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Li B.,Anhui University | Li B.,Anhui Biodiversity Information Center | Zhou L.,Anhui University | Zhou L.,Anhui Biodiversity Information Center | And 3 more authors.
Mitochondrial DNA | Year: 2016

The mitochondrial DNA of Naumann’s thrush Turdus naumanni (Passeriformes: Turdidae) is 16,750 bp long with A + T contents of 52.79%. It has typical circular mitochondrial genomes that encode the complete set of 37 genes which are usually found in birds. All protein-coding genes use the standard mitochondrial initiation codon ATG, except for ND2 and COI start with GTG. TAN is the most frequent stop codon, and AGN and T– – are also occurred very common. All tRNAs possess the classic clover leaf secondary structure except for tRNASer(AGN) and tRNALys(CUN), which lack the ‘‘DHU’’ stem, only forming a simple loop. © 2014 Informa UK Ltd.


Li B.,Anhui University | Li B.,Anhui Biodiversity Information Center | Liu G.,Anhui University | Liu G.,Anhui Biodiversity Information Center | And 3 more authors.
Mitochondrial DNA | Year: 2015

In this study we report the complete mitochondrial (mt) DNA sequence from Cinereous vulture Aegypius monachus, a large raptorial bird species of Falconiformes. The mtDNA is a 17,811-bp circular molecule with a total A + T content of 54.03%. The mitochondrial genome contains 37 genes and an extra pseudo-control region. The gene arrangement pattern is identical to Buteo and Falco, which has remnant CR2 gene order. All protein-coding genes use the standard mitochondrial initiation codon ATN, except for COI start with GTG. Of the 13 protein coding genes, 11 stop with TAN, the COI and ND1 stop with AGG. All tRNAs possess the classic clover-leaf secondary structure except for tRNASer (AGN) and tRNALys (CUN), which lacks the "DHU" stem, only forming a simple loop. The non-coding region contains some intergenic spacers, a control region and an extra pseudo-control region. © 2014 © 2014 Informa UK Ltd.


Liu G.,Anhui University | Liu G.,Anhui Biodiversity Information Center | Zhou L.,Anhui University | Zhou L.,Anhui Biodiversity Information Center | Gu C.,Natural Conservation and Management Station of Anhui Province
Mitochondrial DNA | Year: 2014

The mitochondrial genome of Brown wood owl is a 16,308-bp circular molecule, which contains 37 typical mitochondrial genes (13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNAs and 22 tRNAs) and a 741-bp A + T-rich region. Its gene arrangement pattern is identical with typical bird species. All protein-coding genes start with an ATG codon. TAA is the most frequent stop codon, and TAG and T-are also occurred very common. The mtDNA sequence contains 12S rRNA and 16S rRNA of rRNA. Except for tRNASer (AGY)and tRNALeu (CUN)without the dihydrouridine (DHU) arm, all tRNAs could be folded into canonical cloverleaf secondary structures. © 2014 Informa UK Ltd.


Li C.,Anhui University | Li C.,Anhui Biodiversity Information Center | Zhou L.,Anhui University | Zhou L.,Anhui Biodiversity Information Center | And 3 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Due to loss and degradation of natural wetlands, waterbirds increasingly rely on surrounding human-dominated habitats to obtain food. Quantifying vigilance patterns, investigating the trade-off among various activities, and examining the underlying mechanisms will help us understand how waterbirds adapt to human-caused disturbances. During two successive winters (November-February of 2012-13 and 2013-14), we studied the hooded crane, Grus monacha, in the Shengjin Lake National Nature Reserve (NNR), China, to investigate how the species responds to human disturbances through vigilance and activity time-budget adjustments. Our results showed striking differences in the behavior of the cranes when foraging in the highly disturbed rice paddy fields found in the buffer zone compared with the degraded natural wetlands in the core area of the NNR. Time spent vigilant decreased with flock size and cranes spent more time vigilant in the human-dominated buffer zone. In the rice paddy fields, the birds were more vigilant but also fed more at the expense of locomotion and maintenance activities. Adult cranes spent more time vigilant and foraged less than juveniles. We recommend habitat recovery in natural wetlands and community co-management in the surrounding human-dominated landscape for conservation of the hooded crane and, generally, for the vast numbers of migratory waterbirds wintering in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River floodplain. © 2015 Li et al.


