Anyang, South Korea
Anyang, South Korea

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Woo G.H.,Animal Disease Diagnostic Center | Kim H.Y.,Animal Disease Diagnostic Center | Bae Y.C.,Animal Disease Diagnostic Center | Jean Y.H.,Animal Disease Diagnostic Center | And 4 more authors.
Histology and Histopathology | Year: 2011

We compared characteristic lesions occurring in chickens and domestic ducks naturally infected with H5N1 HPAI virus in April and May 2008. Infected chickens generally exhibited pale-green, watery diarrhoea, depression, neurological signs and cyanosis of wattles and combs, and infected ducks generally exhibited neurological signs and watery diarrhoea. Gross petechial or ecchymotic haemorrhage affected the heart, proventriculus, liver, muscle, fat, and pancreas in chickens, and muscle in ducks. Necrotic foci were primarily present in the pancreas of both species and in the heart of domestic ducks. Histopathologically, chickens exhibited multifocal encephalomalacia, multifocal lymphohistiocytic myocarditis, multifocal necrotic pancreatitis and haemorrhage of several organs and tissues; ducks exhibited lymphohistiocytic meningoencephalitis with multifocal haemorrhages, multifocal necrotic pancreatitis, and severe necrotic myocarditis with mineralisation. The characteristic histopathologic findings of 2008 HPAI were multifocal encephalomalacia and necrotic pancreatitis accompanied by lymphohistiocytic myocarditis, and haemorrhage in various organs and tissues in chickens, whereas in ducks, they were severe necrotic myocarditis with mineralisation and necrotic pancreatitis, accompanied with lymphohistiocytic meningoencephalitis. The high mortality of domestic ducks may be intimately associated with heart failure resulting from increased H5N1 HPAI viral cardiotropism.


Woo G.-H.,Animal Disease Diagnostic Center | Kim H.-Y.,Animal Disease Diagnostic Center | Bae Y.-C.,Animal Disease Diagnostic Center | Jean Y.H.,Animal Disease Diagnostic Center | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Wildlife Diseases | Year: 2010

Over a 6-day period beginning on 15 October 2008, 93 dead or sick wild waterfowl, including Mallards, Spotbills, and teal species, were found along the shore of a branch stream of the Hangang River, which flows through Seoul, Korea, and were submitted to the National Veterinary Research and Quarantine Service (NVRQS) for diagnosis. Clinically, the affected birds showed flaccid paralysis of the legs and wings and paralysis of the neck. Grossly, no bird snowed any lesions, but all had almost empty stomachs. Histopathologic findings included mild lymphocytic hepatitis and mild lymphocytic interstitial nephritis. Clostridium botulinum type C toxin was identified in sera collected from the birds using a mouse bioassay for botulinum toxins; however, no bacteria were isolated from any of the affected birds. In addition, a low-pathogenic avian influenza virus was isolated from two Spotbills, and pesticides such as diazinon and phorate, were detected in seven Mallards. The cause of this outbreak is not clear, but an increase in organic materials from sewage due to drought, increased temperatures, and an increased number of aquatic carcasses resulting from pesticide contamination may have increased the replication of C. botulinum, contributing to the release of botulinum toxins into the waterfowl food chain. © Wildlife Disease Association 2010.


Lee D.K.,Kyungpook National University | Park C.K.,Animal Disease Diagnostic Center | Kim S.H.,Animal Disease Diagnostic Center | Lee C.,Kyungpook National University
Virus Research | Year: 2010

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) has plagued the domestic swine industry in Korea causing significant economic impacts on pig production nationwide. In the present study, we determined the complete nucleotide sequences of the spike (S) glycoprotein genes of seven Korean PEDV isolates. The entire S genes of all isolates were found to be nine nucleotides longer in length than other PEDV reference strains. This size difference was due to the combined presence of notable 15. bp insertion and 6. bp deletion within the N-terminal region of the S1 domain of the Korean isolates. In addition, the largest number of amino acid variations was accumulated in the S1 N-terminal region, leading to the presence of hypervariability in the isolates. Sequence comparisons at the peptide level of the S proteins revealed that all seven Korean isolates shared diverse similarities ranging from a 93.6% to 99.6% identity with each other but exhibited a 92.2% to 93.7% identity with other reference strains. Collectively, the sequence analysis data indicate the diversity of the PEDV isolates currently prevalent in Korea that represents a heterogeneous group. Phylogenetic analyses showed two separate clusters, in which all Korean field isolates were grouped together in the second cluster (group 2). The results indicate that prevailing isolates in Korea are phylogenetically more closely related to each other rather than other reference strains. Interestingly, the tree topology based on the nucleotide sequences representing the S1 domain or the S1 N-terminal region most nearly resembled the full S gene-based phylogenetic tree. Therefore, our data implicates a potential usefulness of the partial S protein gene including the N-terminal region in unveiling genetic relatedness of PEDV isolates. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Hong S.,Seoul National University | Lee I.,Seoul National University | Hwang H.,Seoul National University | Seo I.,Seoul National University | And 7 more authors.
Biosystems Engineering | Year: 2011

