ITV Anglia, previously known as Anglia Television or Anglia, is the ITV franchise holder for the East of England. The station is based at Anglia House in Norwich, with regional news bureaux in Cambridge, Ipswich and Northampton. ITV Anglia is owned and operated by ITV plc under the licence name of ITV Broadcasting Limited.ITV Anglia broadcasts to Norfolk, Suffolk, Essex, Cambridgeshire, Northamptonshire, Bedfordshire, northern Hertfordshire, northern Buckinghamshire, southern Lincolnshire, southern Rutland and a small part of southern Leicestershire. Wikipedia.
Proceedings. Biological sciences / The Royal Society | Year: 2013
A central tenet of evolutionary explanations for ageing is that the strength of selection wanes with age. However, data on age-specific expression and benefits of sexually selected traits are lacking-particularly for traits subject to sexual conflict. We addressed this by using as a model the responses of Drosophila melanogaster females of different ages to receipt of sex peptide (SP), a seminal fluid protein transferred with sperm during mating. SP can mediate sexual conflict, benefitting males while causing fitness costs in females. Virgin and mated females of all ages showed significantly reduced receptivity in response to SP. However, only young virgin females also showed increased egg laying; hence, there was a narrow demographic window of maximal responses to SP. Males gained significant 'per mating' fitness benefits only when mating with young females. The pattern completely reversed in matings with older females, where SP transfer was costly. The overall benefits of SP transfer (hence opportunity for selection) therefore reversed with female age. The data reveal a new example of demographic variation in the strength of selection, with convergence and conflicts of interest between males and ageing females occurring over different facets of responses to a sexually antagonistic trait.
Pediatric exercise science | Year: 2011
The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to examine the associations between active commuting behavior, levels of physical activity and distance to school in 9-10 year old children. Participants were children (n = 1824) who took part in the SPEEDY study (Sport, Physical activity and Eating behavior: Environmental Determinants in Young people). For both boys and girls, significant positive associations were observed between walking to school and physical activity and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity during weekday journey times (8-9 am and 3-4 pm), and the size of association also became stronger with increasing distance from school. Promotion of active commuting to school might be an important way to increase levels of physical activity in school children.
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) | Year: 2010
BACKGROUND: Delay in fracture healing is a complex clinical and economic issue for patients and health services. OBJECTIVES: To assess the incremental effectiveness and costs of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) on fracture healing in acute fractures and nonunions compared with standards of care. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched The Cochrane Library (2008, Issue 4), MEDLINE, and other major health and health economics databases (to October 2008). SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and full or partial economic evaluations of BMP for fracture healing in skeletally mature adults. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: All clinical and economic data were extracted by one author and checked by another. MAIN RESULTS: Eleven RCTs, all at high risk of bias, and four economic evaluations were included. Apart from one study, the times to fracture healing were comparable between the BMP and control groups. There was some evidence for increased healing rates, without requiring a secondary procedure, of BMP compared with usual care control in acute, mainly open, tibial fractures (risk ratio (RR) 1.19, 95% CI 0.99 to 1.43). The pooled RR for achieving union for nonunited fractures was 1.02 (95% CI 0.90 to 1.15). One study found no difference in union for patients who had corrective osteotomy for radial malunions. Data from three RCTs indicated that fewer secondary procedures were required for acute fracture patients treated with BMP versus controls (RR 0.65, 95% CI 0.50 to 0.83). Adverse events experienced were infection, hardware failure, pain, donor site morbidity, heterotopic bone formation and immunogenic reactions. The evidence on costs for BMP-2 for acute open tibia fractures is from one large RCT. This indicates that the direct medical costs associated with BMP would generally be higher than treatment with standard care, but this cost difference may decrease as fracture severity increases. Limited evidence suggests that the direct medical costs associated with BMP could be offset by faster healing and reduced time off work for patients with the most severe open tibia fractures. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: This review highlights a paucity of data on the use of BMP in fracture healing as well as considerable industry involvement in currently available evidence. There is limited evidence to suggest that BMP may be more effective than controls for acute tibial fracture healing, however, the use of BMP for treating nonunion remains unclear. The limited available economic evidence indicates that BMP treatment for acute open tibial fractures may be more favourable economically when used in patients with the most severe fractures.
Pharmaceutical research | Year: 2013
To evaluate the role of polymer-surfactant interactions in drug solubilisation/stabilisation during the dissolution of spray-dried solid dispersions and their potential impact on in vivo drug solubilisation and absorption. Dissolution/precipitation tests were performed on spray-dried HPMC-Etravirine solid dispersions to demonstrate the impact of different surfactants on the in vitro performance of the solid dispersions. Interactions between HPMC and bio-relevant and model anionic surfactants (bile salts and SDS respectively) were further characterised using surface tension measurements, fluorescence spectroscopy, DLS and SANS. Fast and complete dissolution was observed in media containing anionic surfactants with no drug recrystallisation within 4 h. The CMCs of bile salts and SDS were dramatically reduced to lower CACs in the presence of HPMC and Etravirine. The maximum increases of the apparent solubility of Etravirine were with the presence of HPMC and SDS/bile salts. The SANS and DLS results indicated the formation of HPMC-SDS/bile salts complexes which encapsulated/solubilised the drug. This study has demonstrated the impact HPMC-anionic surfactant interactions have during the dissolution of non-ionic hydrophilic polymer based solid dispersions and has highlighted the potential relevance of this to a fuller understanding of drug solubilisation/stabilisation in vivo.
RNA biology | Year: 2011
microRNAs are non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression. A significant proportion of microRNAs is perfectly conserved across the vertebrate clade, including miR-140, which is specifically expressed in cartilage. Although it has been computationally predicted that a large majority of microRNA targets are conserved, experimental evidence for this hypothesis remains scarce. In this work we use mRNA expression profiles obtained after manipulation of miR-140 activity levels in human and chicken primary chondrocytes to explore the extent of miR-140 target conservation. Our data suggest that miR-140 has a large number of targets conserved between human and chicken and we validate one of these, BMP2. However, we also found a significant number of non-conserved targets in the two species. In addition, we found that a commercially available scrambled siRNA, which is regularly used as a negative control, regulate the accumulation of many genes.