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Langford F.M.,Animal Behaviour and Welfare | Cockram M.S.,University of Prince Edward Island
Animal Welfare | Year: 2010

Methods to assess changes in the mental state of animals in response to their environment can be used to provide information to enhance animal welfare. One of the most profound changes of mental state observable in mammals is the change between wakefulness and sleep. Sleeping mammals have characteristics that are similar to one another and are measurable, such as specific behaviours, changes in responsiveness to external stimuli and changes in electrophysiology and neurochemistry. Although sleep is a ubiquitous behaviour in the life of mammals, there has been relatively little research on this topic in domesticated animals. All animals are motivated to sleep and this motivation increases after a prolonged period of wakefulness. In humans, sleep can be affected by what has occurred in the prior period of wakefulness and this has also been demonstrated in some non-human mammals. An important aspect of human sleep medicine is the association between stress and subsequent sleep disturbances. Studying changes in amount, bout length, distribution or type of sleep after exposure to potentially stressful events, could help us understand how animals respond to changes in their environment. It is possible that different types of stressors could affect sleep characteristics in different ways and that monitoring and identifying these changes could be useful in providing an additional way of identifying management procedures that have the potential to affect welfare. Sleep measurement is a potentially valuable tool in studies to assess animal welfare. © 2010 Universities Federation for Animal Welfare.

Seehuus B.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Mendl M.,Animal Behaviour and Welfare | Keeling L.J.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Blokhuis H.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
Applied Animal Behaviour Science | Year: 2013

The 'reward cycle' conceptualises reward acquisition as a cyclic phenomenon divided into three motivational stages with related emotional or affective states. For feeding behaviour such a cycle consists of an appetitive stage characterised by foraging and exploration linked to emotions such as wanting and anticipation, a consummatory stage with eating behaviour linked to liking and pleasure, and a post-consummatory stage linked to satiety and relaxation with behaviour like resting and preening. In this study we investigated whether disturbing the feed reward cycle in laying hen chicks, by denying access to parts of a pen designed to accommodate the stages of the cycle (litter area 'appetitive'; feed area 'consummatory'; perches and dark area 'post-consummatory'), resulted in a more negative affective state. To test this, we used a spatial cognitive bias task in which a bowl in one location in the test arena was associated with a positive outcome (mealworm), and in a different location with a negative outcome (unpalatable puffed rice soaked in quinine sulphate). Three ambiguous probe locations were presented during the test. Chicks (n=22) discriminated between the positive and negative location as evidenced by a significant difference in times to reach these locations (mean difference variable-feed treatment 22.1 ± 8.8. s; closed-litter treatment 23.3 ± 6.5. s; closed-dark treatment 24.4 ± 4.9. s and baseline mean difference 22.3 ± 6.4. s). Chicks denied access to the litter area was significantly quicker to reach the probe near the negative location than when denied access to the feed area (mean 8.9 ± 1.7 vs. 18.6 ± 1.7) - an 'optimistic' judgement of ambiguity indicative of a less negative affective state when denied litter compared to when denied feed. Relative to the initial baseline cognitive bias tests, all treatments resulted in slower times to reach the negative location (closed-dark: 14.9 ± 1.9; variable-feed: 12.6 ± 1.9; closed-litter: 13.7 ± 1.9) and shorter times to the positive location (closed-dark: -7.3 ± 1.7; variable-feed: -7.2 ± 1.7; closed-litter: -7.3 ± 1.7). Continuing improvement in learning of the positive versus negative location discrimination following baseline tests, or a change in perception of the incentive value of the positive and negative outcomes, may explain this finding. There was no evidence that variations in fearfulness or sociality (measured in tonic immobility and social reinstatement tests) affected the outcome of the cognitive bias tests. There seems to be different reactions to disrupting different parts of a reward cycle and further investigations into the links between affect and motivational sequences may provide a better understanding of the affective importance of different resources. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