A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was developed to predict livestock odour dispersion over complex terrain. The modules for atmospheric dispersion modelling (MADM) were designed to consider physical phenomena such as wind shear, insolation flux from the ground, and atmospheric stability. The modules were connected by user defined functions and schemes to a CFD solver. The model was validated by using the distributions of livestock odour, wind velocities, and wind directions measured in field experiments. The wind field, computed by unsteady and large eddy simulation (LES), agreed well with the measured field wind variations. Odour dispersion was also well predicted, with a correlation coefficient of 0.863. By applying the CFD model to two test areas in Cheongyang and Yesan, Korea, odour distributions were predicted with several variations in atmospheric stability, wind speed, and wind direction. Several possible weather conditions were selected for each area and the results compared with each other. The CFD model and the MADM were very effective for predicting odour dispersion under various weather conditions. The model and the module are expected to facilitate environmental impact evaluations and dispute mediation in matters related to livestock odour. © 2011 IAgrE.


Oem J.K.,Animal Disease Diagnostic Center | Lee K.H.,Animal Disease Diagnostic Center | Kim H.R.,Animal Disease Diagnostic Center | Bae Y.C.,Animal Disease Diagnostic Center | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Comparative Pathology | Year: 2012

A large-scale epidemic of Akabane virus (AKAV) encephalomyelitis in cattle aged 4-72 months occurred in the southern part of Korea from late summer to late autumn in 2010. Affected cattle exhibited neurological signs including locomotor ataxia, astasia, tremor and hypersensitivity. Samples of brain (n = 116), spinal cord (n = 116) and whole blood (n = 205) were submitted to the National Veterinary Research and Quarantine Service for diagnosis. Microscopical analysis of the brains and spinal cords revealed the presence of non-suppurative encephalomyelitis in 99 of 116 brains and/or spinal cords (85%). The brains and spinal cords were evaluated by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and AKAV antigens were detected by immunohistochemistry using rabbit antiserum against AKAV strain OBE-1. Fifteen AKAVs were isolated from the brain and spinal cord samples. Antibodies against AKAV in a virus neutralization test were detected in 188 of 205 serum samples (91.7%). This is the first report of a large-scale outbreak of bovine epidemic encephalomyelitis caused by AKAV infection in Korea. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Hong S.,Seoul National University | Lee I.,Seoul National University | Hwang H.,Seoul National University | Seo I.,Seoul National University | And 6 more authors.
Biosystems Engineering | Year: 2011

Odour from livestock production is an increasing problem in many countries. To reduce odours and establish the effects of livestock production on their surrounding communities, many studies have been carried out on odour dispersion using diffusion simulations and field experiments. Recently, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has been effectively used to study odour dispersion. CFD can consider various atmospheric phenomena and topographical conditions to study the occurrence of odours and aerosol dispersions. The ultimate objective of this study was to develop an aerodynamic model to qualitatively and quantitatively predict odour dispersion originating from livestock facilities. This first of two papers, deals with the grid construction method, selection of fundamental design criteria and topographical modelling. A mesh model of complex topography, with a 3.6 km diameter and 2.5 km height, was developed with a fine resolution. Well known, commercially available, computational tools were used for the topographical modelling. An earlier wind tunnel experiment contributed to the selection of the grid size (to ensure grid independence), and the selection of time step and turbulence model for CFD simulation. In the second paper, methodologies for modelling of the dispersion phenomenon are presented. In the future, this model will be used to help ameliorate odour conflicts by predicting odour dispersion according to various meteorological and geographical conditions. © 2011 IAgrE.


