Woo J.H.,Texas A&M University |
Frankel A.,Texas A&M University |
Neville Jr. D.M.,Angimmune LLC
Drugs of the Future | Year: 2010
Diphtheria toxin (DT) fusion proteins can selectively target malignant cells and induce cell death by a different mechanism than conventional chemotherapeutic drugs. Cytotoxic therapy with DT fusion proteins is a potential treatment option for relapsed/refractory cancers that are resistant to chemotherapeutic drugs. Due to the heterogeneity of chemical conjugates, the majority of DT fusion proteins used in clinical trials are recombinant DT fusion proteins. These consist of the catalytic and translocation domains of DT fused to tumor-selective ligands (single-chain antibody fragments [sFv], cytokines and growth factors). In this review, recent progress in DT fusion protein design and synthesis, clinical updates of DT fusion protein trials, and the challenges and perspectives for DT fusion proteins are discussed. Although DT fusion proteins have a unique mechanism of action toward tumor cells, their clinical use is limited by nonspecific cell toxicity, particularly endothelial damage. Immunogenicity also limits repeated dosing. New approaches to overcome these limitations are needed. Copyright © 2010 Prous Science, S.A.U. or its licensors. All rights reserved.
Zhang F.,Howard University |
Zhang F.,CAS Institute of Biophysics |
Shan L.,Howard University |
Shan L.,U.S. National Center for Biotechnology Information |
And 10 more authors.
Advanced Healthcare Materials | Year: 2013
Prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is overexpressed on prostate tumor cells and the neovascular endothelia various solid tumors. A bivalent immunotoxin generated by fusing a fold-back single-chain diabody derived from the Fv fragments of an anti-PSMA monoclonal antibody with a truncated diphtheria toxin (DT) containing the activity and translocation domains [A-dmDT390-scfbDb(PSMA)] might be suitable for targeted therapy of tumors that overexpress PSMA. In this study, a PSMA-positive and a PSMA-negative prostate cancer cell lines were treated with immunotoxin A-dmDT390-scfbDb(PSMA) in order to study the tumor targeting specificity and therapeutic potential of the immunotoxin. The cellular uptake and selective toxicity of the immunotoxin were evident in monolayer cultures of PSMA-positive LNCaP prostate cancer cells but not in cultures of PSMA-negative PC-3 prostate cancer cells. Cellular accumulation of A-dmDT390-scfbDb(PSMA) increased with increasing incubation times and concentrations in LNCaP cells. The proportion of apoptotic LNCaP cells increased upon incubation with increasing doses of the fold-back immunotoxin. Optical imaging and MRI with the Alexa Fluor 680-labeled A-dmDT390-scfbDb(PSMA) confirmed the specific targeting and therapeutic efficacy of this immunotoxin towards PSMA-positive LNCaP solid tumor xenografts in athymic nude mice. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Peraino J.S.,Harvard University |
Schenk M.,Harvard University |
Zhang H.,Harvard University |
Li G.,Harvard University |
And 7 more authors.
