ITV Anglia, previously known as Anglia Television or Anglia, is the ITV franchise holder for the East of England. The station is based at Anglia House in Norwich, with regional news bureaux in Cambridge, Ipswich and Northampton. ITV Anglia is owned and operated by ITV plc under the licence name of ITV Broadcasting Limited.ITV Anglia broadcasts to Norfolk, Suffolk, Essex, Cambridgeshire, Northamptonshire, Bedfordshire, northern Hertfordshire, northern Buckinghamshire, southern Lincolnshire, southern Rutland and a small part of southern Leicestershire. Wikipedia.
News Article | May 12, 2017
Washington, DC - May 12, 2017 - A team of researchers from the United Kingdom has developed a novel method for assessing human/pathogen interactions in the natural environment, using citizen scientists wearing boot socks over their shoes during walks in the countryside. In the process, they found that slightly less than half of the socks were positive for the gastrointestinal pathogen, Campylobacter. The research is published in Applied and Environmental Microbiology, a journal of the American Society for Microbiology. In the study, groups of volunteer walkers wearing boot socks on one foot took regular four kilometer (two and a half mile) walks on each of six pathways in the countryside, over a 16 month period. The pathways are located in two regions of the UK, the livestock-dominated North West, and East Anglia, much of which is devoted to cropland, said coauthor Natalia Jones, PhD, Senior Research Associate, University of East Anglia. Following the walks, the walkers mailed the socks to the lab, where coauthors used microbial culture and PCR methods to determine the presence, and species of Campylobacter. As measured on boot socks, Campylobacter was more prevalent in livestock-dominated North West than in East Anglia (55.8% of socks, vs 38.6%). Campylobacter peaked during winter in both regions, and peaked again in spring in North West. Precipitation was associated with greater Campylobacter, and higher temperatures with less. The results "are consistent with our understanding of Campylobacter survival and the probability of material adhering to boot socks," according to the report. C. jejuni was the most commonly found species, with C. coli largely restricted to the livestock dominated North West, according to the report. Source attribution analysis suggested that the major source of C. jejuni was sheep in North West, and wild birds in East Anglia. The motivation for the study was the desire to develop an efficient sampling method to explore the potential for transfer of Campylobacter from the environment to humans through visits to the countryside, and to determine whether any such risk varied seasonally, said Jones. Campylobacter is the most common bacterial cause of diarrheal disease in the developed world. "It is known that food is often a source of Campylobacter infections in humans, but we also know that exposure through food cannot explain all the cases seen in the human population," said Jones. "Exploring other potential routes was a key motivation." Conventional sampling is based on sampling from a single point, called spot sampling, and does not sample human-pathogen interactions. "Ultimately, this research could lead to interventions to reduce the risk to humans," said Jones. The American Society for Microbiology is the largest single life science society, composed of over 50,000 scientists and health professionals. ASM's mission is to promote and advance the microbial sciences. ASM advances the microbial sciences through conferences, publications, certifications and educational opportunities. It enhances laboratory capacity around the globe through training and resources. It provides a network for scientists in academia, industry and clinical settings. Additionally, ASM promotes a deeper understanding of the microbial sciences to diverse audiences.
