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Rustagi Y.,Jaypee Institute of Information Technology | Jaiswal H.K.,Jaypee Institute of Information Technology | Rawal K.,Jaypee Institute of Information Technology | Kundu G.C.,Angiogenesis and Nanomedicine Research | Rani V.,Jaypee Institute of Information Technology

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, conserved RNAs known to regulate several biological processes by influencing gene expression in eukaryotes. The implication of miRNAs as another player of regulatory layers during heart development and diseases has recently been explored. However, there is no study which elucidates the profiling of miRNAs during development of heart till date. Very limited miRNAs have been reported to date in cardiac context. In addition, integration of large scale experimental data with computational and comparative approaches remains an unsolved challenge.The present study was designed to identify the microRNAs implicated in heart development using next generation sequencing, bioinformatics and experimental approaches. We sequenced six small RNA libraries prepared from different developmental stages of the heart using chicken as a model system to produce millions of short sequence reads. We detected 353 known and 703 novel miRNAs involved in heart development. Out of total 1056 microRNAs identified, 32.7%of total dataset of known microRNAs displayed differential expression whereas seven well studied microRNAs namely let-7, miR-140, miR-181, miR-30, miR-205, miR-103 and miR-22 were found to be conserved throughout the heart development. The 3'UTR sequences of genes were screened from Gallus gallus genome for potential microRNA targets. The target mRNAs were appeared to be enriched with genes related to cell cycle, apoptosis, signaling pathways, extracellular remodeling, metabolism, chromatin remodeling and transcriptional regulators. Our study presents the first comprehensive overview of microRNA profiling during heart development and prediction of possible cardiac specific targets and has a big potential in future to develop microRNA based therapeutics against cardiac pathologies where fetal gene re-expression is witnessed in adult heart. © 2015 Rustagi et al.This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Source

Mishra R.,Angiogenesis and Nanomedicine Research | Thorat D.,Angiogenesis and Nanomedicine Research | Soundararajan G.,Angiogenesis and Nanomedicine Research | Pradhan S.J.,Angiogenesis and Nanomedicine Research | And 4 more authors.

Semaphorin 3A (Sema 3A), a member of semaphorin family, serves as a guidance clue during embryonic development and is known as a candidate tumor suppressor that attenuates breast tumor progression by binding with its co-receptor, neuropilin-1 (NRP-1). However, the underlying mechanism by which Sema 3A suppresses breast tumor growth is still unexplored. In this study, we report that Sema 3A regulates phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) and FOXO 3a. Moreover, Sema 3A controls NRP-1-mediated PTEN-dependent FOXO 3a activation. Overexpression of PTEN and FOXO 3a enhances Sema 3A-induced attenuation of breast cancer cell migration. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and electrophoretic mobility shift assay data revealed that FOXO 3a regulates MelCAM at the transcriptional level. Furthermore, Sema 3A induces NRP-1-mediated MelCAM expression through PTEN and FOXO 3a. The data also showed that vascular endothelial growth factor-induced angiogenesis is inhibited by Sema 3A. Loss of or gain in function study revealed that Sema 3A modulates phosphorylation of PTEN and FOXO 3a and expression of MelCAM, leading to suppression of tumor growth and angiogenesis using in vivo mice model. Clinical specimen analysis revealed that reduced expression of Sema 3A and p-PTEN are correlated with enhanced breast cancer progression, further strengthening our in vitro and in vivo findings. Correlation of relapse-free survival of breast cancer patients (n=2878) with expression levels of Sema 3A, NRP-1, FOXO 3a and MelCAM were studied by Kaplan-Meier analysis. Statistical analysis revealed a close association between reduced expression of Sema 3A and MelCAM with that of poor patient's survival. Our study demonstrated a novel mechanism of regulation of tumor suppression by Sema 3A in coordination with a chain of tumor-suppressor genes, which in turn inhibits breast cancer cell migration, tumor growth and angiogenesis.Oncogene advance online publication, 14 April 2014; doi:10.1038/onc.2014.79. Source

Bandopadhyay M.,Angiogenesis and Nanomedicine Research | Bulbule A.,Angiogenesis and Nanomedicine Research | Butti R.,Angiogenesis and Nanomedicine Research | Chakraborty G.,Sloan Kettering Cancer Center | And 18 more authors.
Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets

