Campo Grande, Brazil

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Soil management systems, as those that integrate crop and livestock production, aiming at maintenance or recovering of soil quality, are indispensable for a sustainable agricultural management. Our hypothesis is that the land use for integrated crop-livestock systems improves soil physical properties, thus contributing to a sustainable agricultural soil use in the southwestern Cerrado region. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of different tillage systems on some soil physical properties of the Cerrado. The soil under study was classified as an Oxisol and the following management systems were evaluated: a) soil under natural vegetation; b) soil under soybean for one year followed by three years of pasture; c) soil under soybean for four years, followed by four years of pasture; d) soil under continuous notillage soybean; e) soil under continuous pasture. Soil density, soil penetration resistance and aggregate stability in water were evaluated from 1995-2006. The soil use for continuous Brachiaria decumbens pasture degraded the soil physical properties less than crop-livestock integration and continuous crop systems.

This paper aims to problematize the itinerancy as a way to operationalize care in the territory. With the creation of the Unified Health System, the notion of territory has become an organizing principle of work processes in primary health care and mental health policies. In the delicate field of coordination between these policies, itinerant practices now have a strategic importance in the deinstitutionalization of practices and construction of integral care. We take the deinstitutionalization and the integrality as conceptual operators that make the difference that Psychiatric and Health reforms want to print in the care practices. Warned that by joining in a posture of active search in the life territory of users, the itinerant practices fall in a field of tensions, which can both be called to work as a part of the State apparatus to population control, as in a strategic place for the construction of a contextualized care to users' way of life. We believe that it is possible to resist the social control mandate and build an ethics of care with itinerancy to explore the political power of the movement and transform the users' territory in a laboratory for the invention of life.

Alho C.J.R.,Anhanguera-Uniderp University | Silva J.S.V.,Embrapa Informatica Agropecuaria
Animals | Year: 2012

Flooding throughout the Pantanal is seasonal. The complex vegetative cover and high seasonal productivity support a diverse and abundant fauna. A gradient in flood level supports a range of major habitats in a complex mosaic with annual seasonality. The rivers and streams are lined with gallery forests, and other arboreal habitats exist in the more elevated areas. The remainder is either grasslands or seasonally flooded grasslands. The regional flora and fauna are adapted to annual water fluctuation. However, an inter-annual series of higher or lower rainfalls has caused either severe floods or drastic dry seasons. Large scale climate phenomena such as greenhouse gases, El Niño and La Niña influence the seasonality of floods and droughts in the Pantanal. Knowledge of severe floods and droughts, which characterize natural disasters, is fundamental for wildlife management and nature conservation of the Pantanal. Plants and wild animals, for example, are affected by tree mortality in riparian forest after extreme flooding, with consequent habitat modification for wild animals. In addition, human activities are also affected since cattle ranching and ecotourism are economically important in the region, and when seasons with unusual floods or droughts occur, areas with human settlements are impacted. © 2012 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

Alho C.J.R.,Anhanguera-Uniderp University
Estudos Avancados | Year: 2012

The Brazilian biodiversity is recognized as one of the most expressive in the terrestrial biosphere and plays an important role to human well-being and health, providing basic products and ecosystem services. The products or goods from natural ecosystems include pharmaceutical material, food such as fishery, timber, and many others. Natural ecosystems also provide essential life-supporting services such as purification of air and water, climate regulation, reproductive and feeding habitats for extractivism, as well as maintenance of organisms responsible for cycling soil nutrients, making them available to plant absorption. Environmental disruption has impacted human well being and health, resulting in severe social poverty with spread of diseases. Increasing in vector-borne and diseases in humans and animals occur as a result of negative anthropogenic interventions in the natural ecosystems.

Sarti E.C.,Anhanguera-Uniderp University
Mycopathologia | Year: 2012

The association between paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) and AIDS is relatively rare in contrast to the higher incidence of other systemic mycosis. The explanation may be that AIDS is still predominantly an urban disease, and the PCM is endemic in Latin American rural areas. The aim of this study was to detect the prevalence of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis infection in HIV-positive patients at an endemic area of paracoccidioidomycosis in Brazil. Skin test with purified 43 kD glycoprotein (gp43) was performed in 90 HIV/AIDS patients. The prevalence found was 12.2% and it may be even greater, considering that HIV/AIDS patients may not respond to the intradermal test, which depends on cellular immunity for its positivity.

The Pantanal biome is characterised by seasonal flooding which determines specific ecosystem processes, with the occurrence of adapted plants and animals to the annual shrinking and expansion of habitats due to the seasonal hydrological regime. Biodiversity abundance varies during the dry and wet seasons. The Pantanal's biodiversity is a fundamental component of ecosystem services for human society, including nutrient cycling, fish production, ecotourism, carbon storage, flood control, among others, which are relevant to regional and global environmental consequences. The biome has been impacted by the conversion of natural vegetation into agricultural fields and pasture for cattle raising, with alteration and loss of natural habitats and biodiversity. Major negative impacts occur in uplands, with drastic deforestation of savanna vegetation, where main rivers feeding the Pantanal have their springs. This article discusses future needs and priorities for ecological research, in order to better understand the biome's natural system, to achieve conservation and sustainable use.

