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Addlestone, United Kingdom

Dudek K.,National Veterinary Research Institute | Bednarek D.,National Veterinary Research Institute | Ayling R.D.,Animal and Plant Health Agency Weybridge | Kycko A.,National Veterinary Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Vaccine | Year: 2016

Mycoplasma bovis is a major pathogen affecting cattle causing bronchopneumonia, mastitis, and other disorders. Only autogenous vaccines made specifically for individual farms are available in parts of Europe and the United States. A novel experimental vaccine composed of a field M. bovis isolate combined with saponin and Emulsigen® adjuvants was evaluated. Eighteen 3-4 week old calves were placed in three equal groups: vaccinated (Vac), positive control (PC) and negative control (NC). The Vac calves were subcutaneously injected with 8 ml of the vaccine the PC and NC calves received phosphate buffered saline (PBS). Three weeks later the Vac and PC calves were challenged with a virulent M. bovis strain, the NC group received PBS. Throughout the study clinical observations, microbiology and immunological tests were carried out. Three weeks post challenge two calves from each group were euthanased for necropsy and histopathological examination. The vaccine effectively stimulated the humoral immune response, with high titres of anti-M. bovis specific antibodies and total Ig concentration. This vaccine also intensified the IgA response. A clinically protective effect of the vaccine was demonstrated as it also reduced the gross pathological lung lesions and nasal shedding of M. bovis. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

Shuttleworth C.M.,Bangor University | Signorile A.L.,26 Union Road | Everest D.J.,Animal and Plant Health Agency Weybridge | Duff J.P.,Animal and Plant Health Agency Penrith Merrythought | Lurz P.W.W.,University of Edinburgh
Hystrix | Year: 2015

Red squirrel (Sciurus vulgaris) mortality was monitored opportunistically during the period 2004 to 2013 on the island of Anglesey in North Wales. Road traffic proved a most significant cause of death (48%) mirroring the findings of earlier United Kingdom (UK) studies. Red squirrels were also found to have died from a range of pathological infections and disease previously unrecorded in Wales. These data have increased our knowledge on the national distribution of such causal factors. The study found male red squirrels were less likely to have an adenovirus infection than females and that animals dying from disease had a lower body mass than those associated with a traumatic death. No red squirrels were found with squirrelpox infection or antibodies to this virus which reinforces earlier findings from Anglesey that intensive grey squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis) culling reduced the prevalence of this infection within sympatric populations. Finally we highlight the potential intra and inter-specific infection risk presented by supplemental feeding. © 2015 Associazione Teriologica Italiana.

Xerxa E.,International School for Advanced Studies | Barbisin M.,International School for Advanced Studies | Chieppa M.N.,Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale del Piemonte Liguria e Valle dAosta | Krmac H.,International School for Advanced Studies | And 7 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2016

Prion diseases, such as bovine spongiform encephalopathies (BSE), are transmissible neurodegenerative disorders affecting humans and a wide variety of mammals. Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD), a prion disease in humans, has been linked to exposure to BSE prions. This classical BSE (cBSE) is now rapidly disappearing as a result of appropriate measures to control animal feeding. Besides cBSE, two atypical forms (named Hand L-type BSE) have recently been described in Europe, Japan, and North America. Here we describe the first wide-spectrum microarray analysis in whole blood of atypical BSEinfected cattle. Transcriptome changes in infected animals were analyzed prior to and after the onset of clinical signs. The microarray analysis revealed gene expression changes in blood prior to the appearance of the clinical signs and during the progression of the disease. A set of 32 differentially expressed genes was found to be in common between clinical and preclinical stages and showed a very similar expression pattern in the two phases. A 22-gene signature showed an oscillating pattern of expression, being differentially expressed in the preclinical stage and then going back to control levels in the symptomatic phase. One gene, SEL1L3, was downregulated during the progression of the disease. Most of the studies performed up to date utilized various tissues, which are not suitable for a rapid analysis of infected animals and patients. Our findings suggest the intriguing possibility to take advantage of whole blood RNA transcriptional profiling for the preclinical identification of prion infection. Further, this study highlighted several pathways, such as immune response and metabolism that may play an important role in peripheral prion pathogenesis. Finally, the gene expression changes identified in the present study may be further investigated as a fingerprint for monitoring the progression of disease and for developing targeted therapeutic interventions. © 2016 Xerxa et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Adlhoch C.,U.S. Center for Disease Control and Prevention | Gossner C.,U.S. Center for Disease Control and Prevention | Gossner C.,Maastricht University | Koch G.,Wageningen University | And 5 more authors.
Eurosurveillance | Year: 2014

Since the beginning of November 2014, nine outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) A(H5N8) in poultry have been detected in four European countries. In this report, similarities and differences between the modes of introduction of HPAIV A(H5N1) and A(H5N8) into Europe are described. Experiences from outbreaks of A(H5N1) in Europe demonstrated that early detection to control HPAIV in poultry has proven pivotal to minimise the risk of zoonotic transmission and prevention of human cases. © 2014 European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC). All rights reserved.

King H.C.,University of Warwick | Murphy A.,University of Warwick | James P.,University of Warwick | Travis E.,University of Warwick | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Microbiology | Year: 2015

The incidence of Mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis, in cattle herds in the United Kingdom is increasing, resulting in substantial economic losses. The European badger (Meles meles) is implicated as a wildlife reservoir and is the subject of control measures aimed at reducing the incidence of infection in cattle populations. Understanding the epidemiology of M. bovis in badger populations is essential for directing control interventions and understanding disease spread; however, accurate diagnosis in live animals is challenging and currently uses invasive methods. Here we present a noninvasive diagnostic procedure and sampling regimen using field sampling of latrines and detection of M. bovis with quantitative PCR tests, the results of which strongly correlate with the results of immunoassays in the field at the social group level. This method allows M. bovis infections in badger populations to be monitored without trapping and provides additional information on the quantities of bacterial DNA shed. Therefore, our approach may provide valuable insights into the epidemiology of bovine tuberculosis in badger populations and inform disease control interventions. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

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