Anhui Academy of Science and Technology

Hefei, China

Anhui Academy of Science and Technology

Hefei, China
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Xu Y.M.,China Institute of Technology | Liu Y.J.,Anhui Academy of Science and Technology
Plant Disease | Year: 2017

Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata Lamb.) is an important timber tree in southern China, cultivated on more than 1.3 × 105 ha in Qingyang County, Anhui Province. In a survey conducted from 2014 to 2015 in Qingyang County, a leaf blight of unknown etiology was observed on all ages of leaves and was severe in young leaves of C. lanceolata. In 2014, nearly 10% of Chinese fir orchards and 2% of Chinese fir trees were affected in this region. Initial leaf symptoms were characterized by yellow to brown, irregular-shaped lesions. The lesions later expanded to the entire leaf. Infected leaves turned dark brown and withered, and severely affected young plants died. Sections of symptomatic leaf tissues were surface-sterilized with 1.5% sodium hypochlorite for 2 min, rinsed three times in sterile distilled water, plated onto potato dextrose agar (PDA), and incubated at 25°C under a 16-h photoperiod for 7 days. Eighteen morphologically similar fungal isolates recovered produced colonies that were initially white and then became light to dark gray. Conidia were single-celled, black, smooth, spherical, 12.1 to 14.8 × 14.6 to 16.2 μm in diameter, and borne on a hyaline vesicle at the tip of each conidiophore. On the basis of these morphological features, the isolates appeared to be similar to Nigrospora sphaerica (Sacc.) Mason (Ellis 1971; Mason 1927). Strain Ns-12 was randomly selected for molecular identification. The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the ribosomal DNA was amplified using universal ITS4 and ITS5 primers followed by sequencing of the PCR products. The ITS region was further cloned and sequenced (GenBank Accession No. KX256179) and was 100% identical to N. sphaerica (KP731976.1). A pathogenicity test was performed by depositing 10-µl droplets of a suspension (5 × 104 conidia/ml) on the surfaces of five artificially wounded leaves (a small hole made with a pushpin) of ten healthy 3-year-old Chinese fir plants. An equal number of control leaves were inoculated with sterile water to serve as a negative control. The leaves were maintained in a greenhouse with constant humidity at 25°C and a 12-h photoperiod of fluorescent light. After 7 days, all of the inoculated leaves developed blight symptoms similar to those observed on naturally infected leaves, while control leaves remained symptomless. The fungus was reisolated from all symptomatic tissues, thus satisfying Koch’s postulates. Based on the above results, it can be concluded that N. sphaerica is the causal agent of leaf blight of Chinese fir in China. Nigrospora sphaerica was reported to cause diseases on blueberry in Argentina (Wright et al. 2008) and has been reported as a pathogen on tea in China (Liu et al. 2016), but to our knowledge, this is the first report of N. sphaerica as a leaf pathogen on C. lanceolata in China. Our field observations suggest that the disease would be a potential threat to the health of young plants, especially under the condition where the trees are densely planted or grown in the shade. © The American Phytopathological Society.


Tang Q.,China Institute of Technology | Liu Y.J.,Anhui Academy of Science and Technology | Fang L.,China Institute of Technology
Plant Disease | Year: 2016

