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Wang Y.,Anhui University | Wang P.,Anhui Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Chemical Engineering Transactions | Year: 2016

In order to increase the fruit yield and economic benefit, pesticides and fertilizers are overused in Chinese orchards, which leads to a series of environmental problem and food safety issues like water body pollution, organic content decrease. The effect and influence of various organic compost mulching on orchard soil property are discussed here, to improve soil ecological structure, utilize and circulate wastes resource rationally and increase the reservoir storage of orchard. The results showed that the mulching of the organic compost can decrease the surface soil bulk density apparently, loosen the soil and optimize its air permeability. Meanwhile, it can increase the nutrient elements in the soil, improve soil property and thus to boost the grow of the tree fruit and root as well as to improve the physical, chemical and biological property of soil. Along with the ever-increasing length of the compost substrate mulching, the organic content of the soil has been increased apparently, and the orchard soil property has been improved obviously, which has eased a series of environmental issues, increased the crop yield and improved the crop quality at the same time. It has increased the economic efficiency to some extent. Copyright © 2016, AIDIC Servizi S.r.l.


Yu L.,Hefei University of Technology | Chen X.,Hefei University of Technology | Wang Z.,Hefei University of Technology | Wang S.,Anhui Agricultural University | And 6 more authors.
Plant Physiology | Year: 2013

Enhancing drought tolerance without yield decrease has been a great challenge in crop improvement. Here, we report the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) homodomain-leucine zipper transcription factor Enhanced Drought Tolerance/HOMEODOMAIN GLABROUS11 (EDT1/HDG11) was able to confer drought tolerance and increase grain yield in transgenic rice (Oryza sativa) plants. The improved drought tolerance was associated with a more extensive root system, reduced stomatal density, and higher water use efficiency. The transgenic rice plants also had higher levels of abscisic acid, proline, soluble sugar, and reactive oxygen species-scavenging enzyme activities during stress treatments. The increased grain yield of the transgenic rice was contributed by improved seed setting, larger panicle, and more tillers as well as increased photosynthetic capacity. Digital gene expression analysis indicated that AtEDT1/HDG11 had a significant influence on gene expression profile in rice, which was consistent with the observed phenotypes of transgenic rice plants. Our study shows that AtEDT1/HDG11 can improve both stress tolerance and grain yield in rice, demonstrating the efficacy of AtEDT1/HDG11 in crop improvement. © 2013 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.


Liu C.,Hefei University of Technology | Liu W.,Hefei University | Lu X.,Anhui Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Chen W.,Hefei University of Technology | And 3 more authors.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2014

Crop-to-crop transgene flow may affect the seed purity of non-transgenic rice varieties, resulting in unwanted biosafety consequences. The feasibility of a rapid and nondestructive determination of transgenic rice seeds from its non-transgenic counterparts was examined by using multispectral imaging system combined with chemometric data analysis. Principal component analysis (PCA), partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA), least squares-support vector machines (LS-SVM), and PCA-back propagation neural network (PCA-BPNN) methods were applied to classify rice seeds according to their genetic origins. The results demonstrated that clear differences between non-transgenic and transgenic rice seeds could be easily visualized with the nondestructive determination method developed through this study and an excellent classification (up to 100% with LS-SVM model) can be achieved. It is concluded that multispectral imaging together with chemometric data analysis is a promising technique to identify transgenic rice seeds with high efficiency, providing bright prospects for future applications. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Chen X.,China Agricultural University | Cui Z.,China Agricultural University | Fan M.,Stanford University | Vitousek P.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | And 28 more authors.
Nature | Year: 2014

Agriculture faces great challenges to ensure global food security by increasing yields while reducing environmental costs1,2. Here we address this challenge by conducting a total of 153 site-year field experiments covering the main agro-ecological areas for rice, wheat and maize production in China. As et of integrated soil-crop systemmanagement practices based ona modern understanding of crop ecophysiology and soil biogeochemistry increases average yields for rice, wheat and maize from 7.2 million grams per hectare (Mg ha-1), 7.2Mg ha-1 and 10.5Mgha-1 to 8.5Mgha-1, 8.9Mgha-1 and 14.2Mgha-1, respectively, without any increase in nitrogen fertilizer. Model simulation and life-cycle assessment3 show that reactive nitrogen losses and greenhouse gasemissions are reduced substantially by integrated soil-crop system management. If farmers in China could achieve average grain yields equivalent to 80%of this treatment by 2030, over the sameplanting area as in 2012, total production of rice, wheat and maize in China would be more than enough to meet the demand for direct human consumption and a substantially increased demand for animal feed, while decreasing the environmental costs of intensive agriculture. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.


