Angiogenesis Study Group

Logroño, Spain

Angiogenesis Study Group

Logroño, Spain
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Hurtado O.,Complutense University of Madrid | Serrano J.,Instituto Cajal | Sobrado M.,Complutense University of Madrid | Fernandez A.P.,Instituto Cajal | And 4 more authors.
Neuroscience | Year: 2010

Adrenomedullin (AM) and its binding protein, complement factor H (FH), are expressed throughout the brain. In this study we used a brain-specific conditional knockout for AM and a complete knockout for FH to investigate the effect of these molecules on the pathophysiology of stroke. Following 48 h of middle cerebral artery permanent occlusion, there was a statistically significant infarct size increase in animals lacking AM when compared to their wild type littermates. In contrast, lack of FH did not affect infarct volume. To investigate some of the mechanisms by which lack of AM may augment brain damage, markers of nitrosative stress, apoptosis, and autophagy were studied at the mRNA and protein levels. There was a significant increase of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9), fractin, and Beclin-1 in the peri-infarct area of AM-deficient mice when compared to their wild type counterparts and to contralateral and sham-operated controls. These data suggest that AM exerts a neuroprotective action in the brain and that this protection may be mediated by regulation of iNOS, matrix metalloproteases, and inflammatory mediators. In the future, substances that increase AM actions in the central nervous system may be used as potential neuroprotective agents in stroke. © 2010 IBRO.

Perez-Castells J.,University of San Pablo - CEU | Martin-Santamaria S.,University of San Pablo - CEU | Nieto L.,CSIC - Biological Research Center | Ramos A.,University of San Pablo - CEU | And 3 more authors.
Biopolymers | Year: 2012

Adrenomedullin (AM) is a regulatory peptide which plays many physiological roles including vasodilatation, bronchodilatation, hormone secretion regulation, growth, apoptosis, angiogenesis, and antimicrobial activities, among others. These regulatory activities make AM a relevant player in the pathophysiology of important diseases such as cardiovascular and renal conditions, cancer, and diabetes. Therefore, molecules that target the AM system have been proposed as having therapeutic potential. To guide the design and characterization of such molecules, we elucidated the three-dimensional structure of AM in a membrane mimicking medium using NMR spectroscopy methods. Under the employed experimental conditions, the structure can be described as composed by a central α-helical region, spanning about one third of its total length, flanked by two disordered segments at both N- and C-termini. The structure of AM in water is completely disordered. The 22-34 region of AM has a general tendency to adopt a helical structure under the employed experimental conditions. Furthermore, the study of the interaction of AM with two of its modulators has also been performed by using chemical shift perturbation analysis NMR methods with two-dimensional (2D)-TOCSY experiments, assisted with molecular modeling protocols. We expect these results will help in better understanding the interactions of AM with its receptor and binding proteins/molecules and in the development of novel modulators of AM activities. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Rey-Funes M.,University of Buenos Aires | Dorfman V.B.,Maimónides University | Ibarra M.E.,University of Buenos Aires | Pena E.,University of Buenos Aires | And 8 more authors.
Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science | Year: 2013

PURPOSE. To develop a time course study of vascularization and glial response to perinatal asphyxia in hypoxic-ischemic animals, and to evaluate hypothermia as possible protective treatment. METHODS. We used retinas of 7-, 15-, 21-, and 30-day-old male Sprague-Dawley rats that were exposed to perinatal asphyxia at either 378°C (PA) or 15°C (HYP). Born to term animals were used as controls (CTL). We evaluated the thickness of the most inner layers of the retina (IR), including internal limiting membrane, the retinal nerve fiber layer, and the ganglion cell layer; and studied glial development, neovascularization, adrenomedullin (AM), and VEGF by immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, and Western blot. RESULTS. A significant increment in IR thickness was observed in the PA group from postnatal day (PND) 15 on. This alteration was concordant with an increased number of new vessels and increased GFAP expression. The immunolocalization of GFAP in the internal limiting membrane and perivascular glia of the IR and in the inner processes of Müller cells was coexpressed with AM, which was also significantly increased from PND7 in PA animals. In addition, VEGF expression was immunolocalized in cells of the ganglion cell layer of the IR and this expression significantly increased in the PA group from PND15 on. The retinas of the HYP group did not show differences when compared with CTL at any age. CONCLUSIONS. This work demonstrates that aberrant angiogenesis and exacerbated gliosis seem to be responsible for the increased thickness of the inner retina as a consequence of perinatal asphyxia, and that hypothermia is able to prevent these alterations. © 2013 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

PubMed | CONICET, Angiogenesis Study Group, University of Buenos Aires, Maimónides University and Instituto Cajal
Type: Journal Article | Journal: American journal of physiology. Regulatory, integrative and comparative physiology | Year: 2016

