Animal and Plant Health Agency APHA Weybridge

Addlestone, United Kingdom

Animal and Plant Health Agency APHA Weybridge

Addlestone, United Kingdom

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Chianini F.,Moredun Research Institute | Cosseddu G.M.,Instituto Superiore Of Sanita | Cosseddu G.M.,Instituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale Dellabruzzo E Del Molise G Caporale | Steele P.,Moredun Research Institute | And 15 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

The transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) or prion diseases are a group of fatal neurodegenerative disorders characterised by the accumulation of a pathological form of a host protein known as prion protein (PrP). The validation of abnormal PrP detection techniques is fundamental to allow the use of high-throughput laboratory based tests, avoiding the limitations of bioassays.We used scrapie, a prototype TSE, to examine the relationship between infectivity and laboratory based diagnostic tools. The data may help to optimise strategies to prevent exposure of humans to small ruminant TSE material via the food chain. Abnormal PrP distribution/accumulation was assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC), Western blot (WB) and ELISA in samples from four animals. In addition, infectivity was detected using a sensitive bank vole bioassay with selected samples from two of the four sheep and protein misfolding cyclic amplification using bank vole brain as substrate (vPMCA) was also carried out in selected samples from one animal. Lymph nodes, oculomotor muscles, sciatic nerve and kidney were positive by IHC, WB and ELISA, although at levels 100-1000 fold lower than the brain, and contained detectable infectivity by bioassay. Tissues not infectious by bioassay were also negative by all laboratory tests including PMCA. Although discrepancies were observed in tissues with very low levels of abnormal PrP, there was an overall good correlation between IHC, WB, ELISA and bioassay results. Most importantly, there was a good correlation between the detection of abnormal PrP in tissues using laboratory tests and the levels of infectivity even when the titre was low. These findings provide useful information for risk modellers and represent a first step toward the validation of laboratory tests used to quantify prion infectivity, which would greatly aid TSE risk assessment policies. © 2015 Chianini et al.


Day M.J.,Public Health England | Rodriguez I.,Federal Institute for Risk Assessment BfR | Rodriguez I.,University Hospital Ramon jal And Instituto Ramon jal Of Investigacion Sanitaria Irycis | van Essen-Zandbergen A.,Central Veterinary Institute CVI of Wageningen UR | And 16 more authors.
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy | Year: 2016

Objectives: This study aimed to compare ESBL-producing Escherichia coli causing infections in humans with infecting or commensal isolates from animals and isolates from food of animal origin in terms of the strain types, the ESBL gene present and the plasmids that carry the respective ESBL genes. Methods: A collection of 353 ESBL-positive E. coli isolates from the UK, the Netherlands and Germany were studied by MLST and ESBL genes were identified. Characterization of ESBL gene-carrying plasmids was performed using PCR-based replicon typing. Moreover, IncI1-Iγ and IncN plasmids were characterized by plasmid MLST. Results: The ESBL-producing E. coli represented 158 different STs with ST131, ST10 and ST88 being the most common. Overall, blaCTX-M-1 was the most frequently detected ESBL gene, followed by blaCTX-M-15, which was the most common ESBL gene in the human isolates. The most common plasmid replicon type overall was IncI1-Ig followed by multiple IncF replicons. Conclusions: ESBL genes were present in a wide variety of E. coli STs. IncI1-Iγ plasmids that carried the blaCTX-M-1 gene were widely disseminated amongst STs in isolates from animals and humans, whereas other plasmids and STs appeared to be more restricted to isolates from specific hosts. © The Author 2016.


PubMed | Zoological Society of London, Animal and Plant Health Agency APHA Weybridge and Chester Zoo
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2015

Schmallenberg virus (SBV) is an emerging Orthobunyavirus, first described in 2011 in cattle in Germany and subsequently spread throughout Europe, affecting mainly ruminant livestock through the induction of foetal malformations. To gain a better understanding of the spectrum of susceptible species and to assess the value of current SBV serological assays, screening of serum samples from exotic artiodactyls and perissodactyls collected at the Living Collections from the Zoological Society of London (Whipsnade and London Zoos) and Chester Zoo was carried out. There was compelling evidence of SBV infection in both zoological collections. The competitive ELISA has proved to be applicable for the detection of SBV in exotic Bovidae, Cervidae, Suidae, Giraffidae and most notably in endangered Asian elephants (Elephas maximus), but unreliable for the screening of Camelidae, for which the plaque reduction neutralisation test was considered the assay of choice.


