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Cui H.,Florida State University | Kong D.,Florida State University | Wei P.,Florida State University | Wei P.,Anhui Agricultural Academy of Science | And 4 more authors.
Molecular Plant | Year: 2014

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are harmful to all living organisms and therefore they must be removed to ensure normal growth and development. ROS are also signaling molecules, but so far little is known about the mechanisms of ROS perception and developmental response in plants. We here report that hydrogen peroxide induces cortex proliferation in the Arabidopsis root and that SPINDLY (SPY), an O-linked glucosamine acetyltransferase, regulates cortex proliferation by maintaining cellular redox homeostasis. We also found that mutation in the leucine-rich receptor kinase ERECTA and its putative peptide ligand STOMAGEN block the effect of hydrogen peroxide on root cortex proliferation. However, ERECTA and STOMAGEN are expressed in the vascular tissue, whereas extra cortex cells are produced from the endodermis, suggesting the involvement of intercellular signaling. SPY appears to act downstream of ERECTA, because the spy mutation still caused cortex proliferation in the erecta mutant background. We therefore have not only gained insight into the mechanism by which SPY regulates root development but also uncovered a novel pathway for ROS signaling in plants. The importance of redox-mediated cortex proliferation as a protective mechanism against oxidative stress is also discussed. © 2014 The Author.

Wu Y.,Sun Yat Sen University | He Z.,Sun Yat Sen University | Zhang L.,Sun Yat Sen University | Jiang H.,Anhui Agricultural Academy of Science
Biology of Reproduction | Year: 2012

Luteinizing hormone (Lh) and follicle-stimulating hormone (Fsh) control many aspects of gonadal development and function in teleosts. In the present paper, the specific antisera against ricefield eel Lhb (Lh beta subunit), Fshb (Fsh beta subunit), and Cga (the common pituitary glycoprotein hormone alpha subunit) were generated, and the cellular localization, initial appearance, and subsequent development of gonadotrophs in relation to early ovarian differentiation and development in the ricefield eel, a protogynous sex-changing teleost, were examined with immunochemistry. Lhb- and Fshb-immunoreactive signals were identified in distinct pituitary cells that occupied primarily the peripheral regions of the adenohypophysis. During ontogeny, Lhb-immunoreactive signals were first detected in the pituitary around 40 days after hatching (dah) when the oogonia transitioned into early primary growth oocytes, and the intensity of immunoreactivity increased concomitantly with the growth of primary oocytes from 60 to 140 dah. During overwintering from 170 to 230 dah, Lhb-immunoreactive signals were significantly decreased when a large proportion of perinucleolus oocytes contained intense Balbiani bodies. In contrast, Fshb-immunoreactive signals were not detectable in the pituitary until around 230 dah (in the spring after hatching) and slightly increased from 285 dah when the late perinucleolus oocytes began to enter the secondary growth phase. Both Lhb- and Fshb-immunoreactive cells were increased when the early cortical alveoli oocytes emerged at 300 dah. The mRNA expression of lhb and fshb coincided with their immunoreactive signals. Taken together, these results suggest that only Lh is involved in primary oocyte growth in ricefield eels, but both Fsh and Lh are important for the secondary ooctye growth. © 2012 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

Xu J.,Anhui Agricultural Academy of Science | Ren S.,Anhui Agricultural Academy of Science | Zhang L.,Anhui Agricultural Academy of Science | Zhang W.,Anhui Agricultural Academy of Science | And 4 more authors.
Tobacco Science and Technology | Year: 2015

In a multilayer seedling culturing system, the racks interrupt natural sunlight irradiation, it restrains the proper growth of tobacco seedlings, therefore different additional light source combinations were arranged between layers to study their influences on the growth of seedling root systems. The results showed that: 1) The activity, total absorption area, active absorption area and matter accumulation of seedling root systems were promoted by additional light irradiation; within the light radiation intensity of 19.5-92.6 μmol·m-2·s-1, these physiological indexes of root system positively correlated to light radiation intensity after the emergence of the third true leaf. 2) Appropriate ratio of blue/red LED emitters was 2:1, power 16 W, the distance between light source and tobacco seedlings 50 cm; under such conditions, the activity of root system was 73.5% higher at the third true leaf emergence stage comparing with the treatment without light addition (CK2), which was still 10.6% higher at the sixth true leaf emergence stage; at the stage the second to the sixth true leaves emergence, the total absorption area of root system was 20.1%-36.2% higher, and the active absorption area was 37.5%-56.2% higher than CK2; at the stage the fourth to the sixth true leaves emergence, the fresh weight of roots was 11.6%-22.7% higher, and the dry weight was 11.3%-20.1% higher than CK2. ©, 2015, Editorial Office of Tobacco Science and Technology. All right reserved.

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