Journal of Immunological Methods | Year: 2013
Targeted cell therapies are possible through the generation of recombinant fusion proteins that combine a toxin, such as diphtheria toxin (DT), with an antibody or other molecule that confers specificity. Upon binding of the fusion protein to the cell of interest, the diphtheria toxin is internalized which results in protein synthesis inhibition and subsequent cell death. We have recently expressed and purified the recombinant soluble porcine CTLA-4 both with and without N-glycosylation in yeast Pichia pastoris for in vivo use in our preclinical swine model. The glycosylated and non-N-glycosylated versions of this recombinant protein each bind to a porcine CD80 expressing B-cell lymphoma line (LCL13271) with equal affinity (KD=13nM). In this study we have linked each of the glycosylated and non-N-glycosylated soluble porcine CTLA-4 proteins to the truncated diphtheria toxin DT390 through genetic engineering yielding three versions of the porcine CTLA-4 fusion toxins: 1) monovalent glycosylated soluble porcine CTLA-4 fusion toxin; 2) monovalent non-N-glycosylated soluble porcine CTLA-4 fusion toxin and 3) bivalent non-N-glycosylated soluble porcine CTLA-4 fusion toxin. Protein synthesis inhibition analysis demonstrated that while all three fusion toxins are capable of inhibiting protein synthesis in vitro, the non-N-glycosylated porcine CTLA-4 isoforms function most efficiently. Binding analysis using flow cytometry of the porcine CTLA-4 fusion toxins to LCL13271 cells also demonstrated that the non-N-glycosylated porcine CTLA-4 isoforms bind to these cells with higher affinity compared to the glycosylated fusion toxin. The monovalent non-N-glycosylated porcine CTLA-4 fusion toxin was tested in vivo. NSG (NOD/SCID IL-2 receptor γ-/-) mice were injected with porcine CD80+ LCL13271 tumor cells. All animals succumbed to tumors and those treated with the monovalent non-N-glycosylated porcine CTLA-4 fusion toxin survived longer based on a symptomatic scoring system compared to the untreated controls. This recombinant protein may therefore provide a novel approach for in vivo depletion of porcine antigen presenting cells (APCs) for studies investigating the induction of transplantation tolerance, autoimmune disease and cancer treatment. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.
Frankel A.E.,University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center |
Woo J.H.,Baylor Scott and White Health |
Ahn C.,University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center |
Foss F.M.,Yale University |
And 3 more authors.
Haematologica | Year: 2015
Resimmune is a second-generation recombinant immunotoxin composed of the catalytic and translocation domains of diphtheria toxin fused to two single chain antibody fragments reactive with the extracellular domain of CD3ε. We gave intravenous infusions of Resimmune 2.5-11.25 μg/kg over 15 minutes to 30 patients (25 with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, 3 with peripheral T-cell lymphoma, 1 with T-cell large granular lymphocytic leukemia and 1 with T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia) in an inter-patient dose escalation trial. The most common adverse events were fever, chills, hypotension, edema, hypoalbuminemia, hypophosphatemia, and transaminasemia. Among the 25 patients with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, there were nine responses for a response rate of 36% (95% CI, 18%-57%) including four complete remissions (16%, 95% CI, 5%-36%). The durations of the complete remissions were 72+, 72+, 60+ and 38+ months. There were five partial remissions lasting 3, 3, 3+, 6+ and 14 months. Of 17 patients with a modified skin weighted assessment tool score <50, 17 patients with stage IB/IIB, and 11 patients with both a score <50 and stage IB/IIB, nine (53%), eight (47%), and eight (73%) had responses, respectively. Further studies of Resimmune in patients with low tumor burden, stage IB-IIB cutaneous T-cell lymphoma are warranted. This trial is registered at clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00611208. © 2015 Ferrata Storti Foundation.
Wang Z.,Harvard University |
Duran-Struuck R.,Harvard University |
Crepeau R.,Harvard University |
Matar A.,Harvard University |
And 5 more authors.
Bioconjugate Chemistry | Year: 2011
Anti-CD3 immunotoxins, which induce profound but transient T-cell depletion in vivo by inhibiting eukaryotic protein synthesis in CD3+ cells, are effective reagents in large animal models of transplantation tolerance and autoimmune disease therapy. A diphtheria toxin based antiporcine CD3 recombinant immunotoxin was constructed by fusing the truncated diphtheria toxin DT390 with two identical tandem single chain variable fragments (scFv) derived from the antiporcine CD3 monoclonal antibody 898H2-6-15. The recombinant immunotoxin was expressed in a diphtheria-toxin resistant yeast Pichia pastoris strain under the control of the alcohol oxidase promoter. The secreted recombinant immunotoxin was purified sequentially with hydrophobic interaction chromatography (Butyl 650 M) followed by strong anion exchange (Poros 50 HQ). The purified antiporcine CD3 immunotoxin was tested in vivo in four animals; peripheral blood CD3+ T-cell numbers were reduced by 80% and lymph node T-cells decreased from 74% CD3+ cells pretreatment to 24% CD3+ cells remaining in the lymph node following 4 days of immunotoxin treatment. No clinical toxicity was observed in any of the experimental swine. We anticipate that this conjugate will provide an important tool for in vivo depletion of T-cells in swine transplantation models. © 2011 American Chemical Society.