PubMed | Moredun Research Institute, Animal and Plant Health Agency APHA Weybridge, Animal and Plant Health Agency APHA Lasswade and Instituto Superiore Of Sanita
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2015

The transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) or prion diseases are a group of fatal neurodegenerative disorders characterised by the accumulation of a pathological form of a host protein known as prion protein (PrP). The validation of abnormal PrP detection techniques is fundamental to allow the use of high-throughput laboratory based tests, avoiding the limitations of bioassays. We used scrapie, a prototype TSE, to examine the relationship between infectivity and laboratory based diagnostic tools. The data may help to optimise strategies to prevent exposure of humans to small ruminant TSE material via the food chain. Abnormal PrP distribution/accumulation was assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC), Western blot (WB) and ELISA in samples from four animals. In addition, infectivity was detected using a sensitive bank vole bioassay with selected samples from two of the four sheep and protein misfolding cyclic amplification using bank vole brain as substrate (vPMCA) was also carried out in selected samples from one animal. Lymph nodes, oculomotor muscles, sciatic nerve and kidney were positive by IHC, WB and ELISA, although at levels 100-1000 fold lower than the brain, and contained detectable infectivity by bioassay. Tissues not infectious by bioassay were also negative by all laboratory tests including PMCA. Although discrepancies were observed in tissues with very low levels of abnormal PrP, there was an overall good correlation between IHC, WB, ELISA and bioassay results. Most importantly, there was a good correlation between the detection of abnormal PrP in tissues using laboratory tests and the levels of infectivity even when the titre was low. These findings provide useful information for risk modellers and represent a first step toward the validation of laboratory tests used to quantify prion infectivity, which would greatly aid TSE risk assessment policies.


Snary E.L.,Animal and Plant Health Agency APHA Weybridge | Swart A.N.,Center for Infectious Disease Control | Simons R.R.L.,Animal and Plant Health Agency APHA Weybridge | Domingues A.R.C.,Technical University of Denmark | And 4 more authors.
Risk Analysis | Year: 2016

A farm-to-consumption quantitative microbiological risk assessment (QMRA) for Salmonella in pigs in the European Union has been developed for the European Food Safety Authority. The primary aim of the QMRA was to assess the impact of hypothetical reductions of slaughter-pig prevalence and the impact of control measures on the risk of human Salmonella infection. A key consideration during the QMRA development was the characterization of variability between E.U. Member States (MSs), and therefore a generic MS model was developed that accounts for differences in pig production, slaughterhouse practices, and consumption patterns. To demonstrate the parameterization of the model, four case study MSs were selected that illustrate the variability in production of pork meat and products across MSs. For the case study MSs the average probability of illness was estimated to be between 1 in 100,000 and 1 in 10 million servings given consumption of one of the three product types considered (pork cuts, minced meat, and fermented ready-to-eat sausages). Further analyses of the farm-to-consumption QMRA suggest that the vast majority of human risk derives from infected pigs with a high concentration of Salmonella in their feces (≥104 CFU/g). Therefore, it is concluded that interventions should be focused on either decreasing the level of Salmonella in the feces of infected pigs, the introduction of a control step at the abattoir to reduce the transfer of feces to the exterior of the pig, or a control step to reduce the level of Salmonella on the carcass post-evisceration. © 2016 Society for Risk Analysis.


PubMed | Animal and Plant Health Agency APHA Weybridge, Center for Infectious Disease Control and Technical University of Denmark
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Risk analysis : an official publication of the Society for Risk Analysis | Year: 2016

A farm-to-consumption quantitative microbiological risk assessment (QMRA) for Salmonella in pigs in the European Union has been developed for the European Food Safety Authority. The primary aim of the QMRA was to assess the impact of hypothetical reductions of slaughter-pig prevalence and the impact of control measures on the risk of human Salmonella infection. A key consideration during the QMRA development was the characterization of variability between E.U. Member States (MSs), and therefore a generic MS model was developed that accounts for differences in pig production, slaughterhouse practices, and consumption patterns. To demonstrate the parameterization of the model, four case study MSs were selected that illustrate the variability in production of pork meat and products across MSs. For the case study MSs the average probability of illness was estimated to be between 1 in 100,000 and 1 in 10 million servings given consumption of one of the three product types considered (pork cuts, minced meat, and fermented ready-to-eat sausages). Further analyses of the farm-to-consumption QMRA suggest that the vast majority of human risk derives from infected pigs with a high concentration of Salmonella in their feces (10(4) CFU/g). Therefore, it is concluded that interventions should be focused on either decreasing the level of Salmonella in the feces of infected pigs, the introduction of a control step at the abattoir to reduce the transfer of feces to the exterior of the pig, or a control step to reduce the level of Salmonella on the carcass post-evisceration.


