Helsinki, Finland
Helsinki, Finland

ITV Anglia, previously known as Anglia Television or Anglia, is the ITV franchise holder for the East of England. The station is based at Anglia House in Norwich, with regional news bureaux in Cambridge, Ipswich and Northampton. ITV Anglia is owned and operated by ITV plc under the licence name of ITV Broadcasting Limited.ITV Anglia broadcasts to Norfolk, Suffolk, Essex, Cambridgeshire, Northamptonshire, Bedfordshire, northern Hertfordshire, northern Buckinghamshire, southern Lincolnshire, southern Rutland and a small part of southern Leicestershire. Wikipedia.


Time filter

Source Type

News Article | April 25, 2017
Site: www.bbc.co.uk

A computer hacker has been jailed for two years for masterminding global online attacks as a teenager from his bedroom in Hertfordshire. Adam Mudd, now 20, admitted creating malware in 2013 which was used to carry out 1.7 million cyber attacks. Among the victims were gaming websites including Minecraft, Xbox Live and the fantasy game Runescape, the Old Bailey heard. Judge Michael Topolski said Mudd "knew full well this was not a game". Mudd, who has autism, will serve his sentence in a young offenders institution. The judge said he could not suspend the jail term because he needed the sentence to be a "real" deterrent to others. Mudd was 16 when he developed a programme called Titanium Stresser, the court heard. He set it up using a false name and an address in Manchester. It had 112,000 registered users, who in turn attacked 666,000 IP addresses globally. The attacks, known as 'distributed denials of service', left companies paying millions to defend themselves against it. The teenager earned more than £386,000 worth of US dollars and Bitcoins from selling the programme to international cyber criminals. The Old Bailey heard that he also personally carried out 594 attacks, including one on West Herts College where he was studying computer science. Mudd also targeted up to 70 schools and colleges, including the University of Cambridge, University of Essex and University of East Anglia, as well as local councils. Police said that when he was arrested in March 2015, Mudd was in the bedroom of his home in King's Langley and refused to unlock his computer until his father intervened. During sentencing Judge Topolski noted that Mudd came from a "perfectly respectable and caring family" but the effect of his crimes had caused damage "from Greenland to New Zealand and from Russia to Chile". "I'm entirely satisfied that you knew full well and understood completely this was not a game for fun," he told Mudd. "It was a serious money-making business and your software was doing exactly what you created it to do".