Sapindus mukorossi is a popular urban green tree in Hefei City, Anhui Province, China. On 2 August 2014, a severe trunk cracking of greenbelt trees in Hefei City was brought to our attention. Affected trees were approximately 10 to 15 years old and approximately 20% exhibited longitudinal cracking on the trunk, with cracks ranging from 50 to 150 cm in length. Mycelia and pink spores occasionally were observed on cross sections of the trunk, while no symptoms were found on the tree branches. In most cases, the foliage of affected plants was yellowish and had fewer new shoots than the previous year. To isolate the causal organism, fragments (1 mm2) of tissue were excised from lesions on the symptomatic trunks and surface disinfested by sequential dipping in 1.5% sodium hypochlorite for 2 min, rinsed in sterile water, and cultured on 2% potato dextrose agar (PDA) amended with streptomycin sulfate (0.1g/liter). Plates were incubated at 25°C under a 16-h/8-h light/dark cycle for 7 days. Morphologically similar fungal isolates were recovered (n = 16) that produced salmon-colored fungal colonies with hyaline hyphae, simple or branched conidiophores, and conidia produced in basipetal chains. Conidia were ellipsoidal or obpyriform. Almost all spores were two-celled and single-septate (Dong et al. 2013). Conidia measured 14.9 to 18.6 μm long × 7.2 to 11.3 μm wide (n = 50). These characteristics are consistent with the description of Trichothecium roseum (Inácio et al. 2011). Isolate HF-27 was selected for molecular identification by amplification and sequencing of the ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (rDNA-ITS) using the universal primer pair ITS4 and ITS5. Sequencing of the PCR product revealed a 100% similarity with the ITS sequences of T. roseum in GenBank (EU552162.1, JQ434579.1, and JN942882.1). The sequence of isolate HF-27 was deposited in GenBank (Accession Nos. KT899886). Pathogenicity tests were performed by inoculating wounded trunks of healthy 15-year-old S. mukorossi with isolate HF-27. Twenty trees were inoculated by placing a 5-mm2 agar plug from the growing margin of 5-day-old colonies upside down directly into a fresh wound made with a scalpel to a depth of 5 mm, and the inoculated wounds were sealed with Parafilm. Twenty plants that served as negative controls were mock-inoculated with a sterile PDA plug without mycelial growth. After 30 days, all of the inoculated plants developed symptoms similar to natural infections of T. roseum, whereas control plants remained symptomless. T. roseum was reisolated from pathogen-inoculated trees but not from control trees, fulfilling Koch’s postulates. T. roseum is reported as a pathogen on apple (Žabka et al. 2006) and is also known as a pathogen on Chinese cantaloupe in China (Liu et al. 2007). To our knowledge, this is the first report of T. roseum as a pathogen on S. mukorossi in China. Because the disease directly decreased the ornamental value of S. mukorossi, appropriate management measures should be considered in this region. © 2016, American Phytopathological Society. All rights reserved.


Liu Y.J.,Anhui Academy of Science and Technology | Tang Q.,China Institute of Technology | Fang L.,China Institute of Technology
Plant Disease | Year: 2016

Jiuhua Mountain fuzz tip, a cultivar of Camellia sinensis, is cultivated for tea leaves on more than 1400 ha in Qingyang County, Anhui Province, China. In a survey conducted from 2013 to 2014 in Qingyang County, a leaf blight of unknown etiology was observed on leaves of all ages and was severe in young leaves of the cultivar. In 2014, nearly 25% of the plants of Jiuhua Mountain fuzz tip in the orchards visited, which comprised approximately 200 ha, were affected. Initial leaf symptoms of this disease included brown, circular spots, each surrounded by a yellow to rust-brown margin, that gradually increased from 5 to 10 mm in diameter and developed into elliptical lesions. Lesions enlarged and coalesced, resulting in severely blighted leaves. In September 2014, symptomatic leaves were collected from 21 different fields, surface-sterilized in 1.5% sodium hypochlorite for 2 min, plated on potato dextrose agar (PDA), and incubated at 25°C for 7 days. Fifteen morphologically similar fungal isolates recovered produced colonies that were initially white and became light to dark gray. Conidiophores were monoblastic, single, and 7.2 to 9.6 μm in diameter. Single-celled, black, spherical to subspherical conidia (12.3 to 14.6 × 15.2 to 16.8 μm) were each borne on a hyaline vesicle at the tip of a conidiophore. On the basis of these morphological features, the isolates appeared to be Nigrospora sphaerica (Sacc.) Mason (Ellis 1971; Mason 1927). Isolate QY-6 was selected as a representative for molecular identification. The universal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of rDNA primer pair ITS4/ITS5 was used to amplify a DNA fragment of approximately 583 bp. The amplified PCR products were sequenced and, based on BLASTn analysis, were 99% similar to two N. sphaerica isolates (GenBank Accession Nos. FJ478134.1 and HQ608030.1). The sequence of isolate QY-6 was deposited in GenBank (KP731976). Pathogenicity tests were conducted using the isolate QY-6 on five leaves of three 12-month-old Jiuhua Mountain fuzz tip plants, asymptomatic tea leaves that were disinfested with 70% ethanol for 1 min. Leaves were pushpin-wounded, and placed in a plastic box on wet, sterilized filter paper. A 6-mm-diameter agar plug from the advancing margin of a 7-day-old culture was placed on the wound site. The plastic box was maintained at 25°C in a greenhouse with constant relative humidity of 80 to 85%, and a 12-h photoperiod/day. An equal number of control leaves were wounded and inoculated with noncolonized PDA agar plugs. Inoculated leaves exhibited small (2 × 5 mm2), brown-to-black lesions after five days, and expanded to an average of 18 × 22 mm2 15 days after inoculation. All of the inoculated leaves developed blight symptoms similar to those observed on naturally infected leaves in the field, while control leaves remained symptomless. The experiments were conducted three times and the fungus was recovered from the leaf symptoms and identified as N. sphaerica by morphological characteristics, confirming Koch’s postulates. Leaf blight of tea caused by N. sphaerica was reported in India (Dutta et al. 2015), but to our knowledge, this is the first report of N. sphaerica as a leaf pathogen on C. sinensis in China. © The American Phytopathological Society.