Jiao J.,Shandong Agricultural University | Zhou B.,Anhui Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Zhu X.,Shandong Agricultural University | Gao Z.,Anhui Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Liang Y.,Shandong Agricultural University
Planta | Year: 2013

Fusaric acid (FA) is a nonhost-selective toxin mainly produced by Fusarium oxysporum, the causal agent of plant wilt diseases. We demonstrate that FA can induce programmed cell death (PCD) in tobacco suspension cells and the FA-induced PCD is modulated by nitric oxide (NO) signalling. Cells undergoing cell death induced by FA treatment exhibited typical characteristics of PCD including cytoplasmic shrinkage, chromatin condensation, DNA fragmentation, membrane plasmolysis, and formation of small cytoplasmic vacuoles. In addition, caspase-3-like activity was activated upon the FA treatment. The process of FA-induced PCD was accompanied by a rapid accumulation of NO in a FA dose-dependent manner. Pre-treatment of cells with NO scavenger 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (cPTIO) or NO synthase inhibitor N G-monomethyl-arginine monoacetate (L-NMMA) significantly reduced the rate of FA-induced cell death. Furthermore, the caspase-3-like activity and the expression of PAL and Hsr203J genes were alleviated by application of cPTIO or L-NMMA to FA-treated tobacco cells. This indicates that NO is an important factor involved in the FA-induced PCD. Our results also show that pre-treatment of tobacco cells with a caspase-3-specific inhibitor, Ac-DEVD-CHO, can reduce the rate of FA-induced cell death. These results demonstrate that the FA-induced cell death is a PCD and is modulated by NO signalling through caspase-3-like activation. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Wang M.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Zhu P.,Anhui Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Jiang C.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Ma L.,Nanjing Agricultural University | And 2 more authors.
Food and Chemical Toxicology | Year: 2012

The fresh fleshy peduncles of Hovenia dulcis have been used as a food supplement and traditional herbal medicine for the treatment of liver diseases and alcoholic poisoning for more than a millennium. The objectives of the present study, therefore, were to determine the antioxidant activity of polysaccharides from the peduncles of H. dulcis (HDPS) and to evaluate its hepatoprotective effect on acute alcohol-induced liver injury in mice. HDPS, prepared by hot water extraction, ethanol precipitation and treatment of macroporous resin, was found to be non-starch polysaccharide and mainly composed of galactose, arabinose, rhamnose and galacturonic acid. In in vitro antioxidant assay, HDPS exhibited high superoxide radical scavenging activity, strong inhibition effect on lipid peroxidation and a medium ferrous ion-chelating activity. For hepatoprotective activity in vivo, the administration of HDPS significantly decreased the serum levels of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase, significantly decreased the liver level of malondialdehyde and remarkably restored the liver activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase in alcohol-induced liver injury mice. The results suggested that HDPS had a significant protective effect against acute alcohol-induced liver injury possibly via its antioxidant activity to protect biological systems against the oxidative stress. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Tang W.,Zhejiang Chemical Industry Research Institute | Zhou F.,Anhui Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Chen J.,Zhejiang Chemical Industry Research Institute | Zhou X.,Sichuan Academy of Agricultural science
Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology | Year: 2014

Asia minor bluegrass (Polypogon fugax) is a common annual grass weed of winter crops distributed across China. We conducted a study on the resistance level and the mechanism of resistance to ACCase-inhibiting herbicides in a P. fugax population from China. Whole-plant dose-response experiments in greenhouse showed that the resistant P. fugax population was 1991, 364, 269, 157, and 8-fold resistant to clodinafop-propargyl, fluazifop-p-butyl, haloxyfop-R-methyl, quizalofop-p-ethyl and fenoxaprop-p-ethyl relative to the reference susceptible population, which was susceptible to all the five AOPP herbicides. Much lower R/S values of 3.5, 2.4 and 3.5, respectively, were detected for clethodim, sethoxydim and pinoxaden. Molecular analysis of resistance confirmed that the Ile2041 to Asn mutation in the resistant population conferred resistance to AOPP herbicides, but not to CHD and DEN herbicides. This is the first report of a target site mutation that corresponded to resistance to AOPP herbicides in P. fugax. Proper resistance management practices are necessary to prevent ACCase-inhibiting herbicides from becoming ineffective over wide areas. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.


