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Khaustov A.A.,Tyumen State University | Lee J.-H.,Animal and Plant Quarantine Agency QIA | Lee Y.-S.,Gyeonggi Agricultural Research and Extension Service | Kim J.R.,National Academy of Aricultural Science
Acarina | Year: 2014

A new species of the genus Pediculaster Vitzthum, 1931 (Acari: Pygmephoroidea: Pygmephoridae), P. neutarii sp. n. is described from edible oyster mushrooms, Pleurotus ostreatus, in South Korea. A potential significance of the new species as pest of edible fungi is discussed. © Acarina 2014. Source

Lim S.-I.,Animal and Plant Quarantine Agency QIA | Song J.-Y.,Animal and Plant Quarantine Agency QIA | Kim J.,Animal and Plant Quarantine Agency QIA | Hyun B.-H.,Animal and Plant Quarantine Agency QIA | And 6 more authors.
Vaccine | Year: 2016

The present study aimed to evaluate the safety of the classical swine fever virus (CSFV) vaccine strain LOM in pregnant sows. Pregnant sows with free CSFV antibody were inoculated with a commercial LOM vaccine during early pregnancy (day 38; n = 3) or mid-pregnancy (days 49-59; n = 11). In pregnant sows vaccinated during the early stages of gestation, abortion (day 109) was observed in one case, with two stillbirths and seven mummified fetuses. The viability of live-born piglets was 34.9% in sows vaccinated during mid-pregnancy compared with 81.8% in the control group. Post-mortem examination of the organs of the sows and piglets did not reveal any pathological lesions caused by CSFV; however, CSFV RNA was detected in the organs of several vaccinated sows and their litters. The LOM strain was transmitted from sows with free CSFV antibody to their fetus, but did not appear to induce immune tolerance in the offspring from vaccinated pregnant sows. Side effects were not observed in pregnant sows with antibody to the LOM strain: transmission from sow to their litters and stillbirth or mummified fetuses. The LOM strain may induce sterile immunity and provide rapid, long-lasting, and complete protection against CSFV; however, it should be contraindicated in pregnant sows due to potential adverse effects in pregnant sows with free CSFV antibody. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Rhyoo M.-Y.,Animal and Plant Quarantine Agency QIA | Rhyoo M.-Y.,Kyungpook National University | Lee K.-H.,Animal and Plant Quarantine Agency QIA | Moon O.-K.,Animal and Plant Quarantine Agency QIA | And 9 more authors.
Avian Pathology | Year: 2015

We compared the clinical signs, histopathological lesions and distribution of viral antigens among infected young (meat-type) and older (breeder) ducks that were naturally infected with the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus during the 2010–2011 Korean outbreak. The meat-type ducks had a high mortality rate (30%) and showed severe neurological signs such as head tremors and paresis. In contrast, HPAI-infected breeder ducks had minimal clinical signs but a decreased egg production rate. The histopathological characteristics of infected meat-type ducks included necrotic lesions of heart and brain, which may have primarily contributed to the high mortality rate. In contrast, the breeder ducks only presented necrotic splenitis, and viral antigens were only detected in the trachea, lungs and spleen. Younger ducks had a high viral titre in the organs, high levels of viral shedding and a high mortality rate after experimental HPAI virus infection. Compared to the breeder ducks, the meat-type ducks were raised in smaller farms that had poor quarantine and breeding facilities. It is therefore possible that better biosecurity in the breeder farms could have reduced the infection dose and subsequently the severity of the disease. Thus, age and management may be the influencing factors for HPAI susceptibility in ducks. © 2015 Houghton Trust Ltd. Source

Ahn A.-J.,Chonnam National University | Ahn K.-S.,Chonnam National University | Noh J.-H.,Animal and Plant Quarantine Agency QIA | Kim Y.-H.,Animal and Plant Quarantine Agency QIA | And 4 more authors.
Korean Journal of Parasitology | Year: 2015

Acarapis mites, including Acarapis woodi, Acarapis externus, and Acarapis dorsalis, are parasites of bees which can cause severe damage to the bee industry by destroying colonies and decreasing honey production. All 3 species are prevalent throughout many countries including UK, USA, Iran, Turkey, China, and Japan. Based on previous reports of Acarapis mites occurring in northeast Asia, including China and Japan, we investigated a survey of Acarapis mite infestations in honey bees in Korean apiaries. A total of 99 colonies of Apis mellifera were sampled from 5 provinces. The head and thorax of 20 bees from each colony were removed for DNA extraction. PCR assays were performed with 3 primer sets, including T, A, and K primers. Results indicated that 42.4% (42/99) of samples were Acarapis-positive by PCR assay which were sequenced to identify species. Each sequence showed 92.6-99.3% homology with reference sequences. Based on the homology, the number of colonies infected with A. dorsalis was 32 which showed the highest infection rate among the 3 species, while the number of colonies infected with A. externus and A. woodi was 9 and 1, respectively. However, none of the Acarapis mites were morphologically detected. This result could be explained that all apiaries in the survey used acaricides against bee mites such as Varroa destructor and Tropilaelaps clareae which also affect against Acarapis mites. Based on this study, it is highly probable that Acarapis mites as well as Varroa and Tropilaelaps could be prevalent in Korean apiaries. © 2015, Korean Society for Parasitology and Tropical Medicine. Source

Hill S.C.,University of Oxford | Lee Y.-J.,Animal and Plant Quarantine Agency QIA | Song B.-M.,Animal and Plant Quarantine Agency QIA | Kang H.-M.,Animal and Plant Quarantine Agency QIA | And 6 more authors.
Infection, Genetics and Evolution | Year: 2015

Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses threaten human and animal health yet their emergence is poorly understood, partly because sampling of the HPAI Asian-origin H5N1 lineage immediately after its identification in 1996 was comparatively sparse. The discovery of a novel H5N8 virus in 2013 provides a new opportunity to investigate HPAI emergence in greater detail. Here we investigate the origin and transmission of H5N8 in the Republic of Korea, the second country to report the new strain. We reconstruct viral spread using phylogeographic methods and interpret the results in the context of ecological data on poultry density, overwintering wild bird numbers, and bird migration patterns. Our results indicate that wild waterfowl migration and domestic duck density were important to H5N8 epidemiology. Specifically, we infer that H5N8 entered the Republic of Korea via Jeonbuk province, then spread rapidly among western provinces where densities of overwintering waterfowl and domestic ducks are higher, yet rarely persisted in eastern regions. The common ancestor of H5N8 in the Republic of Korea was estimated to have arrived during the peak of inward migration of overwintering birds. Recent virus isolations likely represent re-introductions via bird migration from an as-yet unsampled reservoir. Based on the limited data from outside the Republic of Korea, our data suggest that H5N8 may have entered Europe at least twice, and Asia at least three times from this reservoir, most likely carried by wild migrating birds. © 2015 The Authors. Source

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