Chen L.,Anhui University | Chen L.,Anhui Biodiversity Information Center | Li B.,Anhui University | Li B.,Anhui Biodiversity Information Center | And 4 more authors.
Mitochondrial DNA | Year: 2016

Predatory carp Chanodichthys erythropterus is a small-sized economic cyprinid fish distributed in East Asia. We sequenced its complete mitochondrial genome by PCR-based method. The mitochondrial DNA is packaged in a compact 16,629 base pair (bp) circular molecule with A + T content of 56.1%. It contains 22 transfer RNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 2 ribosomal RNA genes, and the non-coding control region (D-loop). All PCGs are initiated by ATG codons, except for COI, which uses GTG as its start codon. Of the 13 PCGs, 12 stop with TAA and TAG, while Cyt b uses incomplete termination codon T. All tRNAs possess the classic cloverleaf secondary structure except for tRNASer(AGN), which lacks the ‘‘DHU’’ stem. © 2014 Informa UK Ltd.


Wang J.,Anhui University | Wang J.,Anhui Biodiversity Information Center | Liu G.,Anhui University | Liu G.,Anhui Biodiversity Information Center | And 10 more authors.
Mitochondrial DNA | Year: 2016

Cygnus columbianus jankowskii is a subspecies of Tundra swan, which breeds in eastern Russia and northeast China, wintering in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River. In this study, we used PCR-based method to obtain the complete mtDNA of this subspecies. The arrangement pattern of the complete mtDNA is identical with typical bird species, which is the shortest (16,723 bp) in three subspecies. The length of the PCGs is same except ND2, ND3 and ND6, and the initiation/termination codons are all same with other subspecies. The length of 12S rRNA and 16S rRNA is same with C. c. columbianus, but different from C. c. bewickii. The length and structure of all tRNAs are the same with other subspecies except for tRNAIle, tRNAleu(CUN) and tRNAser(AGY). The control region is located between tRNAPhe and tRNAGlu, but the length is different with others. © 2014 Informa UK Ltd.


Qing H.,Anhui University | Qing H.,Anhui Biodiversity Information Center | Liu G.,Anhui University | Liu G.,Anhui Biodiversity Information Center | And 9 more authors.
Mitochondrial DNA | Year: 2015

Yellow-browed warbler Phylloscopus inornatus inornatus (Passeriformes: Sylviidae) is a small insectivorous leaf-gleaning bird which breeds in forests of the east Palaearctic. In this study, we used PCR-based method to determine the complete mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) of this warbler species. The complete mtDNA is a 16,875 bp circular molecule, containing 37 typical genes and an extra pseudo-control region. The gene order differs from the standard gene order in birds, but similar to genus Sylvia and Acrocephalus, which has the remnant CR2 gene order. All protein-coding genes start with a typical ATG codon. The termination codon is usually the standard TAA, but may be TAG (Cyt b and ND6), AGG (COI) or incomplete T-(COIII and ND4). All tRNAs have the typical clover-leaf structure, except the dihydrouridine (DHU) arm of tRNASer (AGN) and tRNALys (CUN), which forms a simple loop. The non-coding region contains some intergenic spacers, a control region and an extra pseudo-control region. © 2014 © 2014 Informa UK Ltd.


Liu G.,Anhui University | Liu G.,Anhui Biodiversity Information Center | Zhou L.,Anhui University | Zhou L.,Anhui Biodiversity Information Center | And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Aix galericulata and Tadorna ferruginea are two Anatidae species representing different taxonomic groups of Anseriformes. We used a PCR-based method to determine the complete mtDNAs of both species, and estimated phylogenetic trees based on the complete mtDNA alignment of these and 14 other Anseriforme species, to clarify Anseriform phylogenetics. Phylogenetic trees were also estimated using a multiple sequence alignment of three mitochondrial genes (Cyt b, ND2, and COI) from 68 typical species in GenBank, to further clarify the phylogenetic relationships of several groups among the Anseriformes. The new mtDNAs are circular molecules, 16,651 bp (Aix galericulata) and 16,639 bp (Tadorna ferruginea) in length, containing the 37 typical genes, with an identical gene order and arrangement as those of other Anseriformes. Comparing the protein-coding genes among the mtDNAs of 16 Anseriforme species, ATG is generally the start codon, TAA is the most frequent stop codon, one of three, TAA, TAG, and T-, commonly observed. All tRNAs could be folded into canonical cloverleaf secondary structures except for tRNASer (AGY) and tRNALeu (CUN), which are missing the "DHU" arm. Phylogenetic relationships demonstrate that Aix galericula and Tadorna ferruginea are in the same group, the Tadorninae lineage, based on our analyses of complete mtDNAs and combined gene data. Molecular phylogenetic analysis suggests the 68 species of Anseriform birds be divided into three families: Anhimidae, Anatidae, and Anseranatidae. The results suggest Anatidae birds be divided into five subfamilies: Anatinae, Tadorninae, Anserinae, Oxyurinae, and Dendrocygninae. Oxyurinae and Dendrocygninae should not belong to Anserinae, but rather represent independent subfamilies. The Anatinae includes species from the tribes Mergini, Somaterini, Anatini, and Aythyini. The Anserinae includes species from the tribes Anserini and Cygnini. © 2014 Liu et al.

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