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Soo, Japan

Cross M.D.,Central Michigan University | Root K.V.,Bowling Green State University | Mehne C.J.,Animal Clinic | McGowan-Stinski J.,Nature Conservancy in Michigan | And 3 more authors.
American Midland Naturalist

The eastern massasauga rattlesnake (Sistrurus catenatus) is a threatened species that occurs in habitats frequently targeted by prescribed burns. There have been reports of massasauga mortality as a result of prescribed fires, but little is known regarding the indirect effects of fire on this species. The objective of this study was to monitor massasaugas during a prescribed fire to assess direct and indirect effects. We initially implanted radio transmitters in 13 massasaugas inhabiting an area targeted for periodic prescribed fires and tracked them following a prescribed fire to determine burn related-mortality and behavioral influences. Data loggers, temperature sensitive paint, and measuring posts were used to record detailed fire data. Of the five snakes on the burn unit at the time, two died as a result of the fire. No differences were observed in daily movements and home range sizes between burn categories (in the burn, same site not in the burn and at a nearby unburned site). Snakes on and off the burn unit at the same site exhibited the same habitat preference for wetland habitats, whereas snakes at the control site preferred herbaceous areas. Slight differences were observed in microhabitat selection related to litter depth, surface light intensity, distance to water, and surface temperature. The snakes did not appear to alter their seasonal activities as a result of the prescribed fire. The results of this study suggest ways to minimize impacts from prescribed fires on massasauga populations. © 2015, University of Notre Dame. All rights reserved. Source

Ghaffari M.S.,Islamic Azad University at Karaj | Sabzevari A.,Islamic Azad University at Garmsar | Vahedi H.,Animal Clinic | Golezardy H.,University of Pretoria
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine

The purpose of this study was to establish normal physiologic reference values for intraocular pressure (IOP) and Schirmer tear test (STT) results in clinically normal ostriches (Struthio camelus). Twenty ostriches of both sexes, 10 juveniles (1.5-2 yr of age) and 10 adults, were included in this study. Complete ophthalmic examination was performed prior to this investigation. STT was performed by inserting a standard sterile STT strip over the ventral lid margin into the ventral conjunctival sac for 60 sec. Following the STT, IOP was measured using applanation tonometry with the Tono-Pen Vet™ tonometer after topical instillation of one drop of 0.5% proparacaine ophthalmic solution. The mean ± SD and range of Tono-Pen readings of IOP for all birds was 18.8 ± 3.5, with a range of 12-24. Mean IOP in juvenile ostriches was 19.7 ± 3.6. Mean IOP in adult ostriches was 16.9 ± 2.9. There was no statistically significant difference between young and adult birds (P = 0.07). The mean STT values in the present study were 16.3 ± 2.5 mm/1 min when measurements from both eyes were averaged. Mean STT in juvenile and adult ostriches was 15.4 ± 1.8 and 17.2 ± 2.9 mm/1 min, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference between young and adult birds (P = 0.11). No statistically significant differences between genders were found for any of the results (P ≥ 0.41). In conclusion, this study provides normal reference range values for STT and IOP in clinically healthy ostriches. © 2012 American Association of Zoo Veterinarians. Source

Frydlova P.,Charles University | Hnizdo J.,Animal Clinic | Simkova O.,Charles University | Cikanova V.,Charles University | And 2 more authors.
Acta Herpetologica

In male-larger species of animals, males typically continue to grow after the age of female sexual maturation has been reached. Consequently, a switch of energy allocation occurs as the female investment from growth is shifted into egg production. We focus on the transitional period when both sexes heavily invest into anabolic processes; males invest in the development of body tissues while females predominantly invest in egg production. In captive mangrovedwelling monitor lizards, we found that relative food intakes as well as quantitative estimates of anabolic processes (relative growth and egg production rates) are fairly comparable between the sexes. In spite of this biochemical clinical values and body condition indices revealed sex differences suggesting costs of reproduction in females. These results clearly illustrate that growth and egg production still substantially differ in associated physiological costs. This may be attributed to qualitative requirements (nutrients, minerals, etc.) of these processes. Our results correspond well with the higher susceptibility and mortality rates of females than males in many lizard species in captivity. © Firenze University Press. Source

Chao L.M.,Yamaguchi University | Sato S.,Animal Clinic | Yoshida K.,Animal Clinic | Kawano Y.,Kagoshima University | And 2 more authors.
Reproduction in Domestic Animals

Contents: The aim of this study was to examine the possible differences of oestrous intensity between natural oestrus and induced oestrus using the walking activity measuring device. Walking activity was used as an evaluation index of oestrous intensity. A total of 27 Japanese Black cows, more than 40 days after calving and clinically normal, were randomly assigned to three groups. Walking activity was recorded using a commercially available computerized pedometer system. The treatment groups consisted of an Ovsynch (n = 8) and a controlled internal drugs releasing device (CIDR) + Ovsynch (n = 9) group. The control group (n = 10) received no treatment. Walking activity was examined in all groups. Timed artificial insemination (timed AI) was performed at 16 hours after the onset of oestrus in the control group and at 24 h after second administration of GnRH in the treatment groups. Duration of oestrus had a tendency to be shorter in both the Ovsynch and the CIDR + Ovsynch groups when compared with the control group. The time required from the onset of oestrus to the time showing the highest number of steps of walking (the time to peak) showed a tendency to be shorter in CIDR + Ovsynch group. The number of steps of walking at peak and overall walking activities were significantly lower in both treatment groups than in the control group. Both activity and super-activity periods of time in the treatment groups were shorter than the control group. No difference was observed in the conception rate between the control (50.0%; 10/20), Ovsynch (50.0%; 4/8) and CIDR + Ovsynch groups (66.7%; 6/9). This study demonstrates that the oestrous intensity of cows in oestrus was different between natural oestrus and induced oestrus and also between the methods of the synchronization, but no difference was observed in the conception rate among the three groups. © 2008 The Authors. Journal compilation. © 2008 Blackwell Verlag. Source

Frydlova P.,Charles University | Hnizdo J.,Animal Clinic | Chylikova L.,Animal Clinic | Simkova O.,Charles University | And 3 more authors.
Integrative Zoology

Blood cell morphology and count are not uniform across species. Recently, between-species comparisons revealed that the size of red blood cells is associated with body size in some lizard taxa, and this finding was interpreted in the context of the metabolic theory. In the present study, we examined the numbers and the size of blood cells in 2 species of monitor lizards, the mangrove-dwelling monitor (Varanus indicus) and the savannah monitor (V. exanthematicus), and we compared these traits in individuals of different body size. The results revealed that during the course of ontogeny, the size of red blood cells increases with body mass. Because the mass-specific metabolic rate decreases with body size and the cell volume-to-surface ratio decreases with the cell size, changes in the erythrocyte size might be the result of oxygen transport adjustment. © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd, ISZS and IOZ/CAS. Source

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