News Article | April 26, 2017
Site: marketersmedia.com

LONDON, UK / ACCESSWIRE / April 26, 2017 / Active Wall St. blog coverage looks at the headline from Hong Kong based Nord Anglia Education, Inc. (NYSE: NORD) as the Company announced on April 25, 2017, that it had signed an agreement to be acquired by Bach Finance Limited. Bach Finance is owned by a consortium of funds affiliated with Canada Pension Plan Investment Board (CPPIB) and Baring Private Equity Asia (BPEA). The transaction value of the deal is approximately $4.3 billion including debt. Register with us now for your free membership and blog access at: One of Nord Anglia Education's competitors within the Education & Training Services space, Capella Education Co. (NASDAQ: CPLA), announced on April 25, 2017, its financial results for the three months ended March 31, 2017. AWS will be initiating a research report on Capella Education in the coming days. Today, AWS is promoting its blog coverage on NORD; touching on CPLA. Get all of our free blog coverage and more by clicking on the link below: Nord Anglia is the world's leading premium school organization. It runs a network of 43 international schools, boarding schools, and private schools located in 15 countries across the world including China, Europe, Middle East, North America, and South East Asia. It caters to the education needs of more than 37,000 students who are in the age group of 2 years to 18 years. Nord Anglia has also collaborated with iconic institutions like The Juilliard School, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), and Kings College London for post-secondary education. Commenting on the acquisition, Deborah Orida, Managing Director, Head of Private Equity Asia, CPPIB said: "This investment in Nord Anglia is an excellent fit with our strategy to build a diversified portfolio capable of delivering strong, sustainable returns to the Canada Pension Plan Fund over the long term. This is CPPIB's first direct equity investment in private education and through Nord Anglia we are able to gain both asset and geographical diversification." "BPEA is passionate about making education of the highest quality available to children all over the world, and we believe Nord Anglia is the ideal partner to achieve that goal. After nine years, we have developed a thorough understanding of the business and have high conviction that Nord Anglia's future is even more promising than its past." As per the agreement, the consortium would acquire all the outstanding shares of Nord Anglia at $32.50 in cash. The offer price represents a 18% premium of Nord Anglia's closing price of $27.62 on April 24, 2017, a day before the deal was announced. Nord Anglia's Board of Directors have already approved this deal. The transaction has a provision for a 30-day "go-shop" period wherein Nord Anglia can explore offers from other potential suitors. A Special Committee has been formed which consists of independent directors who are not affiliated to CPPIB or BPEA. This Special Committee will study each offer received in detail and will be authorized to negotiate and even enter into agreements with them. CPPIB and BPEA will be financing the deal using cash available with them and debt from financial institutions. There are no other financing conditions for the closing of the deal. The transaction is expected to close before August 31, 2017, which is the last day of the fiscal year for Nord Anglia. The deal is subject to approval from Nord Anglia's shareholders, and other closing conditions. BPEA is a majority shareholder in Nord Anglia via its affiliate Premier Education Holdings Ltd who holds 67% stake and has agreed to vote in favor of the merger transaction. On completion of the merger, Nord Anglia will delist from New York Stock Exchange and become a fully privately held entity. The privatization of Nord Anglia will allow it to continue to grow in the premium education sector globally. Especially as demand for quality education, in the kindergarten to grade 12 segment, rises globally. Also with the exposure and support from CPPIB and BPEA, Nord Anglia will be able to grow geographically and at the same time attract the best teaching talents. The deal will also open opportunities for collaboration with other premium education institutions, which will benefit the students and the brand tremendously. The education sector consists mostly of single-site operators, which gives a brand like Nord Anglia major opportunities to grow. Hong Kong based BPEA was founded in 1997 and has a total committed capital of over $10 billion. BPEA works closely with the portfolio Companies that it has invested in and helps them grow their business in the long run by way of capital for expansion, recapitalization, or strategic alternatives like acquisitions. It has invested in more than 70 Companies since its formation. It is predominantly active in Asia with offices in Shanghai, Beijing, Mumbai, Singapore, Tokyo, and Jakarta. It is supported by a global team of over 140 professionals. BPEA had already made significant investment in Nord Anglia in 2008 via its affiliates. Toronto, Canada based, CPPIB is a professional investment management organization that invests the funds not required for payment of benefits to the contributors of the Canada Pension Plan (CPP). It also has offices at Hong Kong, London, Luxembourg, Mumbai, New York City, São Paulo and Sydney. It invests in public equities, private equities, real estate, infrastructure and fixed income instruments. CPP had a fund of $298.1 billion as of December 31, 2016. Nord Anglia is CPPIB's first direct equity investment in the private education sector. On Tuesday, April 25, 2017, the stock closed the trading session at $32.82, surging 18.83% from its previous closing price of $27.62. A total volume of 7.92 million shares have exchanged hands, which was higher than the 3-month average volume of 130.45 thousand shares. Nord Anglia Education's stock price advanced 47.11% in the last three months, 49.52% in the past six months, and 53.22% in the previous twelve months. Shares of the company have a PE ratio of 62.99. At Tuesday's closing price, the stock's net capitalization stands at $3.43 billion. Active Wall Street (AWS) produces regular sponsored and non-sponsored reports, articles, stock market blogs, and popular investment newsletters covering equities listed on NYSE and NASDAQ and micro-cap stocks. AWS has two distinct and independent departments. One department produces non-sponsored analyst certified content generally in the