Campo Grande, Brazil

Anhanguera-Uniderp University
Campo Grande, Brazil
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‘paratudo’, Tabebuia aurea, is a common Brazilian tree from ‘pantanal de Miranda’, Mato Grosso do Sul state, Brazil, an area with seasonal floodplain. To evaluate the gas exchange of Tabebuia aurea under flooding stress, groups of eight-month-old plants were grown in soil covered by a 2 to 3 cm layer of water and a control group. Stomatal conductance, transpiration and photosynthetic rates were measured during the experiment (115 days), with an infrared portable analyzer. The values of stomatal conductance of the control group and stress plants at the beginning of the experiment were 0.22 mol m-2 s-1 and reached 0.02 mol m-2 s-1 at the end of this event. The initial photosynthesis rate was 8.0 µmol m-2 s-1 and, by the 108 th day, it had reached zero. When the photosynthesis rate reached zero, the rigid plastic container was dried and the rate analyzed (8 days). The values obtained for plants in drained soil were: stomatal conductance = 0.21 mol m-2 s-1 and photosynthesis rate = 8.0 µmol m-2 s-1, indicating a recovery response, returning to initial values. Flooded soil reduced photosynthesis and stomatal conductance, and it affected the shoot growth, leading to the symptoms resulting from flooding stress, such as hypertrophy of the lenticels. However, the species has a tolerance to the flooding process, indicating adaptability to areas under seasonal water stress. © 2017, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria. All rights reserved.

The paratudo, Tabebuia aurea, is a common Brazilian tree from the Pantanal wetland from Miranda, Mato Grosso do Sul, an area with hydric seasonality. To evaluate the effects of water stress on CO2 exchange, ten-month-old T. aurea seedlings cultivated in planting bags were subjected to water stress by suppressing irrigation for 23 days. Stomatal conductance, transpiration rate, and photosynthetic rate were measured during the stress and recovery period, totaling 28 days, using an infrared portable analyzer. After 23 days without irrigation, the transpiration, stomatal conductance, and net photosynthesis rates in leaflets were zero, while the leaflets water potential reached -2.6 MPa. After this point, daily irrigation was resumed, and the values of the measured variables recovered to the initial levels after 96 hours (transpiration rate from 2.0 to 2.6 mmol m-2 s-1; stomatal conductance rate from 0.12 to 0.18 mol m-2 s-1 and photosynthesis rate from 8.1 to 9.5 µmol m-2 s-1). Furthermore, the hydric potential values were similar to those observed at the beginning of the experiment (-0.5 MPa). The results showed that T. aurea has tolerance to drought, allowing their survival in areas subjected to periodic water stress. © 2017, Universidade Federal de Uberlandia. All rights reserved.

Soil management systems, as those that integrate crop and livestock production, aiming at maintenance or recovering of soil quality, are indispensable for a sustainable agricultural management. Our hypothesis is that the land use for integrated crop-livestock systems improves soil physical properties, thus contributing to a sustainable agricultural soil use in the southwestern Cerrado region. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of different tillage systems on some soil physical properties of the Cerrado. The soil under study was classified as an Oxisol and the following management systems were evaluated: a) soil under natural vegetation; b) soil under soybean for one year followed by three years of pasture; c) soil under soybean for four years, followed by four years of pasture; d) soil under continuous notillage soybean; e) soil under continuous pasture. Soil density, soil penetration resistance and aggregate stability in water were evaluated from 1995-2006. The soil use for continuous Brachiaria decumbens pasture degraded the soil physical properties less than crop-livestock integration and continuous crop systems.

Alho C.J.R.,Anhanguera-Uniderp University | Silva J.S.V.,Embrapa Informatica Agropecuaria
Animals | Year: 2012

Flooding throughout the Pantanal is seasonal. The complex vegetative cover and high seasonal productivity support a diverse and abundant fauna. A gradient in flood level supports a range of major habitats in a complex mosaic with annual seasonality. The rivers and streams are lined with gallery forests, and other arboreal habitats exist in the more elevated areas. The remainder is either grasslands or seasonally flooded grasslands. The regional flora and fauna are adapted to annual water fluctuation. However, an inter-annual series of higher or lower rainfalls has caused either severe floods or drastic dry seasons. Large scale climate phenomena such as greenhouse gases, El Niño and La Niña influence the seasonality of floods and droughts in the Pantanal. Knowledge of severe floods and droughts, which characterize natural disasters, is fundamental for wildlife management and nature conservation of the Pantanal. Plants and wild animals, for example, are affected by tree mortality in riparian forest after extreme flooding, with consequent habitat modification for wild animals. In addition, human activities are also affected since cattle ranching and ecotourism are economically important in the region, and when seasons with unusual floods or droughts occur, areas with human settlements are impacted. © 2012 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

Alho C.J.R.,Anhanguera-Uniderp University
Estudos Avancados | Year: 2012

The Brazilian biodiversity is recognized as one of the most expressive in the terrestrial biosphere and plays an important role to human well-being and health, providing basic products and ecosystem services. The products or goods from natural ecosystems include pharmaceutical material, food such as fishery, timber, and many others. Natural ecosystems also provide essential life-supporting services such as purification of air and water, climate regulation, reproductive and feeding habitats for extractivism, as well as maintenance of organisms responsible for cycling soil nutrients, making them available to plant absorption. Environmental disruption has impacted human well being and health, resulting in severe social poverty with spread of diseases. Increasing in vector-borne and diseases in humans and animals occur as a result of negative anthropogenic interventions in the natural ecosystems.

