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Lelystad, Netherlands

Szostak A.,Polish Academy of Sciences | Ogluszka M.,Polish Academy of Sciences | Te Pas M.F.W.,Animal Breeding and Genetics Center | Polawska E.,Polish Academy of Sciences | And 7 more authors.
Genes and Nutrition | Year: 2016

The optimal ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) is important for keeping the homeostasis of biological processes and metabolism, yet the underlying biological mechanism is poorly understood. The objective of this study was to identify changes in the pig liver transcriptome induced by a diet enriched with omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids and to characterize the biological mechanisms related to PUFA metabolism. Polish Landrace pigs (n = 12) were fed diet enriched with linoleic acid (LA, omega-6) and α-linolenic acid (ALA, omega-3) or standard diet as a control. The fatty acid profiling was assayed in order to verify how feeding influenced the fatty acid content in the liver, and subsequently next-generation sequencing (NGS) was used to identify differentially expressed genes (DEG) between transcriptomes between dietary groups. The biological mechanisms and pathway interaction networks were identified using DAVID and Cytoscape tools. Fatty acid profile analysis indicated a higher contribution of PUFAs in the liver for LA-and ALA-enriched diet group, particularly for the omega-3 fatty acid family, but not omega-6. Next-generation sequencing identified 3565 DEG, 1484 of which were induced and 2081 were suppressed by PUFA supplementation. A low ratio of omega-6/omega-3 fatty acids resulted in the modulation of fatty acid metabolism pathways and over-representation of genes involved in energy metabolism, signal transduction, and immune response pathways. In conclusion, a diet enriched with omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids altered the transcriptomic profile of the pig liver and would influence animal health status. © 2016 Szostak et al. Source

Pierzchala M.,Animal Breeding and Genetics Center | Pierzchala M.,Polish Academy of Sciences | Hoekman A.J.W.,Animal Breeding and Genetics Center | Urbanski P.,Animal Breeding and Genetics Center | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics | Year: 2014

Summary: The aim of this study was to validate previously reported associations between microarray gene expression levels and pork quality traits using real-time PCR. Meat samples and meat quality data from 100 pigs were collected from a different pig breed to the one tested by microarray (Large White versus Pietrain) and a different country of origin (Denmark versus Germany). Ten genes (CARP, MB, CSRP3, TNNC1, VAPB, TNNI1, HSPB1, TNNT1, TIMP-1, RAD-like) were chosen from the original microarray study on the basis of the association between gene expression levels and the meat quality traits meat %, back fat, pH24, drip loss %, colour a*, colour b*, colour L*, WB-SF, SFA, MUFA, PUFA. Real-time PCR detection methods were developed for validation of all ten genes, confirming association with drip loss (two of two genes), ultimate pH (three of four genes), a* (redness) (two of six genes) and L*(lightness) (two of four genes). Furthermore, several new correlations for MUFA and PUFA were established due to additional meat quality trait information on fatty acid composition not available for the microarray study. Regression studies showed that the maximum explanation of the phenotypic variance of the meat quality traits was 50% for the ultimate pH trait using these ten genes only. Additional studies showed that the gene expression of several of the genes was correlated with each other. We conclude that the genes initially selected from the microarray study were robust, explaining variances of the genes for the meat quality traits. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH. Source

te Pas M.F.W.,Animal Breeding and Genetics Center | Wijnberg I.D.,University Utrecht | Hoekman A.J.W.,Animal Breeding and Genetics Center | de Graaf-Roelfsema E.,University Utrecht | And 4 more authors.
Veterinary Journal | Year: 2013

Training horses improves athletic capabilities by inducing skeletal muscle-specific and systemic adaptations. However, rest is required to recover from exercise or else overtraining may occur and affect performance and welfare. Biomarkers would be useful to identify early chronic overtraining in animals. The objective of the current study was to investigate skeletal muscle gene expression patterns and underlying biological mechanisms related to training of different intensities and detraining.Untrained 20month-old Standardbred geldings were exercised at varying intensities (endurance and sprint) followed by detraining (n=5 per phase). The results indicated that training mainly affected skeletal muscle-specific protein metabolism and increased CO2 export from the tissues. Intensive training increased energy metabolism and affected heart and adipose tissues, while having an adverse effect on stress, apoptosis and immune capacity. The intensity of the training could be related to decreased expression of extra cellular matrix proteins (ECM), cell-cell contacts and intracellular signalling pathways. During detraining, most mechanisms were reversed, but heart tissue-related changes and increased expression of skeletal muscle-specific proteins were still evident. The study suggested that changes to ECM expression and cell-cell contact mechanisms may be long-lasting and related to multifactorial aspects of training and detraining. These biomarkers may be useful to identify horses in the early stages of chronic overloading or early overtraining. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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