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Wang M.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Zhu P.,Anhui Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Jiang C.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Ma L.,Nanjing Agricultural University | And 2 more authors.
Food and Chemical Toxicology | Year: 2012

The fresh fleshy peduncles of Hovenia dulcis have been used as a food supplement and traditional herbal medicine for the treatment of liver diseases and alcoholic poisoning for more than a millennium. The objectives of the present study, therefore, were to determine the antioxidant activity of polysaccharides from the peduncles of H. dulcis (HDPS) and to evaluate its hepatoprotective effect on acute alcohol-induced liver injury in mice. HDPS, prepared by hot water extraction, ethanol precipitation and treatment of macroporous resin, was found to be non-starch polysaccharide and mainly composed of galactose, arabinose, rhamnose and galacturonic acid. In in vitro antioxidant assay, HDPS exhibited high superoxide radical scavenging activity, strong inhibition effect on lipid peroxidation and a medium ferrous ion-chelating activity. For hepatoprotective activity in vivo, the administration of HDPS significantly decreased the serum levels of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase, significantly decreased the liver level of malondialdehyde and remarkably restored the liver activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase in alcohol-induced liver injury mice. The results suggested that HDPS had a significant protective effect against acute alcohol-induced liver injury possibly via its antioxidant activity to protect biological systems against the oxidative stress. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Chen W.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Guo S.,Anhui Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Nongye Gongcheng Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering | Year: 2013

This paper analyzes the development trends of frontier technology for agricultural informatization including five aspects of agricultural sensor technology, precision farming technology, agricultural robot technology, agricultural internet of things technology, and agricultural information service technology. It also discusses the existing problems in the development of frontier technology for agricultural informatization in China and proposes corresponding countermeasures. Firstly, the paper introduces the frontier techniques for agricultural informatization. For advanced agricultural sensor technology, three types of techniques are described, namely life information sensing technique, environmental information sensing technique, and comprehensive information collecting technique. For precision farming technology and intelligent equipment, onboard farmland information collection technique, precision farming positioning and controlling technique, decision model and prescription generating technique, and precise implementation technique are described. For agricultural intelligent robot technology, terrestrial mobile platform navigation and control technique and action planning technique are introduced. For agricultural internet of things technology and equipment, several issues are discussed including the sophisticated monitoring and scheduling of resources, ecological environment monitoring and management, agricultural product quality safety traceability, etc. For agricultural information service technology, frontier techniques and applications for agricultural remote sensing and agricultural information resource value-added services are evaluated. Major problems existed in the development of agricultural informatization technology in China are also discussed. For agricultural sensor technology, the existing problems include that the agricultural information dynamic sensing technique needs to be improved, advanced agricultural sensor technique and industry development are not perfect, and agricultural sensor after-sales supports arenot sufficient. For precision farming technology and intelligent equipment, China has not had its 3S technical support system that is suitable for agricultural applications and its intelligent equipment research and development is not sufficient. For agricultural robot technology, the research direction selection is very subjective, and the research content mainly focuses on the planting industry. Leading robot research agencies rarely involve the agriculture domain. For the industrialization of agricultural robot, related domestic patents are not sufficient and foreign companies take a large market share. For agricultural internet of things technology and equipment, there are also some problems in the technology standard, security, industrialization, application and promotion. For agricultural information services, agricultural remote sensor practicality needs to be improved, software development capability is not sufficient, and the service targets are not well trained. Finally, suggestions are proposed as countermeasures to the existing problems. Agricultural information technology innovation needs to be accelerated. Major engineering projects need to be established to support the informatization development. Subsidies for agricultural informatization need to be implemented. Agricultural informatization standards and evaluation system need to be improved. Researches show that agricultural sensor technology is the basis of agricultural information acquisition and informatization. Precision farming technology represents today's advanced level of agricultural equipment. Agricultural robot technology is an important research direction for agricultural intelligent equipment in the future. Agricultural internet of things technology is an effective means of agricultural supervision and quality monitoring. Agricultural information service technology is more and more focusing on the key technical problems of cloud storage, cloud computing, cloud service and mobile internet in agricultural information services.