Alho C.J.R.,Anhanguera-Uniderp University | Camargo G.,Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul | Fischer E.,Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul
Brazilian Journal of Biology | Year: 2011

Different works have registered the number of mammal species within the natural habitats of the Pantanal based on currently known records, with species richness ranging from 89 to 152 of annotated occurrences. Our present list sums 174 species. However, at least three factors have to be emphasised to deal with recorded numbers: 1) to establish the ecotone limit between the floodplain (which is the Pantanal) and its neighbouring domain like the Cerrado, besides the existence of maps recently produced; 2) the lack of intensive surveys, especially on small mammals, rodents and marsupials; and 3) the constant taxonomic revision on bats, rodents and marsupials. Some species are very abundant - for example the capybara Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris and the crab-eating fox Cerdocyon thous, and some are rare, and others are still intrinsically rare - for example, the bush dog Speothos venaticus. Abundance of species is assumed to reflect ecological resources of the habitat. Local diversity and number of individuals of wild rodents and marsupials also rely on the offering of ecological resources and behavioural specialisation to microhabitat components. A large number of species interact with the type of the vegetation of the habitat, by means of habitat selection through active patterns of ecological behaviour, resulting on dependency on arboreal and forested habitats of the Pantanal. In addition, mammals respond to seasonal shrinking-and-expansion of habitats due to flooding regime of the Pantanal. The highest number of species is observed during the dry season, when there is a considerable expansion of terrestrial habitats, mainly seasonally flooded grassland. Major threats to mammal species are the loss and alteration of habitats due to human intervention, mainly deforestation, unsustainable agricultural and cattle-ranching practices, which convert the natural vegetation into pastures. The Pantanal still harbours about a dozen of species officially listened as in danger.

Alho C.J.R.,Anhanguera-Uniderp University | Sabino J.,Anhanguera-Uniderp University
Brazilian Journal of Biology | Year: 2011

The Pantanal's biodiversity constitutes a valuable natural resource, in economic, cultural, recreational, aesthetic, scientific and educational terms. The vegetation plus the seasonal productivity support a diverse and abundant fauna. Many endangered species occur in the region, and waterfowl are exceptionally abundant during the dry season. Losses of biodiversity and its associated natural habitats within the Pantanal occur as a result of unsustainable land use. Implementation of protected areas is only a part of the conservation strategy needed. We analyse biodiversity threats to the biome under seven major categories: 1) conversion of natural vegetation into pasture and agricultural crops, 2) destruction or degradation of habitat mainly due to wild fire, 3) overexploitation of species mainly by unsustainable fishing, 4) water pollution, 5) river flow modification with implantation of small hydroelectric plants, 6) unsustainable tourism, and 7) introduction of invasive exotic species.

Goncalves H.C.,Agencia Nacional de Aguas | Mercante M.A.,Anhanguera-Uniderp University | Santos E.T.,Anhanguera-Uniderp University
Brazilian Journal of Biology | Year: 2011

The Pantanal hydrological cycle holds an important meaning in the Alto Paraguay Basin, comprising two areas with considerably diverse conditions regarding natural and water resources: the Plateau and the Plains. From the perspective of the ecosystem function, the hydrological flow in the relationship between plateau and plains is important for the creation of reproductive and feeding niches for the regional biodiversity. In general, river declivity in the plateau is 0.6 m/km while declivity on the plains varies from 0.1 to 0.3 m/km. The environment in the plains is characteristically seasonal and is home to an exuberant and abundant diversity of species, including some animals threatened with extinction. When the flat surface meets the plains there is a diminished water flow on the riverbeds and, during the rainy season the rivers overflow their banks, flooding the lowlands. Average annual precipitation in the Basin is 1,396 mm, ranging from 800 mm to 1,600 mm, and the heaviest rainfall occurs in the plateau region. The low drainage capacity of the rivers and lakes that shape the Pantanal, coupled with the climate in the region, produce very high evaporation: approximately 60% of all the waters coming from the plateau are lost through evaporation. The Alto Paraguay Basin, including the Pantanal, while boasting an abundant availability of water resources, also has some spots with water scarcity in some sub-basins, at different times of the year. Climate conditions alone are not enough to explain the differences observed in the Paraguay River regime and some of its tributaries. The complexity of the hydrologic regime of the Paraguay River is due to the low declivity of the lands that comprise the Mato Grosso plains and plateau (50 to 30 cm/km from east to west and 3 to 1.5 cm/km from north to south) as well as the area's dimension, which remains periodically flooded with a large volume of water.

Brazilian legislation only grants the necessary licenses to build hydroelectric plants (previous license, installation and operation licenses) if environmental impact assessment studies are carried out, and if mitigation and compensatory measures are taken. The formation of a reservoir causes natural habitat loss and significant alteration for wild terrestrial and aquatic mammals, and hydroelectric plants in Amazonia have affected ecological feeding and reproductive habitats of aquatic mammals and chelonians. Monitoring programs carried out in those reservoirs have shown mammals and chelonians fitting their feeding and reproductive behavior repertoire to the new habitat created by reservoirs. During the initial phase of implantation of the hydroelectric reservoir, terrestrial mammal species are taken out of their usual home ranges to already occupied areas, a phenomenon known as the dam's extended effect. The reservoir formed in an area previously without that body of water now has an influence on the phenological rhythms of the surrounding vegetation as well as altering the seasonal phases of the hydrological cycle (flood phase, drying phase, drought, and flooding phase) which aquatic mammals and freshwater turtles' movements fit in with, in function of food availability and appropriate reproductive habitats. Programs to monitor those animal populations can establish guidelines to mitigate environmental impacts by means of proper management procedures for conservation and sustainable use.

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