form of press releases, articles and reports covering equities listed on NYSE and NASDAQ and the other produces sponsored content (in most cases not reviewed by a registered analyst), which typically consists of compensated investment newsletters, articles and reports covering listed stocks and micro-caps. Such sponsored content is outside the scope of procedures detailed below. AWS has not been compensated; directly or indirectly; for producing or publishing this document. The non-sponsored content contained herein has been prepared by a writer (the "Author") and is fact checked and reviewed by a third party research service company (the "Reviewer") represented by a credentialed financial analyst, for further information on analyst credentials, please email info@activewallst.com. Rohit Tuli, a CFA® charterholder (the "Sponsor"), provides necessary guidance in preparing the document templates. The Reviewer has reviewed and revised the content, as necessary, based on publicly available information which is believed to be reliable. Content is researched, written and reviewed on a reasonable-effort basis. The Reviewer has not performed any independent investigations or forensic audits to validate the information herein. The Reviewer has only independently reviewed the information provided by the Author according to the procedures outlined by AWS. AWS is not entitled to veto or interfere in the application of such procedures by the third-party research service company to the articles, documents or reports, as the case may be. Unless otherwise noted, any content outside of this document has no association with the Author or the Reviewer in any way. AWS, the Author, and the Reviewer are not responsible for any error which may be occasioned at the time of printing of this document or any error, mistake or shortcoming. No liability is accepted whatsoever for any direct, indirect or consequential loss arising from the use of this document. AWS, the Author, and the Reviewer expressly disclaim any fiduciary responsibility or liability for any consequences, financial or otherwise arising from any reliance placed on the information in this document. Additionally, AWS, the Author, and the Reviewer do not (1) guarantee the accuracy, timeliness, completeness or correct sequencing of the information, or (2) warrant any results from use of the information. The included information is subject to change without notice. This document is not intended as an offering, recommendation, or a solicitation of an offer to buy or sell the securities mentioned or discussed, and is to be used for informational purposes only. Please read all associated disclosures and disclaimers in full before investing. Neither AWS nor any party affiliated with us is a registered investment adviser or broker-dealer with any agency or in any jurisdiction whatsoever. To download our report(s), read our disclosures, or for more information, visit http://www.activewallst.com/disclaimer/. For any questions, inquiries, or comments reach out to us directly. If you're a company we are covering and wish to no longer feature on our coverage list contact us via email and/or phone between 09:30 EDT to 16:00 EDT from Monday to Friday at: CFA® and Chartered Financial Analyst® are registered trademarks owned by CFA Institute. LONDON, UK / ACCESSWIRE / April 26, 2017 / Active Wall St. blog coverage looks at the headline from Hong Kong based Nord Anglia Education, Inc. (NYSE: NORD) as the Company announced on April 25, 2017, that it had signed an agreement to be acquired by Bach Finance Limited. Bach Finance is owned by a consortium of funds affiliated with Canada Pension Plan Investment Board (CPPIB) and Baring Private Equity Asia (BPEA). The transaction value of the deal is approximately $4.3 billion including debt. Register with us now for your free membership and blog access at: One of Nord Anglia Education's competitors within the Education & Training Services space, Capella Education Co. (NASDAQ: CPLA), announced on April 25, 2017, its financial results for the three months ended March 31, 2017. AWS will be initiating a research report on Capella Education in the coming days. Today, AWS is promoting its blog coverage on NORD; touching on CPLA. Get all of our free blog coverage and more by clicking on the link below: Nord Anglia is the world's leading premium school organization. It runs a network of 43 international schools, boarding schools, and private schools located in 15 countries across the world including China, Europe, Middle East, North America, and South East Asia. It caters to the education needs of more than 37,000 students who are in the age group of 2 years to 18 years. Nord Anglia has also collaborated with iconic institutions like The Juilliard School, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), and Kings College London for post-secondary education. Commenting on the acquisition, Deborah Orida, Managing Director, Head of Private Equity Asia, CPPIB said: "This investment in Nord Anglia is an excellent fit with our strategy to build a diversified portfolio capable of delivering strong, sustainable returns to the Canada Pension Plan Fund over the long term. This is CPPIB's first direct equity investment in private education and through Nord Anglia we are able to gain both asset and geographical diversification." "BPEA is passionate about making education of the highest quality available to children all over the world, and we believe Nord Anglia is the ideal partner to achieve that goal. After nine years, we have developed a thorough understanding of the business and have high conviction that Nord Anglia's future is even more promising than its past." As per the agreement, the consortium would acquire all the outstanding shares of Nord Anglia at $32.50 in cash. The offer price represents a 18% premium of Nord Anglia's closing price of $27.62 on April 24, 2017, a day before the deal was announced. Nord Anglia's Board of Directors have already approved this deal. The transaction has a provision for a 30-day "go-shop" period wherein Nord Anglia can explore offers from other potential suitors. A Special Committee has been formed which consists of independent directors who are not affiliated to CPPIB or BPEA. This Special Committee will study each offer received in detail and will be authorized to negotiate and even enter into agreements with them. CPPIB and BPEA will be financing the deal using cash available with them and debt from financial institutions. There are no other financing conditions for the