News Article | May 12, 2017
A team of researchers from the United Kingdom has developed a novel method for assessing human/pathogen interactions in the natural environment, using citizen scientists wearing boot socks over their shoes during walks in the countryside. In the process, they found that slightly less than half of the socks were positive for the gastrointestinal pathogen, Campylobacter. The research is published in Applied and Environmental Microbiology, a journal of the American Society for Microbiology. In the study, groups of volunteer walkers wearing boot socks on one foot took regular four kilometer (two and a half mile) walks on each of six pathways in the countryside, over a 16 month period. The pathways are located in two regions of the UK, the livestock-dominated North West, and East Anglia, much of which is devoted to cropland, said coauthor Natalia Jones, PhD, Senior Research Associate, University of East Anglia. Following the walks, the walkers mailed the socks to the lab, where coauthors used microbial culture and PCR methods to determine the presence, and species of Campylobacter. As measured on boot socks, Campylobacter was more prevalent in livestock-dominated North West than in East Anglia (55.8% of socks, vs 38.6%). Campylobacter peaked during winter in both regions, and peaked again in spring in North West. Precipitation was associated with greater Campylobacter, and higher temperatures with less. The results "are consistent with our understanding of Campylobacter survival and the probability of material adhering to boot socks," according to the report. C. jejuni was the most commonly found species, with C. coli largely restricted to the livestock dominated North West, according to the report. Source attribution analysis suggested that the major source of C. jejuni was sheep in North West, and wild birds in East Anglia. The motivation for the study was the desire to develop an efficient sampling method to explore the potential for transfer of Campylobacter from the environment to humans through visits to the countryside, and to determine whether any such risk varied seasonally, said Jones. Campylobacter is the most common bacterial cause of diarrheal disease in the developed world. "It is known that food is often a source of Campylobacter infections in humans, but we also know that exposure through food cannot explain all the cases seen in the human population," said Jones. "Exploring other potential routes was a key motivation." Conventional sampling is based on sampling from a single point, called spot sampling, and does not sample human-pathogen interactions. "Ultimately, this research could lead to interventions to reduce the risk to humans," said Jones. Explore further: The need to feed programs Campylobacter's 'Sat Nav'
News Article | April 1, 2017
At Romford station, in the Essex centre of “taking back control”, there’s a choice of trains into London: those run by the Dutch, or those run by the Chinese. Anyone heading for nearby Basildon has to change at Upminster and pay a fare to the Italian firm that has been operating C2C since January. Welsh railways fell to German-owned Arriva long ago, while ScotRail is also in the hands of the Netherlands’ Abellio. The French, as part of Govia, own much of Britain’s biggest commuter franchises, including Southern Rail. Still, the news last week that South West Trains – serving destinations such as Weymouth and Windsor from Waterloo – would from August be operated by First MTR, partly owned by the Hong Kong government, marked a tipping point in Britain’s rail franchising. With the transfer of this network, which has been operated since 1995 by Britain’s Stagecoach, one in two of the 1.7bn passenger journeys made in the UK each year will be on trains operated by foreign firms. And all of those firms are ultimately owned by foreign states – which outrages unions and others who call rail privatisation into question. Mick Whelan, general secretary of train drivers’ union Aslef, said: “It is savagely ironic that the Tories say they don’t believe in state control, yet are perfectly happy to allow Britain’s train companies to be run by state-owned railways – as long as it’s another state!” Some believe that Britain’s departure from the EU could prompt reform. Mick Cash, general secretary of the RMT union, says: “With the government triggering article 50, and freeing the UK from EU rail directives, there is now no excuse at all for carrying on with the wholesale rip-off that exports British fare payers’ cash overseas.” But few other EU states opened their networks to competition the way Britain has. British firms such as National Express do have contracts in Germany for local and regional networks, but long-term franchises of such scale, revenues and potential profits have been a peculiarly British gift. Yet foreign firms are expanding as domestic transport groups start to question whether they can afford the risk. National Express has quit the UK rail market altogether, selling C2C to Trenitalia this year. Stagecoach let itself be outbid by First