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Perez-Castells J.,University of San Pablo - CEU | Martin-Santamaria S.,University of San Pablo - CEU | Nieto L.,CSIC - Biological Research Center | Ramos A.,University of San Pablo - CEU | And 3 more authors.

Adrenomedullin (AM) is a regulatory peptide which plays many physiological roles including vasodilatation, bronchodilatation, hormone secretion regulation, growth, apoptosis, angiogenesis, and antimicrobial activities, among others. These regulatory activities make AM a relevant player in the pathophysiology of important diseases such as cardiovascular and renal conditions, cancer, and diabetes. Therefore, molecules that target the AM system have been proposed as having therapeutic potential. To guide the design and characterization of such molecules, we elucidated the three-dimensional structure of AM in a membrane mimicking medium using NMR spectroscopy methods. Under the employed experimental conditions, the structure can be described as composed by a central α-helical region, spanning about one third of its total length, flanked by two disordered segments at both N- and C-termini. The structure of AM in water is completely disordered. The 22-34 region of AM has a general tendency to adopt a helical structure under the employed experimental conditions. Furthermore, the study of the interaction of AM with two of its modulators has also been performed by using chemical shift perturbation analysis NMR methods with two-dimensional (2D)-TOCSY experiments, assisted with molecular modeling protocols. We expect these results will help in better understanding the interactions of AM with its receptor and binding proteins/molecules and in the development of novel modulators of AM activities. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

Vergano-Vera E.,CSIC - Instituto de la Grasa | Vergano-Vera E.,Research Center Biomedica en Red sobre Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas | Fernandez A.P.,CSIC - Instituto de la Grasa | Hurtado-Chong A.,CSIC - Instituto de la Grasa | And 3 more authors.
Cell and Tissue Research

Adrenomedullin (AM) is a peptide hormone involved in the modulation of cellular growth, migration, apoptosis, and angiogenesis. These characteristics suggest that AM is involved in the control of neural stem/progenitor cell (NSPC) biology. To explore this hypothesis, we have obtained NSPC from the olfactory bulb of adult wild-type animals and brain conditional knockouts for adm, the gene that produces AM. Knockout NSPC contain higher levels of hyperpolymerized tubulin and more abundant filopodia than adm-containing cells, resulting in a different morphology in culture, whereas the size of the knockout neurospheres is smaller than that of the wild-types. Proliferation studies have demonstrated that adm-null NSPC incorporate less 5?-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) than their wild-type counterparts. In contrast, BrdU studies in the olfactory bulb of adult animals show more labeled cells in adm-null mice that in wild-types, suggesting that a compensatory mechanism exists that guarantees the sufficient production of neural cells in this organ. In NSPC differentiation tests, lack of adm results in significantly lower proportions of neurons and astrocytes and higher proportions of oligodendrocytes. The oligodendrocytes produced from adm-null neurospheres present an immature phenotype with fewer and shorter processes than adm-containing oligo-dendrocytes. Thus, AM is an important factor in regulating the proliferation and differentiation of adult NSPC and might be used to modulate stem cell renewal and fate in protocols destined to produce neural cells for regenerative therapies. © Springer-Verlag 2010. Source

Garcia-Honduvilla N.,University of Alcala | Cifuentes A.,University of Alcala | Bellon J.M.,University of Alcala | Bujan J.,University of Alcala | Martinez A.,Angiogenesis Study Group
Histology and Histopathology