Rayamajhi N.,Seoul National University | Jung B.Y.,Animal Disease Diagnostic Center | Cha S.B.,Seoul National University | Shin M.K.,Seoul National University | And 4 more authors.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology | Year: 2010

Fifteen nonrepetitive ampicillin-resistant Salmonella spp. were identified among 91 Salmonella sp. isolates during nationwide surveillance of Salmonella in waste from 131 chicken farms during 2006 and 2007. Additional phenotyping and genetic characterization of these 15 Isolates by using indicator cephalosporins demonstrated that resistance to ampicillin and reduced susceptibility to cefoxitin in three isolates was caused by TEM-1 and DHA-1 β-lactamases. Plasmid profiling and Southern blot analysis of these three DHA-1-positive Salmonella serovar Indiana isolates and previously reported unrelated clinical isolates of DHA-1-positive Salmonella serovar Montevideo, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Escherichia coli from humans and swine indicated the involvement of the large-size plasmid. Restriction enzyme digestion of the plasmids from the transconjugants showed variable restriction patterns except for the two Salmonella serovar Indiana isolates identified in this study. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the presence of the DHA-1 gene among Salmonella spp. of animal origin. Copyright © 2010, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.


Byun J.-W.,Animal Disease Diagnostic Center | Byun J.-W.,Chungbuk National University | Jung B.Y.,Animal Disease Diagnostic Center | Kim H.-Y.,Animal Disease Diagnostic Center | And 2 more authors.
Veterinary Journal | Year: 2012

A one-step real-time PCR using one set of oligonucleotide primers and three probes was developed for differentiation of F4 (K88) variants (F4ab, F4ac, F4ad) of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) from diarrhoeic pigs. The limits of detection of F4ab, F4ac and F4ad in broth dilution were 106, 105 and 104colony forming units (CFU)/mL, respectively. In faecal samples spiked with E. coli, the limits of detection of F4ab, F4ac and F4ad were 106, 106 and 104CFU/g faeces, respectively, without enrichment and 103, 102 and 102CFU/g faeces following enrichment. In 42 ETEC field isolates from pigs in Korea encoding the F4 gene, all were identified as the F4ac variant. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Woo G.-H.,Animal Disease Diagnostic Center | Jho Y.-S.,Snoopy Animal Hospital | Bak E.-J.,Hallym University
Journal of Veterinary Medical Science | Year: 2010

Fifteen 8-month-old fennec foxes imported from Sudan showed fever, ucopurulent ocular discharge, diarrhea, severe emaciation, seizures, and generalized ataxia, and died. Three of the 15 animals were presented for diagnostic investigation. Severe dehydration, brain congestion, and gastric ulcers were observed in all animals. In one animal, the lungs had failed to collapse and were multifocally dark red in appearance. Histopathologically, there were lymphohistiocytic meningoencephalitis with malacia, mild interstitial pneumonia, lymphoid depletion of lymphoid tissues and organs, and intestinal villous atrophy with intralesional coccidia. There were many intracytoplasmic and/or intranuclear inclusion bodies in the epithelial cells of the medullary velum, lungs, liver, kidneys, trachea, pancreas, stomach, gall bladder, urinary bladder, and ureters, and in macrophages of malacia foci and lymphocytes and macrophages of lymphoid organs. Additionally, intestinal coccidia were confirmed to be Isospora species by a fecal test. To our knowledge, this is the first report of canine distemper with intestinal coccidiosis in fennec fox.


PubMed | Animal Disease Diagnostic Center
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of comparative pathology | Year: 2012

A large-scale epidemic of Akabane virus (AKAV) encephalomyelitis in cattle aged 4-72 months occurred in the southern part of Korea from late summer to late autumn in 2010. Affected cattle exhibited neurological signs including locomotor ataxia, astasia, tremor and hypersensitivity. Samples of brain (n = 116), spinal cord (n = 116) and whole blood (n = 205) were submitted to the National Veterinary Research and Quarantine Service for diagnosis. Microscopical analysis of the brains and spinal cords revealed the presence of non-suppurative encephalomyelitis in 99 of 116 brains and/or spinal cords (85%). The brains and spinal cords were evaluated by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and AKAV antigens were detected by immunohistochemistry using rabbit antiserum against AKAV strain OBE-1. Fifteen AKAVs were isolated from the brain and spinal cord samples. Antibodies against AKAV in a virus neutralization test were detected in 188 of 205 serum samples (91.7%). This is the first report of a large-scale outbreak of bovine epidemic encephalomyelitis caused by AKAV infection in Korea.

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