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Siem Reap, Cambodia

Martinez A.M.,San Francisco General Hospital | Khu D.T.K.,National Hospital of Pediatrics | Boo N.Y.,University Tunku Abdul Rahman | Neou L.,Angkor Hospital for Children | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health | Year: 2012

Aim: Hospital care and advanced medical technologies for sick neonates are increasingly available, but not always readily accessible, in many countries. We characterised parents' and providers' perceptions of barriers to neonatal care in developing countries. Methods: We interviewed parents whose infant was hospitalised within the first month of life in Cambodia, Malaysia, Laos and Vietnam, asking about perceived barriers to obtaining newborn care. We also surveyed health-care providers about perceived barriers to providing care. Results: We interviewed 198 parents and 212 newborn care providers (physicians, nurses, midwives, paediatric and nursing trainees). Most families paid all costs of newborn care, which they reported as a hardship. Although newborn care is accessible, 39% reported that hospitals are too distant; almost 20% did not know where to obtain care. Parents cited lack of cleanliness (46%), poor availability of medications (42%) or services (36%), staff friendliness (42%), poor infant outcome (45%), poor communications with staff (44%) and costs of care (34%) as significant problems during prior newborn care. Providers cited lack of equipment (74%), lack of staff training (61%) and poor infrastructure (51%) as barriers to providing neonatal care. Providers identified distance to hospital, lack of transportation, care costs and low parental education as barriers for families. Conclusions: Improving cleanliness, staff friendliness and communication with parents may diminish some barriers to neonatal care in developing countries. Costs of newborn care, hospital infrastructure, distance to hospital, staffing shortages, limited staff training and limited access to medications pose more difficult barriers to remedy. © 2012 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

Kurt K.,Robert Koch Institute | Rasigade J.-P.,University of Lyon | Laurent F.,University of Lyon | Goering R.V.,Creighton University | And 15 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

We investigated the population structure of Staphylococcus aureus clonal complex CC121 by mutation discovery at 115 genetic housekeeping loci from each of 154 isolates, sampled on five continents between 1953 and 2009. In addition, we pyro-sequenced the genomes from ten representative isolates. The genome-wide SNPs that were ascertained revealed the evolutionary history of CC121, indicating at least six major clades (A to F) within the clonal complex and dating its most recent common ancestor to the pre-antibiotic era. The toxin gene complement of CC121 isolates was correlated with their SNP-based phylogeny. Moreover, we found a highly significant association of clinical phenotypes with phylogenetic affiliations, which is unusual for S. aureus. All isolates evidently sampled from superficial infections (including staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome, bullous impetigo, exfoliative dermatitis, conjunctivitis) clustered in clade F, which included the European epidemic fusidic-acid resistant impetigo clone (EEFIC). In comparison, isolates from deep-seated infections (abscess, furuncle, pyomyositis, necrotizing pneumonia) were disseminated in several clades, but not in clade F. Our results demonstrate that phylogenetic lineages with distinct clinical properties exist within an S. aureus clonal complex, and that SNPs serve as powerful discriminatory markers, able to identify these lineages. All CC121 genomes harboured a 41-kilobase prophage that was dissimilar to S. aureus phages sequenced previously. Community-associated MRSA and MSSA from Cambodia were extremely closely related, suggesting this MRSA arose in the region. © 2013 Kurt et al.

Buchy P.,Institute Pasteur in Cambodia | Conan A.,Institute Pasteur in Cambodia | Ong S.,Institute Pasteur in Cambodia | Ali R.,Institute Pasteur in Cambodia | And 8 more authors.
Bulletin of the World Health Organization | Year: 2010

Objective: Dengue has been reportable in Cambodia since 1980. Virological surveillance began in 2000 and sentinel surveillance was established at six hospitals in 2001. Currently, national surveillance comprises passive and active data collection and reporting on hospitalized children aged 0-15years. This report summarizes surveillance data collected since 1980. Methods: Crude data for 1980-2001 are presented, while data from 2002-2008 are used to describe disease trends and the effect of vector control interventions. Trends in dengue incidence were analysed using the Prais-Winsten generalized linear regression model for time series. Findings: During 1980-2001, epidemics occurred in cycles of 3-4years, with the cycles subsequently becoming less prominent. For 2002-2008 data, linear regression analysis detected no significant trend in the annual reported age-adjusted incidence of dengue (incidence range: 0.7-3.0 per 1000 population). The incidence declined in 2.7% of the 185 districts studied, was unchanged in 86.2% and increased in 9.6%. The age-specific incidence was highest in infants aged < 1year and children aged 4-6years. The incidence was higher during rainy seasons. All four dengue virus (DENV) serotypes were permanently in circulation, though the predominant serotype has alternated between DENV-3 and DENV-2 since 2000. Although larvicide has been distributed in 94 districts since 2002, logistic regression analysis showed no association between the intervention and dengue incidence. Conclusion: The dengue burden remained high among young children in Cambodia, which reflects intense transmission. The national vector control programme appeared to have little impact on disease incidence.

Satzke C.,Murdoch Childrens Research Institute | Satzke C.,University of Melbourne | Turner P.,Angkor Hospital for Children | Turner P.,University of Oxford | And 13 more authors.
Vaccine | Year: 2013

In 2003 the World Health Organization (WHO) convened a working group and published a set of standard methods for studies measuring nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus). The working group recently reconvened under the auspices of the WHO and updated the consensus standard methods. These methods describe the collection, transport and storage of nasopharyngeal samples, as well as provide recommendations for the identification and serotyping of pneumococci using culture and non-culture based approaches. We outline the consensus position of the working group, the evidence supporting this position, areas worthy of future research, and the epidemiological role of carriage studies. Adherence to these methods will reduce variability in the conduct of pneumococcal carriage studies undertaken in the context of pneumococcal vaccine trials, implementation studies, and epidemiology studies more generally so variability in methodology does not confound the interpretation of study findings. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Nickerson E.K.,Addenbrookes Hospital | Wuthiekanun V.,Mahidol University | Kumar V.,Angkor Hospital for Children | Amornchai P.,Mahidol University | And 7 more authors.
American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Year: 2011

We previously described the first reported isolation of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) (a case series of pediatric community-associated MRSA infections) in Cambodia. We define the rate of pediatric MRSA carriage in the same population and characterize the associated bacterial genotypes by using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and multilocus sequence typing. A prospective cohort study of MRSA carriage conducted over one month at the Angkor Hospital for Children, Siem Reap, Cambodia, identified MRSA carriage in 87 (3.5%) of 2,485 children who came to the outpatient department, and 6 (4.1%) of 145 inpatients, including at least two with cases of nosocomial acquisition. Genotyping of all 93 MRSA isolates resolved 5 genotypes. Most (91%) isolates were assigned to sequence type 834. Only 28 (32%) of 87 MRSA carriers identified in the outpatient department had no history of recent healthcare contact. The study findings have important implications for healthcare in a setting where diagnostic microbiology and access to antimicrobial drugs with efficacy against MRSA are limited. Copyright © 2011 by The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

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