closing of the deal. The transaction is expected to close before August 31, 2017, which is the last day of the fiscal year for Nord Anglia. The deal is subject to approval from Nord Anglia's shareholders, and other closing conditions. BPEA is a majority shareholder in Nord Anglia via its affiliate Premier Education Holdings Ltd who holds 67% stake and has agreed to vote in favor of the merger transaction. On completion of the merger, Nord Anglia will delist from New York Stock Exchange and become a fully privately held entity. The privatization of Nord Anglia will allow it to continue to grow in the premium education sector globally. Especially as demand for quality education, in the kindergarten to grade 12 segment, rises globally. Also with the exposure and support from CPPIB and BPEA, Nord Anglia will be able to grow geographically and at the same time attract the best teaching talents. The deal will also open opportunities for collaboration with other premium education institutions, which will benefit the students and the brand tremendously. The education sector consists mostly of single-site operators, which gives a brand like Nord Anglia major opportunities to grow. Hong Kong based BPEA was founded in 1997 and has a total committed capital of over $10 billion. BPEA works closely with the portfolio Companies that it has invested in and helps them grow their business in the long run by way of capital for expansion, recapitalization, or strategic alternatives like acquisitions. It has invested in more than 70 Companies since its formation. It is predominantly active in Asia with offices in Shanghai, Beijing, Mumbai, Singapore, Tokyo, and Jakarta. It is supported by a global team of over 140 professionals. BPEA had already made significant investment in Nord Anglia in 2008 via its affiliates. Toronto, Canada based, CPPIB is a professional investment management organization that invests the funds not required for payment of benefits to the contributors of the Canada Pension Plan (CPP). It also has offices at Hong Kong, London, Luxembourg, Mumbai, New York City, São Paulo and Sydney. It invests in public equities, private equities, real estate, infrastructure and fixed income instruments. CPP had a fund of $298.1 billion as of December 31, 2016. Nord Anglia is CPPIB's first direct equity investment in the private education sector. On Tuesday, April 25, 2017, the stock closed the trading session at $32.82, surging 18.83% from its previous closing price of $27.62. A total volume of 7.92 million shares have exchanged hands, which was higher than the 3-month average volume of 130.45 thousand shares. Nord Anglia Education's stock price advanced 47.11% in the last three months, 49.52% in the past six months, and 53.22% in the previous twelve months. Shares of the company have a PE ratio of 62.99. At Tuesday's closing price, the stock's net capitalization stands at $3.43 billion. Active Wall Street (AWS) produces regular sponsored and non-sponsored reports, articles, stock market blogs, and popular investment newsletters covering equities listed on NYSE and NASDAQ and micro-cap stocks. AWS has two distinct and independent departments. One department produces non-sponsored analyst certified content generally in the form of press releases, articles and reports covering equities listed on NYSE and NASDAQ and the other produces sponsored content (in most cases not reviewed by a registered analyst), which typically consists of compensated investment newsletters, articles and reports covering listed stocks and micro-caps. Such sponsored content is outside the scope of procedures detailed below. AWS has not been compensated; directly or indirectly; for producing or publishing this document. The non-sponsored content contained herein has been prepared by a writer (the "Author") and is fact checked and reviewed by a third party research service company (the "Reviewer") represented by a credentialed financial analyst, for further information on analyst credentials, please email info@activewallst.com. Rohit Tuli, a CFA® charterholder (the "Sponsor"), provides necessary guidance in preparing the document templates. The Reviewer has reviewed and revised the content, as necessary, based on publicly available information which is believed to be reliable. Content is researched, written and reviewed on a reasonable-effort basis. The Reviewer has not performed any independent investigations or forensic audits to validate the information herein. The Reviewer has only independently reviewed the information provided by the Author according to the procedures outlined by AWS. AWS is not entitled to veto or interfere in the application of such procedures by the third-party research service company to the articles, documents or reports, as the case may be. Unless otherwise noted, any content outside of this document has no association with the Author or the Reviewer in any way. AWS, the Author, and the Reviewer are not responsible for any error which may be occasioned at the time of printing of this document or any error, mistake or shortcoming. No liability is accepted whatsoever for any direct, indirect or consequential loss arising from the use of this document. AWS, the Author, and the Reviewer expressly disclaim any fiduciary responsibility or liability for any consequences, financial or otherwise arising from any reliance placed on the information in this document. Additionally, AWS, the Author, and the Reviewer do not (1) guarantee the accuracy, timeliness, completeness or correct sequencing of the information, or (2) warrant any results from use of the information. The included information is subject to change without notice. This document is not intended as an offering, recommendation, or a solicitation of an offer to buy or sell the securities mentioned or discussed, and is to be used for informational purposes only. Please read all associated disclosures and disclaimers in full before investing. Neither AWS nor any party affiliated with us is a registered investment adviser or broker-dealer with any agency or in any jurisdiction whatsoever. To download our report(s), read our disclosures, or for more information, visit http://www.activewallst.com/disclaimer/. For any questions, inquiries, or comments reach out to us directly. If you're a company we are covering and wish to no longer feature on our coverage list contact us via email and/or phone between 09:30 EDT to 16:00 EDT from Monday to Friday at: CFA® and Chartered Financial Analyst® are registered trademarks owned by CFA Institute.