MTR, and has struggled with East Coast. Passenger growth has slowed after a recent boom, and at least one losing bidder for the Greater Anglia franchise retained last year by Abellio privately admitted to relief, having seen the figures. One industry source said: “People have been bidding bonkers numbers. But these foreign firms can absorb more risk because they are state-backed.” Train operators’ total UK income in 2015-16 was £12.4bn, including fares and government subsidy, according to the Office of Rail and Road, while expenditure was £12.1bn, only £285m short of that. Dividends paid last year included £15m to Deutsche Bahn via Arriva Wales, £20m to Northern owner (until April 2016) Abellio, and a share of £59m from Govia’s franchises to SNCF. A 2013 report by the Centre for Research on Socio-Cultural Change at the University of Manchester found that the Wales and Northern franchises had paid out similar levels of dividend, £176m, between 2007 and 2011, accounting for all of their profits – profits that wouldn’t exist without £2.5bn in government subsidies. Is this, as the RMT suggests, entirely “plunder”? Not necessarily, said Chris Cheek of Passenger Transport: “You cannot assume that all the money is repatriated. Abellio and Arriva, for example, have bus businesses in the UK, so may well be reinvesting profits in that. Keolis helped build the Nottingham tram extension which opened last year. ” And he says FirstGroup, Stagecoach and National Express all have overseas interests, albeit more bus than rail. According to Paul Plummer of the Rail Delivery Group, which represents train operators, franchising has meant “rail companies from around the world bring new ideas and innovation to Britain’s railway, and railways across the world still want to learn from our successes”. For Aslef’s Whelan, however, the latest foreign incursion underlines how “deeply flawed” franchising is: “We have to ensure that, instead of haemorrhaging money into the pockets of private shareholders or to subsidise the publicly owned railways of other countries, we keep it in Britain either to reinvest in infrastructure, to reduce fares, or to help build the schools and hospitals we need.” Europe Germany’s Deutsche Bahn owns Arriva, which operates Chiltern, Cross Country, Wales & Borders, London Overground and Grand Central. Italy’s Trenitalia now runs Essex Thameside, and French state firm SNCF owns Keolis, which runs numerous franchises in joint ventures. As part of Govia, with Go-Ahead, it operates Thameslink, Great Northern, Southern, Southeastern and London Midland; with Amey it runs the Docklands Light Railway. Dutch state rail owns Abellio, which runs ScotRail and Greater Anglia, and Merseyrail. China Hong Kong state owns MTR, which holds the South West Trains franchise with First. MTR will also run Crossrail.
News Article | May 10, 2017
"Our school has been so proud to follow our students' progress via Twitter recently," said Mel Curtis, Principal of BISC Lincoln Park. "It's been a joy to watch them exercise both their curiosity and creativity with other peers." "It has been an amazing and unique chance to meet people from all over the world," said Selin S., BISC Lincoln Park student. "One of the most inspiring places I have been!" The five-day event, exclusive to Nord Anglia Education students, is a celebration of STEAM subjects bringing students closer to the latest innovations in these fields at MIT. BISC Lincoln Park students participate in activities designed by MIT experts to build their understanding of STEAM through real-world application. Some of the activities include learning about the latest discoveries in cancer research to engineering a device to deliver drugs to tumour cells. Students will also visit MIT and Harvard to get a taste of student life at these prestigious universities. "We are so delighted to give our students this once-in-a-lifetime opportunity to experience STEAM subjects with the best in the world at MIT. Without a doubt, our students will benefit from what they learn at MIT for years to come," said Mark Orrow-Whiting, Director of Curriculum and Student Performance. The MIT-Nord Anglia STEAMFest is one of the unique international experiences offered by Nord Anglia Education schools. Students from the group's 44 schools around the world learn together every day through online, in-school and worldwide experiences designed to nurture key transferable skills. Nord Anglia encourages students to be ambitious and set their sights higher by fostering a global perspective throughout their learning. About The British International School of Chicago, Lincoln Park BISC Lincoln Park is an internationally-minded private institution preparing students two-years old and up to succeed through a values-based education at a state-of-the-art, five-story campus with a true-to-heart Chicago neighborhood feel. Founded in 2001, the school's mission is to provide an ever-evolving experience for ever-evolving learners. BISC Lincoln Park recognizes the uniqueness of each child through learning that promotes challenge and personalized