Cheney T.E.A.,Animal and Plant Health Agency APHA Weybridge | Smith R.P.,Animal and Plant Health Agency APHA Weybridge | Hutchinson J.P.,APHA Newcastle | Brunton L.A.,Animal and Plant Health Agency APHA Weybridge | And 2 more authors.
Epidemiology and Infection | Year: 2015

Between 2005 and 2007, E. coli obtained from clinical diagnostic submissions from cattle, goats, pigs and sheep to government laboratories in England and Wales were tested for sensitivity to 16 antimicrobials. Resistance was most commonly observed against ampicillin, streptomycin, sulphonamides and tetracyclines. Resistance levels varied significantly between species, with isolates from cattle frequently showing the highest levels. Verocytotoxigenic E. coli (VTEC) expressed less resistance than non-VTEC. Only 19·3% of non-VTEC and 43·5% of VTEC were susceptible to all antimicrobials, while 47·1% and 30·4%, respectively, were resistant to ≥5 antimicrobials. The resistance phenotype SSuT was commonly observed, and isolates resistant to third-generation cephalosporins were also identified. We recommend judicious antimicrobial usage in the livestock industry in order to preserve efficacy. Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2015.


Davies R.,Animal and Plant Health Agency APHA Weybridge | Gosling R.J.,Animal and Plant Health Agency APHA Weybridge | Wales A.D.,Animal and Plant Health Agency APHA Weybridge | Smith R.P.,Animal and Plant Health Agency APHA Weybridge
Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases | Year: 2016

The study examined the effects of a licensed live Salmonella Typhimurium vaccine, administered to sows and gilts on three commercial pig units experiencing clinical salmonellosis associated with S. Typhimurium or its monophasic variant. After vaccination, clinical salmonellosis resolved and shedding of S. Typhimurium declined markedly and persistently on all breeding or breeding-finishing units, during the one- to two-year monitoring period. On two finishing units supplied in part by one of the vaccinated herds, pigs from the vaccinated herd were less likely to shed Salmonella than those from non-vaccinating herds, and Salmonella counts in faeces were also lower from the vaccine-linked animals. Non-Typhimurium Salmonella serovars were isolated typically in fewer than 10% of samples, and showed no clear temporal changes in frequency. Vaccination of dams alone with S. Typhimurium was associated with reduced shedding of closely-related serovars among all age groups in this commercial setting. © 2016.Published by Elsevier Ltd.


PubMed | Animal and Plant Health Agency APHA Weybridge
Type: | Journal: Comparative immunology, microbiology and infectious diseases | Year: 2016

The study examined the effects of a licensed live Salmonella Typhimurium vaccine, administered to sows and gilts on three commercial pig units experiencing clinical salmonellosis associated with S. Typhimurium or its monophasic variant. After vaccination, clinical salmonellosis resolved and shedding of S. Typhimurium declined markedly and persistently on all breeding or breeding-finishing units, during the one- to two-year monitoring period. On two finishing units supplied in part by one of the vaccinated herds, pigs from the vaccinated herd were less likely to shed Salmonella than those from non-vaccinating herds, and Salmonella counts in faeces were also lower from the vaccine-linked animals. Non-Typhimurium Salmonella serovars were isolated typically in fewer than 10% of samples, and showed no clear temporal changes in frequency. Vaccination of dams alone with S. Typhimurium was associated with reduced shedding of closely-related serovars among all age groups in this commercial setting.


PubMed | Animal and Plant Health Agency APHA Weybridge
Type: | Journal: Research in veterinary science | Year: 2016

The aim of this study was to investigate the bacterial strains and farm environment that may contribute to the persistence of ESBL-producing E. coli on a single UK dairy farm. A longitudinal study was conducted comprising 6 visits, between August and October 2010, followed by a further visit at approximately 69weeks after the initial visit. Faecal and environmental samples were collected from different parts of the farm. The persistence and extent of faecal shedding of ESBL E. coli by individual calves was also determined. Twenty two different PFGE types were identified. Four of these were persistent during the study period and were associated with serotypes: O98, O55, O141 and O33. The counts suggest that shedding in calf faeces was an important factor for the persistence of strains, and the data will be useful for parameterising mathematical models of the spread and persistence of ESBL strains within a dairy farm.

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