Chen X.,China Agricultural University | Cui Z.,China Agricultural University | Fan M.,Stanford University | Vitousek P.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | And 28 more authors.
Nature | Year: 2014

Agriculture faces great challenges to ensure global food security by increasing yields while reducing environmental costs1,2. Here we address this challenge by conducting a total of 153 site-year field experiments covering the main agro-ecological areas for rice, wheat and maize production in China. As et of integrated soil-crop systemmanagement practices based ona modern understanding of crop ecophysiology and soil biogeochemistry increases average yields for rice, wheat and maize from 7.2 million grams per hectare (Mg ha-1), 7.2Mg ha-1 and 10.5Mgha-1 to 8.5Mgha-1, 8.9Mgha-1 and 14.2Mgha-1, respectively, without any increase in nitrogen fertilizer. Model simulation and life-cycle assessment3 show that reactive nitrogen losses and greenhouse gasemissions are reduced substantially by integrated soil-crop system management. If farmers in China could achieve average grain yields equivalent to 80%of this treatment by 2030, over the sameplanting area as in 2012, total production of rice, wheat and maize in China would be more than enough to meet the demand for direct human consumption and a substantially increased demand for animal feed, while decreasing the environmental costs of intensive agriculture. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Liu C.,Hefei University of Technology | Liu W.,Hefei University | Lu X.,Anhui Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Chen W.,Hefei University of Technology | And 3 more authors.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2014

Crop-to-crop transgene flow may affect the seed purity of non-transgenic rice varieties, resulting in unwanted biosafety consequences. The feasibility of a rapid and nondestructive determination of transgenic rice seeds from its non-transgenic counterparts was examined by using multispectral imaging system combined with chemometric data analysis. Principal component analysis (PCA), partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA), least squares-support vector machines (LS-SVM), and PCA-back propagation neural network (PCA-BPNN) methods were applied to classify rice seeds according to their genetic origins. The results demonstrated that clear differences between non-transgenic and transgenic rice seeds could be easily visualized with the nondestructive determination method developed through this study and an excellent classification (up to 100% with LS-SVM model) can be achieved. It is concluded that multispectral imaging together with chemometric data analysis is a promising technique to identify transgenic rice seeds with high efficiency, providing bright prospects for future applications. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Jiao J.,Shandong Agricultural University | Zhou B.,Anhui Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Zhu X.,Shandong Agricultural University | Gao Z.,Anhui Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Liang Y.,Shandong Agricultural University
Planta | Year: 2013

Fusaric acid (FA) is a nonhost-selective toxin mainly produced by Fusarium oxysporum, the causal agent of plant wilt diseases. We demonstrate that FA can induce programmed cell death (PCD) in tobacco suspension cells and the FA-induced PCD is modulated by nitric oxide (NO) signalling. Cells undergoing cell death induced by FA treatment exhibited typical characteristics of PCD including cytoplasmic shrinkage, chromatin condensation, DNA fragmentation, membrane plasmolysis, and formation of small cytoplasmic vacuoles. In addition, caspase-3-like activity was activated upon the FA treatment. The process of FA-induced PCD was accompanied by a rapid accumulation of NO in a FA dose-dependent manner. Pre-treatment of cells with NO scavenger 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (cPTIO) or NO synthase inhibitor N G-monomethyl-arginine monoacetate (L-NMMA) significantly reduced the rate of FA-induced cell death. Furthermore, the caspase-3-like activity and the expression of PAL and Hsr203J genes were alleviated by application of cPTIO or L-NMMA to FA-treated tobacco cells. This indicates that NO is an important factor involved in the FA-induced PCD. Our results also show that pre-treatment of tobacco cells with a caspase-3-specific inhibitor, Ac-DEVD-CHO, can reduce the rate of FA-induced cell death. These results demonstrate that the FA-induced cell death is a PCD and is modulated by NO signalling through caspase-3-like activation. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

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