Grant
Agency: GTR | Branch: NERC | Program: | Phase: Research Grant | Award Amount: 98.72K | Year: 2016

Blue Opportunities from the Future is a collaborative project co-designed between the University of East Anglia, the New Anglia Local Enterprise Partnership, Norfolk and Suffolk Coastal Councils, the Environment Agency, Orbis Energy and the RSPB. The project is driven by a desire to make better use of NERC funded research in coastal and marine environments to drive innovation and forward thinking in the delivery of future sustainable management and economic growth. East Anglia is already a centre for delivering advances in this area through its research organisations, forward-thinking local authorities, active wildlife conservation organisations and the Green Economy Pathfinder initiative of the New Anglia Local Enterprise Partnership. This project provides a timely opportunity to broaden regional good practice by taking a more marine-facing view. In the East Anglian region there is growing interest among the institutions involved in planning for the coast and marine sectors in taking a more integrated and opportunity-focused look at the long-term future of our environment. This is driven by a recognition of inevitable on-going coastal change and the potential for significant future changes, for example due to global warming and rising sea level. There is a need to think creatively, adaptively and in an inclusive manner, and to consider future change as an opportunity to do better. By connecting the coastal and offshore zones, and working from a bespoke set of 100 year futures scenarios, this project takes a novel and positive approach to thinking about the future of coastal and marine environments in an integrated way. We will undertake an innovative futures analysis to 2115 to explore the potential future opportunities, spanning land and sea, for East Anglias Blue economy. We will co-create a Blue Futures toolkit of methods and associated knowledge base with which project partners can go on to develop a Blue pathfinder for the region to help drive sustainable blue economic growth. This will provide an exemplar approach that will be disseminated to end-users in other regions in the UK, EU and worldwide. The project will draw upon many aspects of the extensive portfolio of NERC funded and related work at UEA, Cefas, partner organisations and beyond, from ecosystem service valuations (natural capital), to marine biogeochemistry. UEA is well placed to deliver novel creative thinking on future opportunities for sustainable growth, with extensive experience of research into the long-term sustainable futures of complex environments and the impacts of environmental change on economies and society. Integration of our partner groups within the project ensures our work is targeted appropriately and beneficially to maximise utility for the development of sustainable management by local and national bodies throughout the UK and beyond.


microRNAs are non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression. A significant proportion of microRNAs is perfectly conserved across the vertebrate clade, including miR-140, which is specifically expressed in cartilage. Although it has been computationally predicted that a large majority of microRNA targets are conserved, experimental evidence for this hypothesis remains scarce. In this work we use mRNA expression profiles obtained after manipulation of miR-140 activity levels in human and chicken primary chondrocytes to explore the extent of miR-140 target conservation. Our data suggest that miR-140 has a large number of targets conserved between human and chicken and we validate one of these, BMP2. However, we also found a significant number of non-conserved targets in the two species. In addition, we found that a commercially available scrambled siRNA, which is regularly used as a negative control, regulate the accumulation of many genes.