Perinatal asphyxia induces retinal lesions, generating ischemic proliferative retinopathy, which may result in blindness. Previously, we showed that the nitrergic system was involved in the physiopathology of perinatal asphyxia. Here we analyze the application of methylene blue, a well-known soluble guanylate cyclase inhibitor, as a therapeutic strategy to prevent retinopathy. Male rats (n = 28 per group) were treated in different ways: 1) control group comprised born-to-term animals; 2) methylene blue group comprised animals born from pregnant rats treated with methylene blue (2 mg/kg) 30 and 5 min before delivery; 3) perinatal asphyxia (PA) group comprised rats exposed to perinatal asphyxia (20 min at 37C); and 4) methylene blue-PA group comprised animals born from pregnant rats treated with methylene blue (2 mg/kg) 30 and 5 min before delivery, and then the pups were subjected to PA as above. For molecular studies, mRNA was obtained at different times after asphyxia, and tissue was collected at 30 days for morphological and biochemical analysis. Perinatal asphyxia produced significant gliosis, angiogenesis, and thickening of the inner retina. Methylene blue treatment reduced these parameters. Perinatal asphyxia resulted in a significant elevation of the nitrergic system as shown by NO synthase (NOS) activity assays, Western blotting, and (immuno)histochemistry for the neuronal isoform of NOS and NADPH-diaphorase activity. All these parameters were also normalized by the treatment. In addition, methylene blue induced the upregulation of the anti-angiogenic peptide, pigment epithelium-derived factor. Application of methylene blue reduced morphological and biochemical parameters of retinopathy. This finding suggests the use of methylene blue as a new treatment to prevent or decrease retinal damage in the context of ischemic proliferative retinopathy.

PubMed | Angiogenesis Study Group, CSIC - Institute of Polymer Science and Technology and University of Alcalá
Type: | Journal: Acta biomaterialia | Year: 2015

The article deals with the design, preparation, and evaluation of a new bilayered dressing for application in the healing of compromised wounds. The system is based on the sequential release of two complementary bioactive components to enhance the activation of the regeneration of dermal tissue. The internal layer is a highly hydrophilic and biodegradable film of gelatin and hyaluronic acid (HG), crosslinked with the natural compound genipin, which reacts with the amine groups of gelatin. This film is loaded with the proangiogenic, anti-inflammatory, and antibacterial peptide, proadrenomedullin N-terminal 20 peptide (PAMP), that is released slowly in the wound site. The external layer, more stable and less hydrophilic, is constituted by a biodegradable polyurethane derived from poly(caprolactone) and pluronic L61. This layer is loaded with resorbable nanoparticles of bemiparin (a fractionated low molecular weight heparin), which promotes the activation of growth factors, FGF and VEGF, and provides a good biomechanical stability and controlled permeability of the bilayered dressing. Experiments carried out in mice demonstrate the excellent angiogenic effect of the HG film in the dermal tissue. Application of the bilayered dressing in the wound healing rabbit ear model shows an improved cicatrization of the wound in both ischemic and non-ischemic defects, favoring epithelialization and reducing noticeably the contraction and the inflammation.

Garcia-Honduvilla N.,University of Alcalá | Cifuentes A.,University of Alcalá | Bellon J.M.,University of Alcalá | Bujan J.,University of Alcalá | Martinez A.,Angiogenesis Study Group
Histology and Histopathology | Year: 2013

A combination of vascular pathologies and other complicating factors results in chronic wounds which constitute a serious burden for both patients and national health systems, due to prolonged hospital stays, high costs, and prolonged nursing staff dedication. Here we investigate whether proadrenomedullin N-terminal 20 peptide (PAMP), a naturally occurring peptide of the skin with antimicrobial and proangiogenic properties, either alone or in combination with autologous skeletal muscle stem/progenitor cells, acts as a wound healing factor. The rabbit ear was chosen as a test system, since it offers a reliable model for normoxic and ischemic wounds. Topical treatments with PAMP, stem/progenitor cells, or a combination of both, resulted in significant improvements of healing, when compared to untreated wounds. PAMP was very effective in promoting reepithelialization and angiogenesis, whereas treatment with stem/progenitor cells alone resulted in less wound contraction. Interestingly, the combination of PAMP and stem/progenitor cells, while maintaining angiogenic potency, reverted to the contraction levels observed in the untreated controls. Under ischemic conditions, generalized necrosis of the dermis and the underlying cartilage was observed in untreated wounds. Treatments of these wounds with PAMP or stem/progenitor cells allowed a timely recovery. In conclusion, PAMP either alone or in combination with autologous stem/progenitor cells may provide a useful tool for improving wound healing both in normoxic and ischemic conditions.