Sarti E.C.,Anhanguera-Uniderp University
Mycopathologia | Year: 2012

The association between paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) and AIDS is relatively rare in contrast to the higher incidence of other systemic mycosis. The explanation may be that AIDS is still predominantly an urban disease, and the PCM is endemic in Latin American rural areas. The aim of this study was to detect the prevalence of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis infection in HIV-positive patients at an endemic area of paracoccidioidomycosis in Brazil. Skin test with purified 43 kD glycoprotein (gp43) was performed in 90 HIV/AIDS patients. The prevalence found was 12.2% and it may be even greater, considering that HIV/AIDS patients may not respond to the intradermal test, which depends on cellular immunity for its positivity.

The Pantanal biome is characterised by seasonal flooding which determines specific ecosystem processes, with the occurrence of adapted plants and animals to the annual shrinking and expansion of habitats due to the seasonal hydrological regime. Biodiversity abundance varies during the dry and wet seasons. The Pantanal's biodiversity is a fundamental component of ecosystem services for human society, including nutrient cycling, fish production, ecotourism, carbon storage, flood control, among others, which are relevant to regional and global environmental consequences. The biome has been impacted by the conversion of natural vegetation into agricultural fields and pasture for cattle raising, with alteration and loss of natural habitats and biodiversity. Major negative impacts occur in uplands, with drastic deforestation of savanna vegetation, where main rivers feeding the Pantanal have their springs. This article discusses future needs and priorities for ecological research, in order to better understand the biome's natural system, to achieve conservation and sustainable use.

Alho C.J.R.,Anhanguera-Uniderp University | Camargo G.,Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul | Fischer E.,Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul
Brazilian Journal of Biology | Year: 2011

Different works have registered the number of mammal species within the natural habitats of the Pantanal based on currently known records, with species richness ranging from 89 to 152 of annotated occurrences. Our present list sums 174 species. However, at least three factors have to be emphasised to deal with recorded numbers: 1) to establish the ecotone limit between the floodplain (which is the Pantanal) and its neighbouring domain like the Cerrado, besides the existence of maps recently produced; 2) the lack of intensive surveys, especially on small mammals, rodents and marsupials; and 3) the constant taxonomic revision on bats, rodents and marsupials. Some species are very abundant - for example the capybara Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris and the crab-eating fox Cerdocyon thous, and some are rare, and others are still intrinsically rare - for example, the bush dog Speothos venaticus. Abundance of species is assumed to reflect ecological resources of the habitat. Local diversity and number of individuals of wild rodents and marsupials also rely on the offering of ecological resources and behavioural specialisation to microhabitat components. A large number of species interact with the type of the vegetation of the habitat, by means of habitat selection through active patterns of ecological behaviour, resulting on dependency on arboreal and forested habitats of the Pantanal. In addition, mammals respond to seasonal shrinking-and-expansion of habitats due to flooding regime of the Pantanal. The highest number of species is observed during the dry season, when there is a considerable expansion of terrestrial habitats, mainly seasonally flooded grassland. Major threats to mammal species are the loss and alteration of habitats due to human intervention, mainly deforestation, unsustainable agricultural and cattle-ranching practices, which convert the natural vegetation into pastures. The Pantanal still harbours about a dozen of species officially listened as in danger.

Alho C.J.R.,Anhanguera-Uniderp University | Sabino J.,Anhanguera-Uniderp University
Brazilian Journal of Biology | Year: 2011

The Pantanal's biodiversity constitutes a valuable natural resource, in economic, cultural, recreational, aesthetic, scientific and educational terms. The vegetation plus the seasonal productivity support a diverse and abundant fauna. Many endangered species occur in the region, and waterfowl are exceptionally abundant during the dry season. Losses of biodiversity and its associated natural habitats within the Pantanal occur as a result of unsustainable land use. Implementation of protected areas is only a part of the conservation strategy needed. We analyse biodiversity threats to the biome under seven major categories: 1) conversion of natural vegetation into pasture and agricultural crops, 2) destruction or degradation of habitat mainly due to wild fire, 3) overexploitation of species mainly by unsustainable fishing, 4) water pollution, 5) river flow modification with implantation of small hydroelectric plants, 6) unsustainable tourism, and 7) introduction of invasive exotic species.

Brazilian legislation only grants the necessary licenses to build hydroelectric plants (previous license, installation and operation licenses) if environmental impact assessment studies are carried out, and if mitigation and compensatory measures are taken. The formation of a reservoir causes natural habitat loss and significant alteration for wild terrestrial and aquatic mammals, and hydroelectric plants in Amazonia have affected ecological feeding and reproductive habitats of aquatic mammals and chelonians. Monitoring programs carried out in those reservoirs have shown mammals and chelonians fitting their feeding and reproductive behavior repertoire to the new habitat created by reservoirs. During the initial phase of implantation of the hydroelectric reservoir, terrestrial mammal species are taken out of their usual home ranges to already occupied areas, a phenomenon known as the dam's extended effect. The reservoir formed in an area previously without that body of water now has an influence on the phenological rhythms of the surrounding vegetation as well as altering the seasonal phases of the hydrological cycle (flood phase, drying phase, drought, and flooding phase) which aquatic mammals and freshwater turtles' movements fit in with, in function of food availability and appropriate reproductive habitats. Programs to monitor those animal populations can establish guidelines to mitigate environmental impacts by means of proper management procedures for conservation and sustainable use.

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