Angimmune Llc | Date: 2013-03-13
Methods of modulating the immune systems of patients suffering from cancers that do not hear, or do not uniformly bear, surface CD3 are provided. The methods involve administering an anti-CD3 immunotoxin (e.g. A-dmDT390-bisFv(UCHT1)), to the patient so a to cause the patients Immune system to recognize and destroy non-CD3 cancer cells.
Angimmune LLC | Date: 2012-02-20
PubMed | University of Houston, Yale University, Baylor Scott & White Health, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center and Angimmune LLC
Type: Clinical Trial, Phase I | Journal: Haematologica | Year: 2015
Resimmune is a second-generation recombinant immunotoxin composed of the catalytic and translocation domains of diphtheria toxin fused to two single chain antibody fragments reactive with the extracellular domain of CD3. We gave intravenous infusions of Resimmune 2.5 - 11.25 g/kg over 15 minutes to 30 patients (25 with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, 3 with peripheral T-cell lymphoma, 1 with T-cell large granular lymphocytic leukemia and 1 with T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia) in an inter-patient dose escalation trial. The most common adverse events were fever, chills, hypotension, edema, hypoalbuminemia, hypophosphatemia, and transaminasemia. Among the 25 patients with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, there were nine responses for a response rate of 36% (95% CI, 18%-57%) including four complete remissions (16%, 95% CI, 5%-36%). The durations of the complete remissions were 72+, 72+, 60+ and 38+ months. There were five partial remissions lasting 3, 3, 3+, 6+ and 14 months. Of 17 patients with a modified skin weighted assessment tool score <50, 17 patients with stage IB/IIB, and 11 patients with both a score <50 and stage IB/IIB, nine (53%), eight (47%), and eight (73%) had responses, respectively. Further studies of Resimmune in patients with low tumor burden, stage IB-IIB cutaneous T-cell lymphoma are warranted. This trial is registered at clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00611208.
Angimmune LLC | Date: 2011-10-06
PubMed | Angimmune LLC and Howard University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of basic and clinical medicine | Year: 2014
Immunotoxins are a group of protein-based therapeutics, basically comprising two functional moieties: one is the antibody or antibody Fv fragment that allows the immunotoxin to bind specifically to target cells; another is the plant or bacterial toxin that kills the cells upon internalization. Immunotoxins have several unique features which are superior to conventional chemotherapeutics, including high specificity, extraordinary potency, and no known drug resistance. Development of immunotoxins evolves with time and technology, but significant progress has been achieved in the past 20 years after introduction of recombinant DNA technique and generation of the first single-chain variable fragment of monoclonal antibodies. Since then, more than 1,000 recombinant immunotoxins have been generated against cancer. However, most success in immunotoxin therapy has been achieved against hematological malignancies, several issues persist to be significant barriers for effective therapy of human solid tumors. Further development of immunotoxins will largely focus on the improvement of penetration capability to solid tumor mass and elimination of immunogenicity occurred when given repeatedly to patients. Promising strategies may include construction of recombinant antibody fragments with higher binding affinity and stability, elimination of immunodominant T- and B-cell epitopes of toxins, modification of immunotoxins with macromolecules like poly(ethylene glycol) and liposomes, and generation of immunotoxins with humanized antibody fragments and human endogenous cytotoxic enzymes. In this paper, we briefly reviewed the evolution of immunotoxin development and then discussed the challenges of immunotoxin therapy for human solid tumors and the potential strategies we may seek to overcome the challenges.