PubMed | Angiogenesis Study Group, University of Buenos Aires and Maimónides University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2016

Hypothermia has been proposed as a therapeutic intervention for some retinal conditions, including ischemic insults. Cold exposure elevates expression of cold-shock proteins (CSP), including RNA-binding motif protein 3 (RBM3) and cold inducible RNA-binding protein (CIRP), but their presence in mammalian retina is so far unknown. Here we show the effects of hypothermia on the expression of these CSPs in retina-derived cell lines and in the retina of newborn and adult rats. Two cell lines of retinal origin, R28 and mRPE, were exposed to 32C for different time periods and CSP expression was measured by qRT-PCR and Western blotting. Neonatal and adult Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to a cold environment (8C) and expression of CSPs in their retinas was studied by Western blotting, multiple inmunofluorescence, and confocal microscopy. RBM3 expression was upregulated by cold in both R28 and mRPE cells in a time-dependent fashion. On the other hand, CIRP was upregulated in R28 cells but not in mRPE. In vivo, expression of CSPs was negligible in the retina of newborn and adult rats kept at room temperature (24C). Exposure to a cold environment elicited a strong expression of both proteins, especially in retinal pigment epithelium cells, photoreceptors, bipolar, amacrine and horizontal cells, Mller cells, and ganglion cells. In conclusion, CSP expression rapidly rises in the mammalian retina following exposure to hypothermia in a cell type-specific pattern. This observation may be at the basis of the molecular mechanism by which hypothermia exerts its therapeutic effects in the retina.

Larrayoz I.M.,Angiogenesis Study Group | Martinez A.,Angiogenesis Study Group
Endocrinology | Year: 2012

Intracellular cargo transport relies on microtubules and motor proteins such as kinesins and dyneins. Currently we have ample knowledge of the mechanisms by which motor proteins propel themselves along the microtubules, but little is known about intracellular factors that regulate motor speed. Here we show that proadrenomedullin N-terminal 20 peptide (PAMP) increases kinesin velocity and ATP consumption in a dose-dependent manner, using a variety of human kinesins. Structure-activity studies found that the terminal amide of PAMP is required for modulating kinesin activity and that the smallest peptide fragment retaining this role is PAMP (12-20). On the other hand, peptide fragments as small as PAMP (18-20) maintained the ability of delaying tubulin polymerization, another function previously described for PAMP, indicating that these two activities depend on different regions of the molecule. To demonstrate that these observations are also relevant in vivo, hippocampal neurons were isolated from mice lacking the gene coding for PAMP and from wild type littermates. Intravital stains followed by time-lapse microscopy analysis revealed that mitochondrial speed inside neurons lacking PAMP was significantly slower than in cells expressing the peptide. External addition of synthetic PAMP reversed this phenotype in PAMP-null neurons. Besides the obvious implications for better understanding cell biology, these results may be also relevant for the rapidly evolving discipline of nanotechnology because PAMP may be used as an accelerator of nanodevices based on microtubules and motor proteins. Copyright © 2012 by The Endocrine Society.

Vergano-Vera E.,CSIC - Instituto de la Grasa | Vergano-Vera E.,Research Center Biomedica en Red sobre Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas | Fernandez A.P.,CSIC - Instituto de la Grasa | Hurtado-Chong A.,CSIC - Instituto de la Grasa | And 3 more authors.
Cell and Tissue Research | Year: 2010

Adrenomedullin (AM) is a peptide hormone involved in the modulation of cellular growth, migration, apoptosis, and angiogenesis. These characteristics suggest that AM is involved in the control of neural stem/progenitor cell (NSPC) biology. To explore this hypothesis, we have obtained NSPC from the olfactory bulb of adult wild-type animals and brain conditional knockouts for adm, the gene that produces AM. Knockout NSPC contain higher levels of hyperpolymerized tubulin and more abundant filopodia than adm-containing cells, resulting in a different morphology in culture, whereas the size of the knockout neurospheres is smaller than that of the wild-types. Proliferation studies have demonstrated that adm-null NSPC incorporate less 5?-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) than their wild-type counterparts. In contrast, BrdU studies in the olfactory bulb of adult animals show more labeled cells in adm-null mice that in wild-types, suggesting that a compensatory mechanism exists that guarantees the sufficient production of neural cells in this organ. In NSPC differentiation tests, lack of adm results in significantly lower proportions of neurons and astrocytes and higher proportions of oligodendrocytes. The oligodendrocytes produced from adm-null neurospheres present an immature phenotype with fewer and shorter processes than adm-containing oligo-dendrocytes. Thus, AM is an important factor in regulating the proliferation and differentiation of adult NSPC and might be used to modulate stem cell renewal and fate in protocols destined to produce neural cells for regenerative therapies. © Springer-Verlag 2010.

PubMed | Angiogenesis Study Group
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Current protein & peptide science | Year: 2013

Classical transmembrane receptors have been described for both adrenomedullin (AM) and proadrenomedullin N-terminal 20 peptide (PAMP). Through interactions with these membrane receptors, AM and PAMP exert a variety of endocrine, paracrine, and autocrine functions. In addition to these better known activities, recent publications have shown that both peptides can bind directly to the cytoskeleton resulting in important cellular physiological responses. In vitro and in vivo experiments show that the peptides bind to major components of the cytoskeleton: tubulin and kinesin for PAMP and a number of microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) in the case of AM. Physiological experiments show that PAMP contributes to microtubule fluidity and increases kinesin speed. Lack of AM and PAMP results in hyperpolymerization of the cytoskeleton and a reduced motility of intracellular organelles. These data suggest that the cytoskeleton may have a novel function as an intracellular receptor, acting as the binding site and the signal transducer for specific peptide hormones such as PAMP.

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