To evaluate the role of polymer-surfactant interactions in drug solubilisation/stabilisation during the dissolution of spray-dried solid dispersions and their potential impact on in vivo drug solubilisation and absorption. Dissolution/precipitation tests were performed on spray-dried HPMC-Etravirine solid dispersions to demonstrate the impact of different surfactants on the in vitro performance of the solid dispersions. Interactions between HPMC and bio-relevant and model anionic surfactants (bile salts and SDS respectively) were further characterised using surface tension measurements, fluorescence spectroscopy, DLS and SANS. Fast and complete dissolution was observed in media containing anionic surfactants with no drug recrystallisation within 4 h. The CMCs of bile salts and SDS were dramatically reduced to lower CACs in the presence of HPMC and Etravirine. The maximum increases of the apparent solubility of Etravirine were with the presence of HPMC and SDS/bile salts. The SANS and DLS results indicated the formation of HPMC-SDS/bile salts complexes which encapsulated/solubilised the drug. This study has demonstrated the impact HPMC-anionic surfactant interactions have during the dissolution of non-ionic hydrophilic polymer based solid dispersions and has highlighted the potential relevance of this to a fuller understanding of drug solubilisation/stabilisation in vivo.


Fricke C.,Anglia
Proceedings. Biological sciences / The Royal Society | Year: 2013

A central tenet of evolutionary explanations for ageing is that the strength of selection wanes with age. However, data on age-specific expression and benefits of sexually selected traits are lacking-particularly for traits subject to sexual conflict. We addressed this by using as a model the responses of Drosophila melanogaster females of different ages to receipt of sex peptide (SP), a seminal fluid protein transferred with sperm during mating. SP can mediate sexual conflict, benefitting males while causing fitness costs in females. Virgin and mated females of all ages showed significantly reduced receptivity in response to SP. However, only young virgin females also showed increased egg laying; hence, there was a narrow demographic window of maximal responses to SP. Males gained significant 'per mating' fitness benefits only when mating with young females. The pattern completely reversed in matings with older females, where SP transfer was costly. The overall benefits of SP transfer (hence opportunity for selection) therefore reversed with female age. The data reveal a new example of demographic variation in the strength of selection, with convergence and conflicts of interest between males and ageing females occurring over different facets of responses to a sexually antagonistic trait.


Hooper L.,Anglia
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) | Year: 2012

Reduction and modification of dietary fats have differing effects on cardiovascular risk factors (such as serum cholesterol), but their effects on important health outcomes are less clear. To assess the effect of reduction and/or modification of dietary fats on mortality, cardiovascular mortality, cardiovascular morbidity and individual outcomes including myocardial infarction, stroke and cancer diagnoses in randomised clinical trials of at least 6 months duration. For this review update, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE and EMBASE, were searched through to June 2010. References of Included studies and reviews were also checked. Trials fulfilled the following criteria: 1) randomised with appropriate control group, 2) intention to reduce or modify fat or cholesterol intake (excluding exclusively omega-3 fat interventions), 3) not multi factorial, 4) adult humans with or without cardiovascular disease, 5) intervention at least six months, 6) mortality or cardiovascular morbidity data available. Participant numbers experiencing health outcomes in each arm were extracted independently in duplicate and random effects meta-analyses, meta-regression, sub-grouping, sensitivity analyses and funnel plots were performed. This updated review suggested that reducing saturated fat by reducing and/or modifying dietary fat reduced the risk of cardiovascular events by 14% (RR 0.86, 95% CI 0.77 to 0.96, 24 comparisons, 65,508 participants of whom 7% had a cardiovascular event, I(2) 50%). Subgrouping suggested that this reduction in cardiovascular events was seen in studies of fat modification (not reduction - which related directly to the degree of effect on serum total and LDL cholesterol and triglycerides), of at least two years duration and in studies of men (not of women). There were no clear effects of dietary fat changes on total mortality (RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.93 to 1.04, 71,790 participants) or cardiovascular mortality (RR 0.94, 95% CI 0.85 to 1.04, 65,978 participants). This did not alter with sub-grouping or sensitivity analysis.Few studies compared reduced with modified fat diets, so direct comparison was not possible. The findings are suggestive of a small but potentially important reduction in cardiovascular risk on modification of dietary fat, but not reduction of total fat, in longer trials. Lifestyle advice to all those at risk of cardiovascular disease and to lower risk population groups, should continue to include permanent reduction of dietary saturated fat and partial replacement by unsaturates. The ideal type of unsaturated fat is unclear.