Cao H.,Nantong University | Chen L.,Anhui Academy of Science and Technology | Xiao J.,Anhui Academy of Science and Technology | Xiao J.,Shanghai Normal University
Molecular Biology Reports | Year: 2010

Much of the bioactivities of Citrus flavanones significantly appear to impact blood and microvascular endothelial cells. It is essential to investigate the interaction between Citrus flavanones and serum albumin to verify the effect of flavanone structures on the distribution and transportation in blood. The interactions between flavonoids and proteins have attracted great interest among researchers. The work in here mainly concerns about the binding interaction between Citrus flavanones and human serum albumin (HSA) in vitro. The methoxylation of tangeretin improved the affinity for HSA by 100 times. The 2,3-double bond in conjugation with a 4-oxo group plays an important role for the affinity for HSA. The affinity of apigenin for HSA is about 10,000-times higher than that of naringenin. It was found that the hydroxylation on position 3′ of flavonol significantly improves the binding affinity for HSA. The affinity of quercetin (3′, 4′) for HSA is about 100-times higher than that of kaempferol (4′). The hydroxylation on position 3′ of flavone slightly improves the binding affinity for HSA. The affinity of luteolin for HSA is about 1.38-times higher than that of apigenin. The values of log10(Ka) are proportional to the number of binding sites (n), which confirms the method used here is suitable to study the interaction between Citrus flavanones and HSA. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Xiao J.,Shanghai Normal University | Chen L.,Anhui Academy of Science and Technology | Yang F.,Shanghai Normal University | Liu C.,Shanghai Normal University | Bai Y.,Shanghai Normal University
Journal of Hazardous Materials | Year: 2010

Apigenin and luteolin were studied for the affinities for human serum albumin (HSA) in the presence and absence of three CdTe QDs with different sizes. The fluorescence intensities of HSA decreased remarkably with increasing concentration of QDs. Apigenin and luteolin resulted in obvious blue-shifts of the λem of HSA from 340nm to 330nm and 320nm. However, the extents of blue-shifts induced by apigenin or luteolin in the presence of QDs were much smaller than that in the absence of QDs. The quenching process of apigenin for HSA was easily affected by the QDs size than that of luteolin. QDs decreased the quenching constant from 37.23% to 52.38% for apigenin. However, QDs decreased the quenching constant from 56.18% to 60.38% for luteolin. QDs decreased the affinity of apigenin or luteolin for HSA. G-QDs, Y-QDs, and R-QDs decreased the affinity of apigenin for HSA about 14.71%, 12.65% and 6.91%. The binding affinity of apigenin for HSA increased with increasing QDs size. However, the binding affinity of luteolin for HSA decreased with increasing QDs size. G-QDs, Y-QDs, and R-QDs decreased the affinities of luteolin for HSA about 19.48%, 22.47% and 28.18%. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Xiao J.,Shanghai Normal University | Xiao J.,Anhui Academy of Science and Technology | Chen T.,Nantong University | Chen L.,Anhui Academy of Science and Technology | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry | Year: 2010

Baicalein and genistein were studied for the affinities for human serum albumin (HSA) in the presence and absence of three CdTe quantum dots (QDs) with different sizes. Three typical CdTe QDs with maximum emissions of 535nm (green-emitting, G-QDs), 598nm (yellow-emitting, Y-QDs), and 654nm (red-emitting, R-QDs) were tested. The fluorescence intensities of HSA decreased remarkably with increasing concentration of QDs. Baicalein resulted in an obvious blue-shift of the Λem of HSA from 340 to 334nm. However, the extents of blue-shifts induced by baicalein and genistein in the presence of QDs were much bigger than that in the absence of QDs. The quenching process of baicalein for HSA was easily affected by the QDs size than that of genistein. QDs increased the quenching constant from 136.97% to 162.24% for baicalein. However, QDs only increased the quenching constants from 20.56% to 32.23% for genistein. G-QDs, Y-QDs, and R-QDs increased the affinities of baicalein for HSA about 3.02%, 6.38% and 9.40%. G-QDs, Y-QDs, and R-QDs increased the affinities of genistein for HSA about 2.56%, 13.46% and 19.44%. The binding affinities of baicalein and genistein for HSA increased with increasing QDs size. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.