education at all levels. To learn more about BISC Lincoln Park's unique, international private school experience and their new approach STEAM, please visit: http://www.bischicagolp.org/diy. For more information, please contact: British International School of Chicago, Lincoln Park James Haenes Director of Communications Tel: (773) 506-2097 E-mail: email@example.com Nord Anglia Education (NYSE: NORD) is the world's leading premium schools organization. Our 44 international schools are located in China, Europe, the Middle East, Southeast Asia and North America. Together, they educate more than 38,000 students from kindergarten through to the end of secondary education. We are driven by one unifying philosophy – we are ambitious of our students, our people and our family of schools. Our schools deliver a high quality education through a personalised approach enhanced with unique global opportunities to enable every student to succeed. Nord Anglia Education is headquartered in Hong Kong SAR, China. Our website is www.nordangliaeducation.com. To view the original version on PR Newswire, visit:http://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/british-international-school-of-chicago-lincoln-park-students-showcase-their-steam-skills-at-mit-300454697.html
News Article | May 10, 2017
A new generation of higher-powered batteries for phones and cameras could result from ground-breaking research led by scientists at the University of Kent. Researchers from the University's School of Physical Sciences (SPS), working with scientists from other European institutions, formulated a recipe to increase the rate at which a solid material - an artificial mineral - can conduct charge. The team found that a phenomenon known as geometric frustration can be used in this process to increase the charge transport rate in the solid material in a way that is comparable with heating that material. Making use of this phenomenon, the team was able to 'tune' materials to be used in future batteries and fuel cells to speed up ionic conductivity. Lead researcher Dr Dean Sayle and his team in SPS found that geometric frustration broke up the regimented formation of atoms in the material, leading to a more disordered pattern. This disordered pattern allowed the charge to pass through the material at a much higher rate. Dr Sayle said: 'Disorder can be created by geometric frustration which might be understood as randomly giving two kinds of differently sized umbrellas to a regimented parade of people and telling them to put them up and come as close together as the size of the umbrellas allow. 'Naturally, this will lead to a destruction of the former formation towards a disordered formation exhibiting a large number of gaps. Similarly, we used geometric frustration to make the atoms disordered by mixing two differently sized atoms together which increased charge transport by 100,000'. As well as more powerful batteries, the new technique may lead to the development of new energy materials with zero- emissions. The paper, entitled Is Geometric Frustration-Induced Disorder a Recipe for High Ionic Conductivity? (Dean Sayle, Andre Duvel, Alan Chadwick, David Pickup, Silvia Ramos, Lewis Sayle, Emma Sayle, Thi Sayle, all University of Kent; Paul Heitjans, Leibniz Universita?t Hannover Germany; Pavel Fedorov, General Physics Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia; Gudrun Scholz, Humboldt-Universita?t zu Berlin Germany; Giannantonio Cibin, Diamond Light Source UK) is published in the Journal of the American Chemical Society. See: http://pubs. For further information and image requests contact Martin Herrema at the University of Kent Press Office. News releases can also be found at http://www. Established in 1965, the University of Kent - the UK's European university - now has almost 20,000 students across campuses or study centres at Canterbury, Medway, Tonbridge, Brussels, Paris, Athens and Rome. It has been ranked: third for overall student satisfaction in the 2014 National Student Survey; 16th in the Guardian University Guide 2016; 23rd in the Times and Sunday Times University Guide 2016; and 22nd in the Complete University Guide 2015. In the Times Higher Education (THE) World University Rankings 2015-16, Kent is in the top 10% of the world's leading universities for international outlook and 66th in its table of the most international universities in the world. The THE also ranked the University as 20th in its 'Table of Tables' 2016. Kent is ranked 17th in the UK for research intensity (REF 2014). It has world-leading research in all subjects and 97% of its research is deemed by the REF to be of international quality. Along with the universities of East Anglia and Essex, Kent is a member of the Eastern Arc Research Consortium. The University is worth £0.7 billion to the economy of the south east and supports more than 7,800 jobs in the region. Student off-campus spend contributes £293.3m and 2,532 full-time-equivalent jobs to those totals. In 2014, Kent received its second Queen's Anniversary Prize for Higher and Further Education.