Kwok C.S.,Anglia
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) | Year: 2012

Viral warts are a common skin condition, which can range in severity from a minor nuisance that resolve spontaneously to a troublesome, chronic condition. Many different topical treatments are available. To evaluate the efficacy of local treatments for cutaneous non-genital warts in healthy, immunocompetent adults and children. We updated our searches of the following databases to May 2011: the Cochrane Skin Group Specialised Register, CENTRAL in The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE (from 2005), EMBASE (from 2010), AMED (from 1985), LILACS (from 1982), and CINAHL (from 1981). We searched reference lists of articles and online trials registries for ongoing trials. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of topical treatments for cutaneous non-genital warts. Two authors independently selected trials and extracted data; a third author resolved any disagreements. We included 85 trials involving a total of 8815 randomised participants (26 new studies were included in this update). There was a wide range of different treatments and a variety of trial designs. Many of the studies were judged to be at high risk of bias in one or more areas of trial design.Trials of salicylic acid (SA) versus placebo showed that the former significantly increased the chance of clearance of warts at all sites (RR (risk ratio) 1.56, 95% CI (confidence interval) 1.20 to 2.03). Subgroup analysis for different sites, hands (RR 2.67, 95% CI 1.43 to 5.01) and feet (RR 1.29, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.55), suggested it might be more effective for hands than feet.A meta-analysis of cryotherapy versus placebo for warts at all sites favoured neither intervention nor control (RR 1.45, 95% CI 0.65 to 3.23). Subgroup analysis for different sites, hands (RR 2.63, 95% CI 0.43 to 15.94) and feet (RR 0.90, 95% CI 0.26 to 3.07), again suggested better outcomes for hands than feet. One trial showed cryotherapy to be better than both placebo and SA, but only for hand warts.There was no significant difference in cure rates between cryotherapy at 2-, 3-, and 4-weekly intervals.Aggressive cryotherapy appeared more effective than gentle cryotherapy (RR 1.90, 95% CI 1.15 to 3.15), but with increased adverse effects.Meta-analysis did not demonstrate a significant difference in effectiveness between cryotherapy and SA at all sites (RR 1.23, 95% CI 0.88 to 1.71) or in subgroup analyses for hands and feet.Two trials with 328 participants showed that SA and cryotherapy combined appeared more effective than SA alone (RR 1.24, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.43).The benefit of intralesional bleomycin remains uncertain as the evidence was inconsistent. The most informative trial with 31 participants showed no significant difference in cure rate between bleomycin and saline injections (RR 1.28, 95% CI 0.92 to 1.78).Dinitrochlorobenzene was more than twice as effective as placebo in 2 trials with 80 participants (RR 2.12, 95% CI 1.38 to 3.26).Two trials of clear duct tape with 193 participants demonstrated no advantage over placebo (RR 1.43, 95% CI 0.51 to 4.05).We could not combine data from trials of the following treatments: intralesional 5-fluorouracil, topical zinc, silver nitrate (which demonstrated possible beneficial effects), topical 5-fluorouracil, pulsed dye laser, photodynamic therapy, 80% phenol, 5% imiquimod cream, intralesional antigen, and topical alpha-lactalbumin-oleic acid (which showed no advantage over placebo).We did not identify any RCTs that evaluated surgery (curettage, excision), formaldehyde, podophyllotoxin, cantharidin, diphencyprone, or squaric acid dibutylester. Data from two new trials comparing SA and cryotherapy have allowed a better appraisal of their effectiveness. The evidence remains more consistent for SA, but only shows a modest therapeutic effect. Overall, trials comparing cryotherapy with placebo showed no significant difference in effectiveness, but the same was also true for trials comparing cryotherapy with SA. Only one trial showed cryotherapy to be better than both SA and placebo, and this was only for hand warts. Adverse effects, such as pain, blistering, and scarring, were not consistently reported but are probably more common with cryotherapy.None of the other reviewed treatments appeared safer or more effective than SA and cryotherapy. Two trials of clear duct tape demonstrated no advantage over placebo. Dinitrochlorobenzene (and possibly other similar contact sensitisers) may be useful for the treatment of refractory warts.


