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Xiao J.,Shanghai Normal University | Xiao J.,University of Wurzburg | Xiao J.,Anhui Academy of Applied Technology | Chen T.,Nantong University | And 2 more authors.
Biotechnology Advances | Year: 2015

This article has been withdrawn at the request of the editor. The Publisher apologizes for any inconvenience this may cause.The full Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal can be found at http://www.elsevier.com/locate/withdrawalpolicy. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. Source

Xiao J.,Shanghai Normal University | Xiao J.,University of Wurzburg | Xiao J.,Anhui Academy of Applied Technology | Muzashvili T.S.,Tbilisi State Medical University | Georgiev M.I.,Bulgarian Academy of Science
Biotechnology Advances | Year: 2014

The natural flavonoids, especially their glycosides, are the most abundant polyphenols in foods and have diverse bioactivities. The biotransformation of flavonoid aglycones into their glycosides is vital in flavonoid biosynthesis. The main biological strategies that have been used to achieve flavonoid glycosylation in the laboratory involve metabolic pathway engineering and microbial biotransformation. In this review, we summarize the existing knowledge on the production and biotransformation of flavonoid glycosides using biotechnology, as well as the impact of glycosylation on flavonoid bioactivity. Uridine diphosphate glycosyltransferases play key roles in decorating flavonoids with sugars. Modern metabolic engineering and proteomic tools have been used in an integrated fashion to generate numerous structurally diverse flavonoid glycosides. In vitro, enzymatic glycosylation tends to preferentially generate flavonoid 3- and 7- O-glucosides; microorganisms typically convert flavonoids into their 7- O-glycosides and will produce 3- O-glycosides if supplied with flavonoid substrates having a hydroxyl group at the C-3 position. In general, O-glycosylation reduces flavonoid bioactivity. However, C-glycosylation can enhance some of the benefits of flavonoids on human health, including their antioxidant and anti-diabetic potential. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. Source

Xu W.,Yancheng Institute of Technology | Chen L.,Anhui Academy of Applied Technology | Shao R.,Yancheng Institute of Technology
Current Drug Metabolism | Year: 2014

Diabetes mellitus is one of the most serious diseases in the world. The degree of glycated plasma proteins is increased in diabetics compared to non-diabetic subjects. This mini-review focuses on the influence of glycation of human serum albumin (HSA) in diabetes on the binding interaction with dietary polyphenols. The non-enzymatic glycation of HSA leads to a conformational change in HSA, which in turn influences the ligand binding properties. HSA glycation is believed to reduce the binding affinities for acidic drugs such as dietary polyphenols and phenolic acids. © 2014 Bentham Science Publishers. Source

Xia X.,Shanghai Normal University | Cao J.,Shanghai Normal University | Zheng Y.,Shanghai Normal University | Wang Q.,Shanghai Normal University | And 3 more authors.
Industrial Crops and Products | Year: 2014

Ferns are famous traditional medicinal plants and 300 fern species have been used as phytomedicines by Southwestern of China. However, there is little information on the phytochemicals and pharmacological characteristics of most fern species. The total flavonoid concentrations, antioxidant activity, anticancer activity, and acetylcholinesterase inhibition of extracts from 19 species of ferns were investigated. The total flavonoid concentrations ranged from 8.6 to 306.4. mg/g (w/w). The antioxidant activity including DPPH free radical scavenging, ABTS radical scavenging, and superoxide anion scavenging, reducing power and ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) of flavonoid extracts from these ferns showed a weak linear relationship with their total flavonoid concentrations. Selaginella frondosa with very low total flavonoid concentration (13.4. mg/g) showed highest inhibition against A549 cells and it is necessary to further investigate the anti-cancer compounds in S. frondosa. The extracts from Davallia cylindrica Ching and Stenoloma chusanum Ching significantly inhibited AChE activity, which illustrated that it is worthy of attention to investigate flavonoids from D. cylindrica and S. chusanum as AChE inhibitors. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source

Xiao J.,Shanghai Normal University | Xiao J.,University of Wurzburg | Xiao J.,Anhui Academy of Applied Technology | Ni X.,Shanghai Normal University | And 3 more authors.
Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition | Year: 2015

The dietary polyphenols as aldose reductases inhibitors (ARIs) have attracted great interest among researchers. The aim of this review is to give an overview of the research reports on the structure-activity relationship of dietary polyphenols inhibiting aldose reductases (AR). The molecular structures influence the inhibition of the following: (1) The methylation and methoxylation of the hydroxyl group at C3, C3′, and C4′ of flavonoids decreased or little affected the inhibitory potency. However, the methylation and methoxylation of the hydroxyl group at C5, C6, and C8 significantly enhanced the inhibition. Moreover, the methylation and methoxylation of C7-OH influence the inhibitory activity depending on the substitutes on rings A and B of flavonoids. (2) The glycosylation on 3-OH of flavonoids significantly increased or little affected the inhibition. However, the glycosylation on 7-OH and 4′-OH of flavonoids significantly decreased the inhibition. (3) The hydroxylation on A-ring of flavones and isoflavones, especially at positions 5 and 7, significantly improved the inhibition and the hydroxylation on C3′ and C4′ of B-ring of flavonoids remarkably enhanced the inhibition; however, the hydroxylation on the ring C of flavones significantly weakened the inhibition. (4) The hydrogenation of the C2=C3 double bond of flavones reduced the inhibition. (5) The hydrogenation of α=β double bond of stilbenes hardly affected the inhibition and the hydroxylation on C3′ of stilbenes decreased the inhibition. Moreover, the methylation of the hydroxyl group of stilbenes obviously reduced the activity. (6) The hydroxylation on C4 of chalcone significantly increased the inhibition and the methylation on C4 of chalcone remarkably weakened the inhibition. © 2015 Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source

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