News Article | May 11, 2017
As governments are focusing increasingly on industrial growth strategies, offshore wind is becoming a double win for policymakers, says Ray Thompson, Head of Business Development at Siemens Gamesa Renewable Energy. “Offshore wind helps them to achieve carbon targets and to create new jobs.” Thompson explains how the industry managed to bring costs down spectacularly and what is still in store: “Offshore wind is coming to represent a major challenge to competing technologies.” For Ray Thompson, nothing illustrates the progress of offshore wind better than the new Siemens blade manufacturing facility and project execution harbour in Hull in northern England, opened in December last year. “The facilities have already created 800 new jobs and the numbers on site will rise to over 1,000 when full production is reached.” For policymakers the new operations in ‘Green Port Hull’ in Northern England, where skilled manufacturing jobs are scarce, are welcome news. Thompson, who has been involved in the UK energy sector for 35 years and now manages public affairs for Siemens in London (“talking about wind is what I do for a living”), projects like the one in Hull provide the best guarantee for the future of offshore wind. “Offshore wind could easily provide 20-30% of UK electricity supply in future” Wholesale electricity prices in the UK are so low at the moment, he points out, that “there is no business case for any plants, so government will always have to intervene to decide what will be in the mix. And policymakers are increasingly focused on the economic benefits of energy production, in addition to concerns over security of supply, cost and climate.” What this means for offshore wind is “that as long as we are able to offer low costs, there is every reason for them to support us”, says Thompson. And low cost is certainly what the industry is able to offer. “We have seen truly dramatic reductions in our costs”, says Thompson. “In 2012, the UK Government set a target for the industry to achieve a levelised cost of £100/MWh for projects reaching financial close in 2020. Incredibly, the industry has managed to achieve this four years ahead of target, with the projects reaching financial close in 2016 doing so at £97/MWh.” He notes that “in the UK the last auction for support for offshore wind farms again delivered significant cost reductions, with East Anglia and the Neart na Gaoithe projects winning the auctions at much lower prices than previous wind farms. Some European projects recently won auctions at even lower prices, a Danish near shore project successfully won an auction with a bid of less than €50/MWH and while there are some differences to UK projects – developers in Denmark don’t pay development or grid costs – it still indicates fantastic progress in the right direction.” Probably the most important factor in bringing costs down has been the increase in the size of the turbines. “When we installed the London Array project in 2012 – still the largest offshore wind project in the world – it consisted of 175 turbines each generating 3.6MW. For the same size project today we’d be more likely to plan turbines of 7 or 8MW so we could build the same project with around 90 turbines. Installing 90 foundations, 90 cables and the installation activities involved massively reduces the cost of the project compared to 175.” But it’s not just about big turbines, he adds. “We are driving down costs across every part of the business, from design to installation, operation and maintenance. For example, we now have highly specialised installation vessels, designed specifically from the outset for our task. We have better, more experienced crew on the vessel and highly automated lifting kit to ensure safe operations offshore in much higher wind speeds than we ever could before.” “Our aim offshore is to install the turbine components, connect, test and commission the turbine within 24 hours of the vessel being on station at the installation location. Better equipment skills and planning means we are doing in hours what previously took days to achieve.” The new vessels are “part of the industrialisation of the industry which has enabled us to drive down cost”, says Thompson. “We’ve also seen investment from other port operators in facilities across the UK providing us the large marshalling sites we need to safely and effectively execute our offshore projects.” On the operations and maintenance side, the story is the same. “Larger turbines mean fewer components offshore and the change of a design philosophy to direct drive turbines means each turbine has half the number of moving parts compared to previous generations. We’re also better at monitoring and understanding the performance of turbines so our maintenance activities are getting smarter and we’re visiting each turbine less often; a big driver of costs.” “We are likely to see bids beneath the £92.50 offered by the Government to the first of the nuclear plants” On the denominator side of the cost equation is the higher energy production that can now be achieved. Thompson: “Again, all aspects are showing progress. The latest turbines have huge rotor diameters, advanced aerodynamics and more reliable technologies. This ensures that the maximum possible energy production is achieved and, by working with our customers, we are driving up availability and output from the turbines.” The capacity factor of the latest offshore wind farms is already at 50%, he adds. So how far could the development of offshore wind go? How much could it contribute, for example, to UK electricity supply? Thompson: “Wind energy currently supplies 11% of UK electricity demand. Half of that is offshore wind. We have 5 GW of offshore wind installed. Another 30 GW has already been planned or identified. And we hope to do more after that. So offshore wind could easily provide 20-30% of UK electricity supply in future.” He is convinced that this will not create any problems for the power system. “Wind power is variable, but not