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Kim B.-S.,175 Anyangro | Kang H.-M.,175 Anyangro | Choi J.-G.,175 Anyangro | Kim M.-C.,175 Anyangro | And 4 more authors.
Poultry Science | Year: 2011

The low-pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) virus can serve as a progenitor of the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus, so it is important to monitor the LPAI virus as well as the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus. The Korean LPAI H5N1 virus, A/wild duck/Kr/CSM4-12/09 (H5N1) [Wd/ CSM4-12/09], was first isolated from feces of the wild duck in South Korea. Genetic analysis showed that 7 genes of Wd/CSM 4-12/09 clustered in eastern Asia and that the neuraminidase (NA) gene of this isolate was closely related to European LPAI viruses. The Korean LPAI H5N1 virus has the highest similarity with the Japanese LPAI H5N1 virus, A/mallard/Hokkaido/ 24/09 (H5N1), in 6 genes [polymerase basic protein 2 (PB2), polymerase basic protein 1 (PB1), polymerase acidic protein (PA), hemagglutinin (HA), NA, and nonstructural (NS) genes]. The Korean LPAI H5N1 virus did not replicate in experimentally infected chickens, whereas it replicated in ducks and mice without preadaptation. This study shows that the first Korean LPAI H5N1 reassortment, which occurred between influenza viruses from wild migratory birds in Eurasia, has contributed to the increased diversity of the viral gene pool in eastern Asia; this has the potential to change the host range and to allow the virus to evolve into forms with increased pathogenicity. © 2011 Poultry Science Association Inc. Source


Lee C.-H.,Chungbuk National University | Byun S.-H.,Chungbuk National University | Lee Y.-J.,Animal Disease Diagnosis Center | Mo I.-P.,Chungbuk National University
Virus Genes | Year: 2012

We performed whole genome sequencing of 22 H9N2 avian influenza viruses (AIV) isolated from domestic laying hens on farms between 2005 and 2008, and compared the sequences with viruses previously reported in Asia. A previous study revealed that two antigenically distinct sublineages were established within the MS96 lineage by antigenic drift since the first H9N2 AIV outbreak in South Korea. We designated them as the 01310-like lineage and the 116/04-like lineage. Since late 2004, most identified isolates in Korea have belonged to the 116/04-like lineage, however, in this study we found that six among twenty-two isolates were belonged to 01310-like lineage, indicating that the genetic divergence is still occurring after 2004. Furthermore, it is noteworthy that five isolates among the defined 01310-like lineage had a 24 amino acid deletion in the neuraminidase stalk region, which were not in any other H9N2 isolates previously reported. The internal genes analysis demonstrated extensive reassortment events among isolates from poultry farms, live bird markets, and wild birds, and multiple new genotypes were identified. We identified several features of gene evolution in H9N2 AIV suggesting that the long-term H9N2 AIV surveillance study should be continued in South Korea. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012. Source


Kim H.-R.,Animal Disease Diagnosis Center | Kwon Y.-K.,National Veterinary Research and Quarantine Service | Bae Y.-C.,Animal Disease Diagnosis Center | Oem J.-K.,Animal Disease Diagnosis Center | Lee O.-S.,Animal Disease Diagnosis Center
Poultry Science | Year: 2010

In South Korea, 32 sequences of chicken infectious anemia virus (CIAV) from various flocks of breeder and commercial chickens were genetically characterized for the first time. Phylogenetic analysis of the viral protein 1 gene, including a hypervariable region of the CIAV genome, indicated that Korean CIAV strains were separated into groups II, IIIa, and IIIb. Strains were commonly identified in great-grandparent and grandparent breeder farms as well as commercial chicken farms. In the field, CIAV strains from breeder farms had no clinical effects, but commercial farm strains were associated with depression, growth retardation, and anemia regardless of the group from which the strain originated. In addition, we identified 7 CIAV genomes that were similar to vaccine strains from vaccinated and unvaccinated breeder flocks. These data suggest that further studies on pathogenicity and vaccine efficacy against the different CIAV group are needed, along with continuous CIAV surveillance and genetic analysis at breeder farms. © 2010 Poultry Science Association Inc. Source


Kim H.-R.,Animal Disease Diagnosis Center | Park C.-K.,Animal Disease Diagnosis Center | Oem J.-K.,Animal Disease Diagnosis Center | Bae Y.-C.,Animal Disease Diagnosis Center | And 3 more authors.
Journal of General Virology | Year: 2010

We characterized low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) H5N2 and H9N2 viruses isolated in South Korea from 2008 to 2009. Genetic analysis of the H5N2 viruses isolated from wild birds and domestic ducks demonstrated that they were related to the recently isolated southern Chinese LPAI H5 viruses and various influenza viruses circulating in Eurasia. Three H9N2 viruses obtained at live bird markets and duck farms were reassortant viruses generated from the H5N2 viruses of domestic ducks and the H9N2 virus endemic in Korean chickens. The H5N2 viruses did not replicate well in experimentally infected chickens and mice, but novel H9N2 viruses, without pre-adaptation, were recovered at high titres in chickens. Our results show that reassortment between H5N2 and H9N2 viruses must have occurred in domestic ducks and may have contributed to the diversity expansion of the gene pool, which has potential to alter the pathogenicity and host range of the influenza virus. © 2010 SGM. Source

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