Pomeroy V.,Anglia
Neurorehabilitation and neural repair | Year: 2011

This third chapter discusses the evidence for the rehabilitation of the most common movement disorders of the upper extremity. The authors also present a framework, building on the computation, anatomy, and physiology (CAP) model, for incorporating some of the principles discussed in the 2 previous chapters by Frey et al and Sathian et al in the practice of rehabilitation and for discussing potentially helpful interventions based on emergent neuroscience principles.


Campbell S.E.,Anglia
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) | Year: 2012

Urinary incontinence is common after both radical prostatectomy and transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP). Conservative management includes pelvic floor muscle training with or without biofeedback, electrical stimulation, extra-corporeal magnetic innervation (ExMI), compression devices (penile clamps), lifestyle changes, or a combination of methods. To assess the effects of conservative management for urinary incontinence after prostatectomy. We searched the Cochrane Incontinence Group Specialised Register (searched 24 August 2011), EMBASE (January 1980 to Week 48 2009), CINAHL (January 1982 to 20 November 2009), the reference lists of relevant articles, handsearched conference proceedings and contacted investigators to locate studies. Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials evaluating conservative interventions for urinary continence in men after prostatectomy. Two or more review authors assessed the methodological quality of trials and abstracted data. We tried to contact several authors of included studies to obtain extra information. Thirty-seven trials met the inclusion criteria, 33 amongst men after radical prostatectomy, three trials after transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) and one trial after either operation. The trials included 3399 men, of whom 1937 had an active conservative intervention.  There was considerable variation in the interventions, populations and outcome measures.  Data were not available for many of the pre-stated outcomes.  Men's symptoms improved over time irrespective of management. Adverse effects did not occur or were not reported.There was no evidence from eight trials that pelvic floor muscle training with or without biofeedback was better than control for men who had urinary incontinence after radical prostatectomy (e.g. 57% with urinary incontinence versus 62% in the control group, risk ratio (RR) for incontinence after 12 months 0.85, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.60 to 1.22) as the confidence intervals were wide, reflecting uncertainty. However, one large multicentre trial of one-to-one therapy showed no difference in any urinary or quality of life outcome measures and had narrower confidence intervals. There was also no evidence of benefit for erectile dysfunction (56% with no erection in the pelvic floor muscle training group versus 55% in the control group after one year, RR 1.01, 95% CI 0.84 to 1.20). Individual small trials provided data to suggest that electrical stimulation, external magnetic innervation or combinations of treatments might be beneficial but the evidence was limited. One large trial demonstrated that there was no benefit for incontinence or erectile dysfunction from a one-to-one pelvic floor muscle training based intervention to men who were incontinent after transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) (e.g. 65% with urinary incontinence versus 62% in the control group, RR after 12 months 1.05, 95% CI 0.91 to 1.23).In eight trials of conservative treatment of all men after radical prostatectomy aimed at both treatment and prevention, there was an overall benefit from pelvic floor muscle training versus control management in terms of reduction of UI (e.g. 10% with urinary incontinence after one year versus 32% in the control groups, RR for urinary incontinence 0.32, 95% CI 0.20 to 0.51). However, this finding was not supported by other data from pad tests. The findings should be treated with caution, as most trials were of poor to moderate quality and confidence intervals were wide. Men in one trial were more satisfied with one type of external compression device, which had the lowest urine loss, compared to two others or no treatment. The effect of other conservative interventions such as lifestyle changes remains undetermined as no trials involving these interventions were identified. The value of the various approaches to conservative management of postprostatectomy incontinence after radical prostatectomy remains uncertain. It seems unlikely that men benefit from one-to-one pelvic floor muscle training therapy after transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP).  Long-term incontinence may be managed by external penile clamp, but there are safety problems.

Loading Anglia collaborators
Loading Anglia collaborators