unpredictable. The people who manage the grid can handle it. Of course it would be crazy to have a system designed entirely around wind. It has to be part of a balanced energy mix. In the UK that means mostly with gas-fired power stations. Coal is rapidly being phased out altogether.” “It’s staggering to think that in not much more than five years, we could have turned a technology seen as prohibitively expensive into the lowest cost, utility-scale technology available” Offshore wind has in fact become so reliable that pension funds and other risk-averse institutional investors are eager to invest in projects, says Thompson. “They are not only willing to invest in completed parks, they are even willing to participate in construction stage investments. This reflects the move of the industry from a new sector to one which is seen as a mature and safe investment. The cost of capital for wind farm investment has fallen dramatically with investors and banks accepting lower returns for the lower levels of risk involved. As the industry has matured so have our customers, and we now have a core of key customers who are experienced in offshore, and this increased sophistication further drives down cost.” How far does Thompson think that cost reductions can still go? “We will shortly get another measure of our progress in the UK as we have the next auction round running across the summer”, he says. “Analysts and our own internal evaluations suggest that the developers will compete aggressively for the support available. We are likely to see bids beneath the £92.50 offered by the Government to the first of the nuclear plants. If the forecasts turn out to be correct, then the point at which offshore wind can compete with the lowest cost of new electricity plants (new build combined cycle gas at around £70-80/MWH) is surely in sight.” He adds that “it’s staggering to think that in not much more than five years, we could have turned a technology seen as prohibitively expensive into the lowest cost, utility-scale technology available.” Beyond the current incremental cost improvements, Thompson believes that the next big step in lower cost will be taken when a next generation of turbines will be built in the 2020s, with even larger capacities. He adds that “the amazing reductions in offshore wind costs present a major challenge to competing technologies, which have an entirely new set of goal posts to aim for.” Perhaps the biggest challenge for the industry now, he says, is “to effectively communicate this message to politicians and decision makers and ensure that having developed a low cost contribution to our low carbon energy needs, we now maximise its deployment.” And this does not have to be confined to the UK or Europe. “The ability to deliver utility-scale projects at such low costs should help the European offshore wind industry to open up new markets for offshore wind, particularly in the United States and Asia.” Check out our new 93-page EV report. Join us for an upcoming Cleantech Revolution Tour conference! 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Agency: GTR | Branch: NERC | Program: | Phase: Research Grant | Award Amount: 98.72K | Year: 2016
Blue Opportunities from the Future is a collaborative project co-designed between the University of East Anglia, the New Anglia Local Enterprise Partnership, Norfolk and Suffolk Coastal Councils, the Environment Agency, Orbis Energy and the RSPB. The project is driven by a desire to make better use of NERC funded research in coastal and marine environments to drive innovation and forward thinking in the delivery of future sustainable management and economic growth. East Anglia is already a centre for delivering advances in this area through its research organisations, forward-thinking local authorities, active wildlife conservation organisations and the Green Economy Pathfinder initiative of the New Anglia Local Enterprise Partnership. This project provides a timely opportunity to broaden regional good practice by taking a more marine-facing view. In the East Anglian region there is growing interest among the institutions involved in planning for the coast and marine sectors in taking a more integrated and opportunity-focused look at the long-term future of our environment. This is driven by a recognition of inevitable on-going coastal change and the potential for significant future changes, for example due to global warming and rising sea level. There is a need to think creatively, adaptively and in an inclusive manner, and to consider future change as an opportunity to do better. By connecting the coastal and offshore zones, and working from a bespoke set of 100 year futures scenarios, this project takes a novel and positive approach to thinking about the future of coastal and marine environments in an integrated way. We will undertake an innovative futures analysis to 2115 to explore the potential future opportunities, spanning land and sea, for East Anglias Blue economy. We will co-create a Blue Futures toolkit of methods and associated knowledge base with which project partners can go on to develop a Blue pathfinder for the region to help drive sustainable blue economic growth. This will provide an exemplar approach that will be disseminated to end-users in other regions in the UK, EU and worldwide. The project will draw upon many aspects of the extensive portfolio of NERC funded and related work at UEA, Cefas, partner organisations and beyond, from ecosystem service valuations (natural capital), to marine biogeochemistry. UEA is well placed to deliver novel creative thinking on future opportunities for sustainable growth, with extensive experience of research into the long-term sustainable futures of complex environments and the impacts of environmental change on economies and society. Integration of our partner groups within the project ensures our work is targeted appropriately and beneficially to maximise utility for the development of sustainable management by local and national bodies throughout the UK and beyond.