News Article
Site: www.scientificamerican.com

Does it seem like this is all you're hearing this time of year as holiday marketers try and outfit you — and your fellow dog lovers — with the *perfect* holiday gift? Well I’m here to do the same, that is, provide you and any dog lovers on your list with dog science books that would make any dog jump for joy. Heck, a dog might even curl up next to you as you read one of these titles. Since there is not one way to be a dog lover, I’ve created sections with different types of books: there are the academic heavy hitters (books for anyone wanting a textbook degree in all things dog), and the crowdpleasers (for those wanting a reader-friendly adventure into the growing field of dog behavior and cognition). Since living with a dog is not always smooth sailing, another set of books is for those wanting their dog to stop doing, well, you name it. The list finishes with a miscellaneous section characterized by beauty, variety, and utility. Take your pick, and enjoy! These academic-minded texts are for those wanting to get as close to primary research as possible. The Encyclopedia of Applied Animal Behaviour and Welfare Daniel Mills, Editor-in-chief @ABCWelfare Weighing in at 6.5 pounds, this is the heaviest of all the hitters. It is also one of my favorite go-to resources when I want to look up anything in the field of applied animal behavior, from "agonism" to "istwert." Well-written passages summarize complex concepts. Enjoy! Animal Behaviour for Shelter Veterinarians and Staff, ASPCA Emily Weiss, Heather Mohan-Gibbons and Stephen Zawistowski, Eds. @ASPCA @ASPCApro Published earlier this year, this book explores the behavior side of animal sheltering and rescue. It is a great resource for anyone in the field, whether a volunteer or a professional. Alexandra Horowitz and I wrote the first chapter, Introduction to Dog Behavior, and the ASPCA made our chapter freely available! Click here to access the PDF. Dog Behaviour, Evolution, and Cognition Ádám Miklósi @FamDogProject Have you ever seen a dog textbook? Now you have. Welcome to the second edition of Miklósi’s text introducing readers to the hows and whys of studying dog behavior, cognition and the dog-human relationship. Filled to the brim with primary research. The Social Dog: Behavior and Cognition Juliane Kaminski and Sarah Marshall-Pescini, Eds. "This edited volume includes chapters from leading researchers in the fields of social cognition and behavior, vocalization, evolution, and more, focusing on topics including dog-dog and dog-human interaction, bonding with humans, social behavior and learning, and more. As the number of published studies increases, this book aims to give the reader an overview of the state of the art on dog research, with an emphasis on social behavior and socio-cognitive skills.” Domestic Dog Cognition and Behavior: The Scientific Study of Canis familiaris Alexandra Horowitz, Ed. @DogUmwelt "This book highlights the state of the field in the new, provocative line of research into the cognition and behavior of the domestic dog. Eleven chapters from leading researchers describe innovative methods from comparative psychology, ethology and behavioral biology, which are combined to create a more comprehensive picture of the behavior of Canis familiaris than ever before. This volume reflects a modern shift in science toward considering and studying domestic dogs for their own sake, not only insofar as they reflect back on human beings.” Companion Animal Ethics Peter Sandøe, Sandra Corr, Clare Palmer What happens when we open our homes to other species? Sandøe and colleagues explore the ethical questions and challenges that arise as a result of humans keeping animals as companions. Topics include obesity, behavior issues, selective breeding, over-treatment, abandonment, euthanasia, environmental impacts, neutering, and more. There’s a lot of cruddy information out there about dogs. There, I said it. While these aren’t the only books to highlight the growing field of what we know (and don’t know) about dogs, they’re at the top of my list. And I slipped one in about cats. The Other End of the Leash: Why We Do What We Do Around Dogs Patricia McConnell Meet the book that got me into the field of applied ethology, for which I am forever grateful. “Although humans and dogs share a remarkable relationship that is unique in the animal world, we are still two entirely different species, each shaped by our individual evolutionary heritage. Since we each speak a different native tongue, a lot gets lost in the translation.” This book will help you get lost in translation less. Inside of a Dog: What Dogs See, Smell, and Know Alexandra Horowitz @DogUmwelt “This book is as close as you can get to knowing about dogs without being a dog yourself.