Ali A.,Food Animal Health Research Program | Ali A.,Ohio State University | Daniels J.B.,Ohio State University | Zhang Y.,Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Microbiology | Year: 2011

Domestic cats have several features that make them ideal vehicles for interspecies transmission of influenza viruses; however, they have been largely overlooked as potential reservoirs or bridging hosts. In this study, we conducted serological surveillance to assess the prevalence of novel pandemic H1N1 as well as seasonal human influenza virus infections in domestic cats in Ohio. Four hundred serum samples collected from domestic cats (September 2009 to September 2010) were tested using a hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test. The seroprevalences of pandemic H1N1, seasonal H1N1, and H3N2 were 22.5%, 33%, and 43.5%, respectively. In addition, a significant association between clinical feline respiratory disease and influenza virus infection was documented. In this sample of cats, the prevalence of pandemic H1N1 did not follow the seasonality pattern of seasonal H1N1 or H3N2 influenza, similar to observations in humans. Pandemic H1N1 seroprevalence did not vary in relation to ambient temperature changes, while the seroprevalence of seasonal H3N2 and H1N1 influenza viruses increased with the decline of ambient temperature. Our results highlight the high prevalence of influenza virus infection in domestic cats, a seasonality pattern of influenza virus infection comparable to that in humans, and an association of infection with clinical respiratory disease. Copyright © 2011, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

Wang L.,Cincinnati Childrens Hospital Medical Center | Wang L.,Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory | Cao D.,Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University | Wei C.,Cincinnati Childrens Hospital Medical Center | And 5 more authors.
Vaccine | Year: 2014

Norovirus (NoV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV) are both enterically-transmitted viruses causing gastroenteritis and hepatitis, respectively, in humans. While a vaccine against HEVs recently became available in China, there is no prophylactic or therapeutic approach against NoVs. Both NoV and HEV have surface protrusions formed by dimers of the protruding (P) domains of the viral capsids, which is responsible for virus-host interactions and eliciting viral neutralizing antibody. We developed in this study a bivalent vaccine against the two viruses through a recently developed polyvalent complex platform. The dimeric P domains of NoV and HEV were fused together, designated as NoV P--HEV P, which was then linked with the dimeric glutathione-S-transferase (GST). After expression and purification in E. coli, the GST-NoV P--HEV P fusion protein assembled into polyvalent complexes with a mean size of 1.8μm, while the NoV P--HEV P formed oligomers ranging from 100 to 420kDa. Mouse immunization study demonstrated that both GST-NoV P--HEV P and NoV P--HEV P complexes induced significantly higher antibody titers to NoV P- and HEV P, respectively, than those induced by a mixture of the NoV P- and HEV P dimers. Furthermore, the complex-induced antisera exhibited significantly higher neutralizing activity against HEV infection in HepG2/3A cells and higher blocking activity on NoV P particles binding to HBGA receptors than those of the dimer-induced antisera. Thus, GST-NoV P--HEV P and NoV P--HEV P complexes are promising dual vaccine candidates against both NoV and HEV. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Wang L.,Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory | Zhang Y.,Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory | Byrum B.,Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory
Journal of Virological Methods | Year: 2014

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) has caused significant economic losses in the US swine industry since May 2013. A new variant strain of PEDV emerged in the US in the late December, 2013. This variant strain of PEDV differs from the virulent strain of PEDV currently circulating in the US in 1170. nt of the 5'end of the S1 domain in the spike gene. Importantly, the variant PEDV caused significantly less mortality in piglets than the virulent PEDV, based on clinical observations. This suggests it may be a potential vaccine candidate for PED. Variant PEDV has been detected in samples from multiple states by our laboratory as well as other laboratories in the US. It is critical to detect and differentiate variant PEDV from the virulent PEDV during outbreaks to enhance control and to prevent PED associated disease. In this study, the development and validation of a duplex real-time RT-PCR assay for detection and differentiation of the variant and the virulent strains of PEDV currently circulating in the US was reported. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Wang L.,Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory | Hayes J.,Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory | Sarver C.,Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory | Byrum B.,Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory | Zhang Y.,Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory
Archives of Virology | Year: 2016

First identified in 2012 in a surveillance study in Hong Kong, porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) is a proposed member of the genus Deltacoronavirus of the family Coronaviridae. In February of 2014, PDCoV was detected in pigs with clinical diarrheal symptoms for the first time in the USA. Since then, it has been detected in more than 20 states in the USA and in other countries, including Canada, South Korea, and mainland China. So far, histological lesions in the intestines of pigs naturally infected with PDCoV under field conditions have not been reported. In this report, we describe the characteristic histological lesions in the small intestine that were associated with PDCoV infection, as evidenced by detection of viral nucleic acid by RT-PCR. In addition, we performed genomic analysis to determine the genetic relationship of all PDCoV strains from the four countries. We found that PDCoV mainly caused histological lesions in the small intestines of naturally infected piglets. Sequence analysis demonstrated that the PDCoV strains of different countries are closely related and shared high nucleotide sequence similarity; however, deletion patterns in the spike and 3’ untranslated regions are different among the strains from mainland China, Hong Kong, the USA, and South Korea. Our study highlights the fact that continual surveillance is needed to trace the evolution of this virus. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Wien.

PubMed | Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Virus genes | Year: 2016

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) was first recognized in pigs in the United States (US) in May 2013. Since then, the virus has spread to over 30 states and caused significant economic losses in the US swine industry due to the high mortality in newborn piglets less than 2weeks of age. A mild-variant strain OH851 of PEDV in the US was first reported in January 2014. Here, we report histological changes in the small intestines of five piglets infected with the variant strain OH851 of PEDV. The lesions observed were milder, compared to the US classical strain of PEDV. Our study, for the first time, reports the histological lesions caused by the variant PEDV OH851 strain from a field case. In addition, genomic characterization demonstrated that US variant PEDV is more closely related to European-like strains in the first 1170nt of the 5 spike gene but to US classical PEDV strains in the remaining genome, suggesting that the variant PEDV strain may derive from a recombinant event between the US classical and European-like PEDV strains.

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