Introduction: Cancer is a complex pathological disorder, established as a result of accumulation of genetic and epigenetic changes, which lead to adverse alterations in the cellular phenotype. Tumor progression involves intricate signaling mediated through crosstalk between various growth factors, cytokines and chemokines. Osteopontin (OPN), a chemokine-like protein, is involved in promotion of neoplastic cancer into higher grade malignancies by regulating various facets of tumor progression such as cell proliferation, angiogenesis and metastasis.Areas covered: Tumors as well as stroma-derived OPN play key roles in various signaling pathways involved in tumor growth, angiogenesis and metastasis. OPN derived from tumor-activated macrophages modulates the tumor microenvironment and thereby regulate melanoma growth and angiogenesis. OPN also regulates hypoxia-inducible factor-1α-dependent VEGF expression leading to breast tumor growth and angiogenesis in response to hypoxia. Thus, a clear understanding of the molecular mechanism underlying OPN-mediated regulation will shed light on exciting avenues for further investigation of targeted therapies. Silencing of OPN using RNAi technology, blocking OPN activity using specific antibodies and small-molecule inhibitors might provide novel strategies, which would aid in developing effective therapeutics for the treatment of various types of cancer.Expert opinion: This review focuses on new possibilities to exploit OPN as a tumor and stroma-derived therapeutic target to combat cancer. © 2014 Informa UK, Ltd. Source

Kale S.,Angiogenesis and Nanomedicine Research | Raja R.,Angiogenesis and Nanomedicine Research | Thorat D.,Angiogenesis and Nanomedicine Research | Soundararajan G.,Angiogenesis and Nanomedicine Research | And 2 more authors.

Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) have multifaceted roles in tumor development, particularly linked with tumor angiogenesis and invasion, but the molecular mechanism underlying this association remains unclear. In this study, we report that lack of osteopontin (OPN) suppresses melanoma growth in opn -/- mice and macrophages are the crucial component responsible for OPN-regulated melanoma growth. In tumor microenvironment, OPN activates macrophages and influences angiogenesis by enhancing cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)-dependent prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2) production in an autocrine manner. Furthermore, we identify α9β1 integrin as a functional receptor for OPN that mediates its effect and activates ERK and p38 signaling, which ultimately leads to COX-2 expression in macrophages. The major role played by OPN and PGE 2 in angiogenesis are further amplified by upregulation of MMP-9. OPN-activated macrophages promote the migration of endothelial and cancer cells via PGE 2. These findings provide evidence that TAMs serve as source of key components such as OPN and COX-2-derived PGE 2 and MMP-9 in melanoma microenvironment. Clinical specimens analyses revealed that increased infiltration of OPN-positive TAMs correlate with melanoma growth and angiogenesis. These data provide compelling evidence that OPN and COX-2 expressing macrophages are obligatory factors in melanoma growth. We conclude that OPN signaling is involved in macrophage recruitment into tumor, and our results emphasize the potential role of macrophage in modulation of tumor microenvironment via secretion of OPN, PGE 2 and MMP-9, which trigger angiogenesis and melanoma growth. Thus, blockade of OPN and its regulated signaling network provides unique strategy to eradicate melanoma by manipulating TAMs. Source

Raja R.,Angiogenesis and Nanomedicine Research | Kale S.,Angiogenesis and Nanomedicine Research | Thorat D.,Angiogenesis and Nanomedicine Research | Soundararajan G.,Angiogenesis and Nanomedicine Research | And 4 more authors.

Hypoxia is a salient feature of most solid tumors, and hypoxic adaptation of cancer cells has crucial implications in propagation of malignant clonal cell population. Osteopontin (OPN) has been identified as a hypoxia-responsive gene, but the mechanistic and regulatory role of OPN under hypoxia is less characterized. The present study identifies the existence of a positive inter-regulatory loop between hypoxia and OPN. We have shown that hypoxia induces OPN expression in breast cancer cells; however, the expression was found to be HIF1α independent. OPN enabled transcriptional upregulation of HIF1α expression both under normoxia and hypoxia, whereas stability of HIF1α protein in breast cancer cells remained unaffected. Moreover, we have shown that OPN induces integrin-linked kinase (ILK)/Akt-mediated nuclear factor (NF)-κB p65 activation leading to HIF1α-dependent vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and angiogenesis in response to hypoxia. These in vitro data are biologically important as OPN expressing cells induce greater tumor growth and angiogenesis through enhanced expressions of proangiogenic molecules as compared with control. Immunohistochemical analysis of human breast cancer specimens revealed significant correlation between OPN and HIF1α but not HIF2α. Elevated expression of HIF1α and OPN was observed in pre-neoplastic and early stage infiltrating ductal carcinoma implicating the role of these proteins in neoplastic progression of breast cancer. Together, our results substantiate the prime role of OPN in cellular adaptation through ILK and NF-κB-mediated HIF1α-dependent VEGF expression in response to hypoxia that ultimately controls breast cancer progression and angiogenesis. Our study reinforces the fact that targeting OPN and its regulated signaling network hold important therapeutic implications. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited. Source

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