“ This highly acclaimed book invites readers into the sensory and cognitive world of the dog. A book that deeply affects its readers — myself included. Dog Sense: How the New Science of Dog Behavior Can Make You A Better Friend to Your Pet John Bradshaw @petsandus It’s easy to say that dogs are man’s best friend, but living up to it is the hard part. Anthrozoologist John Bradshaw helps us get there. Cat Sense: How the New Feline Science Can Make You a Better Friend to Your Pet John Bradshaw @petsandus Like , but with cats! Bradshaw has pioneered reams of research on cat behavior and cognition and produced a must-read for cat lovers. No, your cat does not want to kill you. I WANT MY DOG TO STOP DOING… For all the talk of love and friendship, dogs and humans are not always on the same page. Understanding where dogs are coming from is the first step to decreasing unwanted behavior, and these books can help you get there. And you'll find many of the same techniques used to train dogs to drive cars! Decoding Your Dog: Explaining Common Dog Behaviors and How to Prevent or Change Unwanted Ones Debra Horwitz, Ed., and contributors John Ciribassi, Steve Dale, and the American College of Veterinary Behaviorists @DebraHDVM Unwanted behavior is the number-one reason dogs are given up to shelters, and guess what? We can very often decrease unwanted behavior! In this book, board-certified specialists of the American College of Veterinary Behaviorists combine cutting-edge science with accessible real-life examples to help dogs and owners get on the same page. 12 Terrible Dog Training Mistakes Owners Make That Ruin Their Dog's Behavior...And How To Avoid Them Suzanne Hetts @SuzanneHetts "Learn to avoid the harmful mistakes that make your dog's behavior worse and keep you and your family annoyed and frustrated." A great book from Hetts, a respected leader in the field of applied animal behavior. Beware the Straw Man: The Science Dog Explores Dog Training Fact & Fiction Linda Case @ScienceDogBlog Welcome to a skeptic's look at commonly held beliefs about dog behavior and training. In 32 essays, Case discusses new studies of dog behavior, cognition and training and provides thought-provoking analysis of the findings. Beloved Dog Maira Kalman @MairaKalman A beautiful and touching read, Kalman shares her personal story from dog-phobic youngster to rampant appreciator. Check out the book trailer where Kalman connects with her subjects -- my favorite part starts at 1:26 where the little black dog seems to cry out, “HANDS! Your hands must have food in them!” The Dogs of Littlefield Suzanne Berne Not about dogs, instead, a mystery featuring dogs. I was sent an advanced copy and, while I’m just getting started, I’m enjoying how Berne — an Orange Prize winner — captures the many faces of dog people. The book takes place in a seemingly charmed town now overrun by mysterious dog poisonings. That there is the twist. I’m hooked. AND THERE'S MORE! Wondering how to decide what to feed your dog? New dog in the home? Want to know how Chaser the Border Collie came to learn upwards of 1,000 words? How do dogs detect different scents, from cancer to cadavers? See the following reviews I've published here and at Do You Believe in Dog? a pen-pal style canine science blog with my colleague, Mia Cobb: Would Your Dog Make a Good Cadaver Detection Dog? A review of What the Dog Knows: Scent, Science, and the Amazing Ways Dogs Perceive the World by Cat Warren @Cat_Warren How to Teach Language to Dogs. A review of Chaser: Unlocking the Genius of the Dog Who Knows a Thousand Words by John Pilley and Hilary Hinzmann @ChasertheBC What Should You Feed Your Dog? Get to know Dog Food Logic: Making Smart Decisions for Your Dog in an Age of Too Many Choices by Linda Case @ScienceDogBlog Books for Before & After You Get a Puppy/Dog. A list of highly-regarded books. @DoUBelieveInDog