RNA biology | Year: 2011
microRNAs are non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression. A significant proportion of microRNAs is perfectly conserved across the vertebrate clade, including miR-140, which is specifically expressed in cartilage. Although it has been computationally predicted that a large majority of microRNA targets are conserved, experimental evidence for this hypothesis remains scarce. In this work we use mRNA expression profiles obtained after manipulation of miR-140 activity levels in human and chicken primary chondrocytes to explore the extent of miR-140 target conservation. Our data suggest that miR-140 has a large number of targets conserved between human and chicken and we validate one of these, BMP2. However, we also found a significant number of non-conserved targets in the two species. In addition, we found that a commercially available scrambled siRNA, which is regularly used as a negative control, regulate the accumulation of many genes.
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) | Year: 2012
Reduction and modification of dietary fats have differing effects on cardiovascular risk factors (such as serum cholesterol), but their effects on important health outcomes are less clear. To assess the effect of reduction and/or modification of dietary fats on mortality, cardiovascular mortality, cardiovascular morbidity and individual outcomes including myocardial infarction, stroke and cancer diagnoses in randomised clinical trials of at least 6 months duration. For this review update, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE and EMBASE, were searched through to June 2010. References of Included studies and reviews were also checked. Trials fulfilled the following criteria: 1) randomised with appropriate control group, 2) intention to reduce or modify fat or cholesterol intake (excluding exclusively omega-3 fat interventions), 3) not multi factorial, 4) adult humans with or without cardiovascular disease, 5) intervention at least six months, 6) mortality or cardiovascular morbidity data available. Participant numbers experiencing health outcomes in each arm were extracted independently in duplicate and random effects meta-analyses, meta-regression, sub-grouping, sensitivity analyses and funnel plots were performed. This updated review suggested that reducing saturated fat by reducing and/or modifying dietary fat reduced the risk of cardiovascular events by 14% (RR 0.86, 95% CI 0.77 to 0.96, 24 comparisons, 65,508 participants of whom 7% had a cardiovascular event, I(2) 50%). Subgrouping suggested that this reduction in cardiovascular events was seen in studies of fat modification (not reduction - which related directly to the degree of effect on serum total and LDL cholesterol and triglycerides), of at least two years duration and in studies of men (not of women). There were no clear effects of dietary fat changes on total mortality (RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.93 to 1.04, 71,790 participants) or cardiovascular mortality (RR 0.94, 95% CI 0.85 to 1.04, 65,978 participants). This did not alter with sub-grouping or sensitivity analysis.Few studies compared reduced with modified fat diets, so direct comparison was not possible. The findings are suggestive of a small but potentially important reduction in cardiovascular risk on modification of dietary fat, but not reduction of total fat, in longer trials. Lifestyle advice to all those at risk of cardiovascular disease and to lower risk population groups, should continue to include permanent reduction of dietary saturated fat and partial replacement by unsaturates. The ideal type of unsaturated fat is unclear.
Neurorehabilitation and neural repair | Year: 2011
This third chapter discusses the evidence for the rehabilitation of the most common movement disorders of the upper extremity. The authors also present a framework, building on the computation, anatomy, and physiology (CAP) model, for incorporating some of the principles discussed in the 2 previous chapters by Frey et al and Sathian et al in the practice of rehabilitation and for discussing potentially helpful interventions based on emergent neuroscience principles.