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Raies Haq M.,Animal Biochemistry Division | Kapila R.,Animal Biochemistry Division | Shandilya U.K.,Animal Biochemistry Division | Dang A.K.,National Dairy Research Institute | Kapila S.,Animal Biochemistry Division
Milchwissenschaft | Year: 2012

Beta-casein A1 variant of milk protein has been found to be a source of β-casomorphins and is correlated with the etiology of various human disorders like diabetes, ischemic heart disease and sudden infant death syndrome. Therefore, from the applied perception, it is a prerequisite to screen animals for A1 and A2 like genetic variants of β-casein. DNA fragments containing A1/A2 polymorphic region were amplified and genotyped using the PCR-ACRS (Amplification Created Restriction Site). Indian crossbred, Karan Fries, showed an allelic frequency of A1- 0.208 and A2- 0.792 with genotypic frequency of A1 A1-0.125, A1A2- 0.166 and A2A2- 0.709. The allelic frequency of A1 and A2 in Karan Swiss was found to be 0.107 and 0.893, respectively, with genotypic frequency of A1A1- 0.0, A1A2- 0.214 and A2A2- 0.786. These two cattle population were developed under a crossbreeding program with exotic breeds (Holstein Friesian and Brown Swiss) which may serve as carriers of the A1 allele because the indigenous cattle breeds (Sahiwal and Tharparkar) have no A1 variant.


Dang A.K.,Animal Biochemistry Division | Arora S.,National Dairy Research Institute
Milchwissenschaft | Year: 2011

Milk proteins are known to be the source of a range of bioactive peptides which can be released by enzymatic proteolysis by selective proteases. Caseinophosphopeptides (CPP) are the novel bioactive peptides well known for their mineral binding ability; they also have immunomodulatory properties. In the present study, CPPs isolated from cow and buffalo milk were evaluated for their immunomodulatory potential by carrying out in vivo trials in mice. It has been found that phagocytic activity and lymphocyte proliferation index were increased on feeding cow and buffalo CPP, whereas the mitogenic response of cow CPP was higher as compared to buffalo CPP. Concerning antibody response in the study, there was no effect on ovalbumin (OVA)- and diphtheria-specific lgG levels in sera, whereas there was significant increase in OVA specific and diphtheria specific IgA in intestinal fluid of the mice fed with CPP. Thus this study clearly depicted that both cow and buffalo CPP exhibit immunomodulatory potential by enhancing mucosal immunity.


PubMed | Animal Biochemistry Division.
Type: Comparative Study | Journal: Microbiology and immunology | Year: 2013

The present investigation aimed at identifying the abilities of three different species of probiotic lactobacilli to modulate cellular immune responses in mouse neutrophils and macrophages in vivo over a study period of 60 days. Neutrophil respiratory burst enzymes (cytochrome c reductase and MPO) showed remarkable increased activity (P0.01) after consumption of milks fermented by different species of probiotics over 30 and 60 days of feeding trials. Enzyme activities (-galactosidase and -glucuronidase) and nitric oxide production also increased considerably (P0.01) in macrophages, both in peritoneal fluid and in enriched cell cultures. The effects of enhanced enzyme activities were corroborated by simultaneous increases in the phagocytic activities of neutrophils and macrophages. The increases in cellular functions were invariably maximal during the first 30 days of study and were maintained, but did not increase, over the next 30 days. Further, Lactobacillus helveticus-fed groups were most effective at modulating neutrophil functions whereas Lactobacillus paracasei-fed groups were more potent at enhancing macrophage functions. Together, our results indicate that probiotics have strain specific effects on stimulating cellular functions while not causing excessive stimulation of the immune system over longer feeding periods, thereby resulting in maximum and stable health benefits.

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