Xiao J.,Shanghai Normal University | Chen T.,Nantong University | Cao H.,Nantong University | Chen L.,Anhui Academy of Science and Technology | Yang F.,Shanghai Normal University
Molecular Nutrition and Food Research | Year: 2011

The relationship between the structural properties of selected dietary flavanoids and flavonoids and their affinities for HSA were investigated by fluorescence analysis. The binding process with HSA was strongly influenced by the structural differences of the compounds under study. Methylation of hydroxyl groups improved the affinities for HSA by 2-16-fold. Hydroxylation on rings A, B, and C also affected the affinity for HSA significantly. Glycosylation decreased the affinities for HSA by 1-3 orders of magnitude depending on the conjugation site and the class of sugar moiety. Hydrogenation of the C2=C3 double bond also decreased the binding affinity. Galloylated catechins and pyrogallol-type catechins exhibited higher binding affinities for HSA than non-galloylated and catechol-type catechins, respectively. The affinities for HSA increased with increasing partition coefficients and decreased with increasing hydrogen bond donor and acceptor numbers of flava(o)noids, which suggested that the binding interaction was mainly caused by hydrophobic forces. © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Cao H.,Nantong University | Chen L.,Anhui Academy of Science and Technology | Xiao J.,Anhui Academy of Science and Technology
Molecular Biology Reports | Year: 2011

Much of the bioactivities of Citrus flavanones significantly appear to impact blood and microvascular endothelial cells. It is essential to investigate the interaction between Citrus flavanones and serum albumin to verify the effect of flavanone structures on the distribution and transportation in blood. The interactions between flavonoids and proteins have attracted great interest among researchers. The work in here mainly concerns about the binding interaction between Citrus flavanones and human serum albumin (HSA) in vitro. The methoxylation of tangeretin improved the affinity for HSA by 100 times. The 2,3-double bond in conjugation with a 4-oxo group plays an important role for the affinity for HSA. The affinity of apigenin for HSA is about 10,000-times higher than that of naringenin. It was found that the hydroxylation on position 3' of flavonol significantly improves the binding affinity for HSA. The affinity of quercetin (3', 4') for HSA is about 100-times higher than that of kaempferol (4'). The hydroxylation on position 3' of flavone slightly improves the binding affinity for HSA. The affinity of luteolin for HSA is about 1.38-times higher than that of apigenin. The values of log 10(K a) are proportional to the number of binding sites (n), which confirms the method used here is suitable to study the interaction between Citrus flavanones and HSA. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010.


Liu G.,Yulin Normal University | Xu S.,Anhui Academy of Science and Technology | Chen L.,Anhui Academy of Science and Technology
International Journal of Biological Macromolecules | Year: 2012

The chemical composition of shaddock (Citrus paradisi) mainly consisted of polyphenols, proteins and polysaccharides. However, polysaccharides from shaddock materials have received much less consideration than polyphenols. Herein, a water-soluble neutral polysaccharide from the endodermis of shaddock was isolated and showed good bioactivities. Crude polysaccharides from the endodermis of shaddock (EPS) was extracted with hot water and separated on a DEAE Sepharose FF gel filtration column to obtain NEPS. The IR and UV spectra of NEPS showed that NEPS was mainly composed of polysaccharide and there are no proteins existing in NEPS. The DPPH radical scavenging and reducing power of NEPS are much lower than those of crude EPS; however, Citrus flavonoids significantly improved the DPPH radical scavenging potential and reducing power of NEPS. The crude EPS (5. mg/mL) showed a similar inhibitory effect (77.92 ± 5.03%) with NEPS (5. mg/mL) (74.63 ± 4.71%) on α-amylase. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Zhang F.-J.,Anhui University of Architecture | Xuan H.,Anhui University of Architecture | Xie F.-Z.,Anhui University of Architecture | Jiang T.,Anhui University of Architecture | And 3 more authors.
Asian Journal of Chemistry | Year: 2012

Nanoscale zero valent iron-graphene has been synthesized via a simple effective chemical method. The composite nanosheets are super paramagnetic at room temperature and can be separated by an external magnetic field. The prepared nanoscale zero valent iron-graphene nanosheets were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy. The results demonstrated the successful attachment of nanoscale zero valent iron nanoparticles to graphene nanosheets. It was found that the nanoscale zero valent iron-graphene nanosheets not only show near complete methyl orange decolorization within 0.5 h under natural lighting, but they are also practically usable for methyl orange separation from water.

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