News Article | July 11, 2015
Site: venturebeat.com

It’s been an exciting couple of weeks for the container industry. At DockerCon in San Francisco the week of June 22, a lot of interesting news came out from Docker itself, and the rest of the community. One of the most meaningful announcements was the Open Container Project (OCP), a project led by Docker and CoreOS to establish an open standard for container formats. While this might sound boring, that’s also the point. Defining standards is a boring process for most people, but a standards war can nevertheless be extremely disruptive for a young industry. A recent example of a standards war that stalled an industry’s growth was seen in the Blu-ray vs. HD DVD format. As major video manufacturers proposed alternative standards for DVDs, consumers decided to wait and see who the winner would be, instead of prematurely buying a new device (they probably should have just waited a couple more years for better video streaming but that is a different story). Ben Golub, the chief executive of Docker, uses another example to illustrate the wasted effort of format wars: the width of train tracks. Instead of debating endlessly the standard width for laying track, it is better to focus on building a better engine. Here’s a closer look into the details of the OCP and what was actually announced. The OCP exists to create an “open container format.” This format defines things like container image format and runtime environment. Docker has donated its libcontainer project to the OCP foundation. Now called runC, this project forms the technical foundation of the OCP. The App Container project, appc, from CoreOS will also form a large part of the new OCP format. appc is known mostly for its association with rkt (rkt is an implementation of the appc standard). According to Alex Polvi, the chief executive of CoreOS, “We believe most of the core concepts from App Container will form an important part of OCP.” The OCP is housed under the Linux Foundation and counts 21 members at the time of this writing. The OCP is great news for container users for three main reasons. First, by focusing early on creating an open standard, the OCP makes it less likely that users will be locked into technology or tools because of low-level implementation details. Anyone who has ever spent $19 on a simple power adapter for their iPhone knows the costs of not choosing open standards (a functionally similar USB adapter for an Android device can cost dollars; a fraction of the cost). Lowering the possibility of vendor lock-in has immediate benefits for users. We’ve seen that standards wars tend to make users wait and see before they make a technology decision. If the incentives to wait are reduced, users can adopt technology more quickly, accelerating a company’s growth and development past its less savvy competitors. Finally, the OCP will accelerate the creation of tools around the container. When a standards war takes place, tool makers, like users, are faced with choices about which standard to support. The analysis that goes into making this decision is time consuming and thus costly; each hour spent predicting winners is an hour not spent solving a customer pain. In situations where it is unclear which competing standard will emerge as the winner, tool developers are often forced to support two competing standards, an even more costly situation. As a tools maker myself, I am particularly glad we’re avoiding this for the container industry. The OCP is unequivocally good news. However, that doesn’t mean that all the work is done. There can be a dark side to open standards: back-room dealings and unnecessary complexity as competing interests fight to define the standard. Docker and CoreOS are joined by 19 other founding members of the OCP. That translates to a lot of voices in the room and it is possible that some members will have a vested interest in either slowing down, or changing the direction of the standard to suit their interest. Notwithstanding its meteoric rise and real customer pains it solves, OpenStack has been seen by some to have suffered from some of these issues. The result being that OpenStack is more complex than it needs to be and consequently has suffered in terms of adoption. In my opinion, avoiding escalating complexity is of the utmost importance to the newly formed OCP. It has indeed been an exciting couple of weeks. With the OCP gaining steam, may the next couple of years be filled with just as much excitement for the entire container ecosystem. Luke Marsden has 12 years of experience building web apps & running a web hosting company. Inspired by the practical operational problems faced running web apps in production, he started ClusterHQ. He is now the startup’s chief technology officer.

Seehuus B.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Blokhuis H.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Mendl M.,Animal Behaviour and Welfare | Keeling L.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica A: Animal Sciences | Year: 2012

The goal of this study was to design an experimental set-up which would encourage chicks to perform behavioural phases that are traditionally labelled as "appetitive", "consummatory" and "post-consummatory", in different areas of the pen. This concept aims to link these phases, to related positive emotions. In this model, appetitive motivational state is linked to the seeking/wanting of a resource, a consummatory motivational state is linked with sensory pleasure and a post-consummatory motivational state is associated with satiety/relaxation. The study focused on foraging-related behaviours in chicks. A pen was designed with three equally sized areas, a litter, feed and dark area. The results showed that it was possible to at least partially separate appetitive, consummatory and post-consummatory behaviour and that the chicks were highly synchronized in their behaviour and their use of the pen areas. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

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