Guo Z.,Anhui Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Guo Z.,Key Laboratory of Nutrient Cycling and Resources Environment of AnHui Province | Wang D.-Z.,Anhui Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Wang D.-Z.,Key Laboratory of Nutrient Cycling and Resources Environment of AnHui Province
Plant, Soil and Environment | Year: 2013

To investigate the effects of returning wheat straw to croplands on soil compaction and nutrient availability, this trial was designed: (1) planted crops without fertilization (NF); (2) natural land without human activities (CT); (3) applied mineral fertilizers in combination with 7500 kg/ha wheat straw (WS-NPK); (4) applied mineral fertilizers in combination with 3750 kg/ha wheat straw (1/2WS-NPK); and (5) applied mineral fertilizers alone (NPK). It is found that, compared with NPK, the soil bulk density in 1/2WS-NPK and WS-NPK both decreased by more than 10% in the 0 cm to 15 cm layer, and by 6.93% and 9.14% in the 15 cm to 20 cm, respectively. Furthermore, in contrast to NPK, the soil available nitrogen in the 0 cm to 25 cm layer in 1/2WS-NPK and WS-NPK were higher by 17.43% and 35.19%, and the soil available potassium were higher by 7.66% and 17.47%, respectively. For soil available phosphorus in the depth of 5 cm to 25 cm, it was higher by 18.51% in 1/2WS-NPK and by 56.97% in WS-NPK, respectively. Therefore, returning wheat straw to croplands effectively improves soil compaction and nutrients availability, and the improvement in soil nitrogen and phosphorus availability is closely related to the amount of wheat straw.


Chen H.,Anhui Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Lin L.,Anhui Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Xie M.,Anhui Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Zhang G.,Anhui Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Su W.,Anhui Academy of Agricultural Sciences
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Background: Anomala corpulenta is an important insect pest and can cause enormous economic losses in agriculture, horticulture and forestry. It is widely distributed in China, and both larvae and adults can cause serious damage. It is difficult to control this pest because the larvae live underground. Any new control strategy should exploit alternatives to heavily and frequently used chemical insecticides. However, little genetic research has been carried out on A. corpulenta due to the lack of genomic resources. Genomic resources could be produced by next generation sequencing technologies with low cost and in a short time. In this study, we performed de novo sequencing, assembly and characterization of the antennal transcriptome of A. corpulenta. Results: Illumina sequencing technology was used to sequence the antennal transcriptome of A. corpulenta. Approximately 76.7 million total raw reads and about 68.9 million total clean reads were obtained, and then 35,656 unigenes were assembled. Of these unigenes, 21,463 of them could be annotated in the NCBI nr database, and, among the annotated unigenes, 11,154 and 6,625 unigenes could be assigned to GO and COG, respectively. Additionally, 16,350 unigenes could be annotated in the Swiss-Prot database, and 14,499 unigenes could map onto 258 pathways in the KEGG Pathway database. We also found 24 unigenes related to OBPs, 6 to CSPs, and in total 167 unigenes related to chemodetection. We analyzed 4 OBPs and 3CSPs sequences and their RT-qPCR results agreed well with their FPKM values. Conclusion: We produced the first large-scale antennal transcriptome of A. corpulenta, which is a species that has little genomic information in public databases. The identified chemodetection unigenes can promote the molecular mechanistic study of behavior in A. corpulenta. These findings provide a general sequence resource for molecular genetics research on A. corpulenta. © 2014 Chen et al.


Hua K.,Anhui Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Wang D.,Anhui Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Guo X.,Anhui Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Guo Z.,Anhui Academy of Agricultural Sciences
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration is important for improving soil fertility of cropland and for the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere. The efficiency of SOC sequestration depends on the quantity and quality of the organic matter, soil type, and climate. Little is known about the SOC sequestration efficiency of organic amendments in Vertisols. Thus, we conducted the research based on 29 years (1982-2011) of long-term fertilization experiment with a no fertilizer control and five fertilization regimes: CK (control, no fertilizer), NPK (mineral NPK fertilizers alone), NPK+1/2W (mineral NPK fertilizers combined with half the amount of wheat straw), NPK+W (mineral NPK fertilizers combined with full the amount of wheat straw), NPK+PM (mineral NPK fertilizers combined with pig manure) and NPK+CM (mineral NPK fertilizers combined cattle manure). Total mean annual C inputs were 0.45, 1.55, 2.66, 3.71, 4.68 and 6.56 ton/ha/yr for CK, NPK, NPKW1/2, NPKW, NPKPM and NPKCM, respectively. Mean SOC sequestration rate was 0.20 ton/ha/yr in the NPK treatment, and 0.39, 0.50, 0.51 and 0.97 ton/ha/yr in the NPKW1/2, NPKW, NPKPM, and NPKCM treatments, respectively. A linear relationship was observed between annual C input and SOC sequestration rate (SOCsequestration rate = 0.16 Cinput -0.10, R = 0.95, P<0.01), suggesting a C sequestration efficiency of 16%. The Vertisol required an annual C input of 0.63 ton/ha/yr to maintain the initial SOC level. Moreover, the C sequestration efficiencies of wheat straw, pig manure and cattle manure were 17%, 11% and 17%, respectively. The results indicate that the Vertisol has a large potential to sequester SOC with a high efficiency, and applying cattle manure or wheat straw is a recommendable SOC sequestration practice in Vertisols. © 2014 Hua et al.

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