A combination of vascular pathologies and other complicating factors results in chronic wounds which constitute a serious burden for both patients and national health systems, due to prolonged hospital stays, high costs, and prolonged nursing staff dedication. Here we investigate whether proadrenomedullin N-terminal 20 peptide (PAMP), a naturally occurring peptide of the skin with antimicrobial and proangiogenic properties, either alone or in combination with autologous skeletal muscle stem/progenitor cells, acts as a wound healing factor. The rabbit ear was chosen as a test system, since it offers a reliable model for normoxic and ischemic wounds. Topical treatments with PAMP, stem/progenitor cells, or a combination of both, resulted in significant improvements of healing, when compared to untreated wounds. PAMP was very effective in promoting reepithelialization and angiogenesis, whereas treatment with stem/progenitor cells alone resulted in less wound contraction. Interestingly, the combination of PAMP and stem/progenitor cells, while maintaining angiogenic potency, reverted to the contraction levels observed in the untreated controls. Under ischemic conditions, generalized necrosis of the dermis and the underlying cartilage was observed in untreated wounds. Treatments of these wounds with PAMP or stem/progenitor cells allowed a timely recovery. In conclusion, PAMP either alone or in combination with autologous stem/progenitor cells may provide a useful tool for improving wound healing both in normoxic and ischemic conditions. Source

Rey-Funes M.,University of Buenos Aires | Dorfman V.B.,Maimonides University | Ibarra M.E.,University of Buenos Aires | Pena E.,University of Buenos Aires | And 8 more authors.
Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science

PURPOSE. To develop a time course study of vascularization and glial response to perinatal asphyxia in hypoxic-ischemic animals, and to evaluate hypothermia as possible protective treatment. METHODS. We used retinas of 7-, 15-, 21-, and 30-day-old male Sprague-Dawley rats that were exposed to perinatal asphyxia at either 378°C (PA) or 15°C (HYP). Born to term animals were used as controls (CTL). We evaluated the thickness of the most inner layers of the retina (IR), including internal limiting membrane, the retinal nerve fiber layer, and the ganglion cell layer; and studied glial development, neovascularization, adrenomedullin (AM), and VEGF by immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, and Western blot. RESULTS. A significant increment in IR thickness was observed in the PA group from postnatal day (PND) 15 on. This alteration was concordant with an increased number of new vessels and increased GFAP expression. The immunolocalization of GFAP in the internal limiting membrane and perivascular glia of the IR and in the inner processes of Müller cells was coexpressed with AM, which was also significantly increased from PND7 in PA animals. In addition, VEGF expression was immunolocalized in cells of the ganglion cell layer of the IR and this expression significantly increased in the PA group from PND15 on. The retinas of the HYP group did not show differences when compared with CTL at any age. CONCLUSIONS. This work demonstrates that aberrant angiogenesis and exacerbated gliosis seem to be responsible for the increased thickness of the inner retina as a consequence of perinatal asphyxia, and that hypothermia is able to prevent these alterations. © 2013 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc. Source

Larrayoz I.M.,Angiogenesis Study Group | Martinez A.,Angiogenesis Study Group

Intracellular cargo transport relies on microtubules and motor proteins such as kinesins and dyneins. Currently we have ample knowledge of the mechanisms by which motor proteins propel themselves along the microtubules, but little is known about intracellular factors that regulate motor speed. Here we show that proadrenomedullin N-terminal 20 peptide (PAMP) increases kinesin velocity and ATP consumption in a dose-dependent manner, using a variety of human kinesins. Structure-activity studies found that the terminal amide of PAMP is required for modulating kinesin activity and that the smallest peptide fragment retaining this role is PAMP (12-20). On the other hand, peptide fragments as small as PAMP (18-20) maintained the ability of delaying tubulin polymerization, another function previously described for PAMP, indicating that these two activities depend on different regions of the molecule. To demonstrate that these observations are also relevant in vivo, hippocampal neurons were isolated from mice lacking the gene coding for PAMP and from wild type littermates. Intravital stains followed by time-lapse microscopy analysis revealed that mitochondrial speed inside neurons lacking PAMP was significantly slower than in cells expressing the peptide. External addition of synthetic PAMP reversed this phenotype in PAMP-null neurons. Besides the obvious implications for better understanding cell biology, these results may be also relevant for the rapidly evolving discipline of nanotechnology because PAMP may be used as an accelerator of nanodevices based on microtubules and motor proteins. Copyright © 2012 by The Endocrine Society. Source

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