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Cambridge, United Kingdom

Anglia Ruskin University is a public university in the East of England, United Kingdom. It has about 35,000 students and campuses in Cambridge, Chelmsford and Peterborough. It also shares campuses with the College of West Anglia in King's Lynn, Wisbech and Cambridge.The university was founded in 1858, when the art critic John Ruskin opened the Cambridge School of Art. The school became Anglia Polytechnic after it joined with the Cambridgeshire College of Arts and Technology and the Essex Institute of Higher Education. It became a university in 1992 and was renamed Anglia Ruskin University in 2005. Wikipedia.

Categorical perception of robustly represented faces (self, friend) and unfamiliar faces is investigated, and the relative roles of configural and featural information are examined. Participants performed identification and discrimination tasks on morph series containing the self-face and a friend's face (self-Friend 1), two friends' faces (Friend 2-Friend 3), and two unfamiliar faces (Unfamiliar 1-Unfamiliar 2), presented in upright and inverted orientations. For upright faces, categorical perception effects were observed for both familiar morph series but not for the unfamiliar morph series, suggesting that robust representation is a requirement for categorical perception in facial identity. For inverted faces, categorical perception was observed for the self-Friend 1 morph series only. This suggests that categorical perception is tied to configural processing for familiar non-self-faces, but can be observed for self-faces during featural processing-consistent with evidence that self-face representations contain strong configural and featural components. Finally, categorical perception is not enhanced by the presence of the self-face relative to other familiar faces when upright, but shows a trend of being enhanced for self-faces when inverted, adding to the debate on the ways in which robustly represented faces can elicit categorical perception. © 2012 The Experimental Psychology Society. Source

Baguley D.,University of Cambridge | Baguley D.,Anglia Ruskin University | McFerran D.,Foundation University | Hall D.,National Health Research Institute
The Lancet

Tinnitus is a common medical symptom that can be debilitating. Risk factors include hearing loss, ototoxic medication, head injury, and depression. At presentation, the possibilities of otological disease, anxiety, and depression should be considered. No effective drug treatments are available, although much research is underway into mechanisms and possible treatments. Surgical intervention for any otological pathology associated with tinnitus might be effective for that condition, but the tinnitus can persist. Available treatments include hearing aids when hearing loss is identified (even mild or unilateral), wide-band sound therapy, and counselling. Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is indicated for some patients, but availability of tinnitus-specific CBT in the UK is poor. The evidence base is strongest for a combination of sound therapy and CBT-based counselling, although clinical trials are constrained by the heterogeneity of patients with tinnitus. Source

Evans R.,Anglia Ruskin University
Environmental Science and Policy

The realisation that runoff and soil erosion was a problem came late to Britain and policies to tackle the problem have evolved slowly and may well have a taken a different route to that in other countries. The perception of soil erosion and runoff in Britain by three interest groups (researchers, policy makers and farmers) has changed over time since the 1940s. Prior to 1970 none of the groups considered erosion and runoff were problems. From then to 1985 researchers found that erosion was widespread. Between 1985 and 2005 researchers not only confirmed that erosion was a problem, but that runoff and its impacts (muddy floods and pollution of water courses by sediment, phosphate and pesticides) were also problems. These widespread and costly economic and environmental impacts led policy makers to tackle the problems of erosion and runoff. From 2005 farmers have had to keep their land in 'Good Agricultural and Environmental Condition' by, amongst other things, attempting to curtail erosion and runoff, to comply with regulation in order to receive subsidy. Policy change was also stimulated by changes in the European Union's Common Agricultural Policy and the passing by the EU of the 'Water Framework Directive'. Policy, if it is to be evidence based, will always lag behind research. There is a continuing need for field-based monitoring to assess if regulation is working, to ensure compliance, and as a basis for future policy. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Gane J.,University of Birmingham | Buckley R.,Anglia Ruskin University
Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology: In Practice

Background: Allergic eye diseases are common and cause significant morbidity. Leukotrienes are implicated in the pathogenesis of seasonal and perennial allergic conjunctivitis (AC), commonly seen in conjunction with allergic rhinitis, and in vernal keratoconjunctivitis and atopic keratoconjunctivitis. Objectives: To assess the available evidence for an effect of leukotriene receptor antagonists (LTRAs) on the ocular symptoms of allergic eye diseases. Methods: Selected studies, identified with systematic review search methods, were single/double-blind, randomized, controlled trials that compared LTRAs with other common treatments. Results: Eighteen trials, using the LTRA montelukast (in AC only), were identified. Six studies were suitable for meta-analysis, in patients with seasonal AC [treated over a 2-week period, symptoms scored 0 (mild) to 3 (severe)]. These trials were at low risk of bias without significant heterogeneity. Six trials were analyzed and showed that montelukast improved patients' ocular symptoms to a greater extent than placebo, with a difference in mean change-from-baseline score of -0.10 (95% CI, -0.14 to -0.07; P < .00001). Three trials compared montelukast with oral antihistamine. The difference in mean change-from-baseline score was 0.08 (95% CI, 0.02 to 0.14; P = .007), in favor of antihistamines. Two trials compared montelukast and oral antihistamine with placebo. The difference in mean change-from-baseline score was -0.30 (95% CI, -0.38 to -0.21; P < .00001), in favor of combination treatment. Conclusions: In seasonal AC LTRAs are more efficacious than placebo but less efficacious than oral antihistamines in adult patients. Clinical trials should be conducted to determine whether combination treatment with LTRA and oral antihistamine has a synergistic effect. Further research is required to clarify the role of LTRAs in other allergic eye diseases. © 2012 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Source

This article explores anti-social behaviour on public transport, regarded as a major problem by most transport authorities in Britain. It has been estimated that a passenger increase of more than 11.5% in Britain could be achieved if public concerns over anti-social behaviour could be allayed. The article starts by noting that combating anti-social behaviour has generally been seen as the remit of police and enforcement officers. However, research carried out for Transport for London indicates that for the majority of the travelling public, the forms of anti-social behaviour, which concerns them is more likely to be low-level behaviour, ranging from groups of young people behaving boisterously to people eating food or talking loudly on mobile phones.Using the 'problem solving approach' structure, the article then examines the process by which Transport for London has partially 'uncoupled' anti-social behaviour from criminal activities and then treated the two issues as related but distinct. As a result, a series of policing and enforcement initiatives have been introduced to prevent crime, but a different, unique approach has been taken towards controlling anti-social behaviour. Rather than being tackled as a form of low level criminality, anti-social behaviour is viewed as the outcome of clashing values about appropriate behaviour on public transport. Therefore, the answer to anti-social behaviour lies in minimising these values clashes, rather than concentrating on enforcement against perpetrators. The article describes the resulting large-scale media campaign-the Considerate Traveller Campaign, which was launched in 2008 with the aim of increasing tolerance and consideration for others.The article concludes with a summary of the early evaluation of the campaign, which suggests that it is having some positive effect in changing values and argues that in the longer run, it may be possible to amend the behaviour on public transport without relying so heavily on enforcement measures. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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