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Smith F.M.,University of Cumbria | Rao C.,Imperial College London | Perez R.O.,Angelita and Joaquim Gama Institute | Perez R.O.,University of Sao Paulo | And 5 more authors.
Diseases of the Colon and Rectum | Year: 2015

BACKGROUND: In elderly and comorbid patients with rectal cancer, radical surgery is associated with significant perioperative mortality. Data suggest that a watch-and-wait approach where a complete clinical response is obtained after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy might be oncologically safe. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine whether patient age and comorbidity should influence surgeon and patient decision making where a complete clinical response is obtained. DESIGN: Decision-analytic modeling consisting of a decision tree and Markov chain simulation was used. Modeled outcome parameters were elicited both from comprehensive literature review and from a national patient outcomes database. SETTINGS: Outcomes for 3 patient cohorts treated with neoadjuvant therapy were modeled after either surgery or watch and wait. PATIENTS: Patients included 60-year-old and 80-yearold men with mild comorbidities (Charlson score <3) and 80-year-old men with significant comorbidities (Charlson score >3). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Absolute survival, disease-free survival, and quality-adjusted life years were measured. RESULTS: The model found that absolute survival was similar in 60-year-old patients but was significantly improved in fit and comorbid 80-year-old patients at 1 year after treatment where watch and wait was implemented instead of radical surgery, with a survival advantage of 10.1% (95% CI, 7.9-12.6) and 13.5% (95% CI, 10.2-16.9). At all of the other time points, absolute survival was equivalent for both techniques. There were no short-or long-term differences among any patient groups managed either by radical surgery or watch and wait in terms of either disease-free survival or quality-adjusted life years. LIMITATIONS: Oncologic data for the watch-and-wait approach used for this study is derived from only a small number of studies pertaining to a highly selected group of patients. The 90-day postoperative mortality rate derived from the United Kingdom population-based study might be lower in other countries or individual institutions. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests competing effects of oncologic and surgical risk when using watch-and-wait management and that elderly and comorbid patients have the most to gain from this approach. © The ASCRS 2015. Source

Habr-Gama A.,Angelita and Joaquim Gama Institute | Habr-Gama A.,University of Sao Paulo | Sao Juliao G.P.,Angelita and Joaquim Gama Institute | Perez R.O.,Angelita and Joaquim Gama Institute | And 2 more authors.
Minimally Invasive Therapy and Allied Technologies | Year: 2014

Transanal endoscopic microsurgery has become a very useful surgical tool for the management of selected cases of rectal cancer. However, the considerably high local recurrence rates led to the introduction of neoadjuvant therapies including radiation with or without chemotherapy. This treatment strategy may result in significant rates of tumor regression allowing the procedure to be offered to a significant proportion of cases. On the other hand, neoadjuvant chemoradiation (CRT) may also determine wound-healing difficulties with significant postoperative pain. In addition, salvage total mesorectal excision in the case of local recurrence may also be a challenging task. Finally, accurate selection criteria for this minimally invasive approach are still lacking and may be influenced by baseline staging, post-treatment staging and final pathology information. Ultimately, selection of patients for this treatment modality remains a significant challenge for the colorectal surgeon who should be aware of the pitfalls of this procedure in the setting of neoadjuvant CRT. © 2014 Informa Healthcare. Source

Habr-Gama A.,Angelita and Joaquim Gama Institute | Habr-Gama A.,University of Sao Paulo | Sao Juliao G.P.,Angelita and Joaquim Gama Institute | Perez R.O.,Angelita and Joaquim Gama Institute | Perez R.O.,University of Sao Paulo
Hematology/Oncology Clinics of North America | Year: 2015

Neoadjuvant chemoradiation (CRT) is considered one of the preferred treatment strategies for patients with locally advanced rectal cancer. This strategy may lead to significant tumor regression, ultimately leading to a complete pathologic response in up to 42% of patients. Assessment of tumor response following CRT and before radical surgery may identify patients with a complete clinical response who could possibly be managed nonoperatively with strict follow-up (watch-and-wait strategy). The present article deals with critical issues regarding appropriate selection of patients for this approach. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. Source

Habr-Gama A.,Angelita and Joaquim Gama Institute | Sabbaga J.,Angelita and Joaquim Gama Institute | Sabbaga J.,Instituto Do Cancer Do Estado Of Sao Paulo Icesp | Gama-Rodrigues J.,Angelita and Joaquim Gama Institute | And 7 more authors.
Diseases of the Colon and Rectum | Year: 2013

Background: No immediate surgery (Watch and Wait) has been considered in select patients with complete clinical response after neoadjuvant chemoradiation to avoid postoperative morbidity and functional disorders after radical surgery. Objective: The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the long-term results of patients who had a complete clinical response following an alternative chemoradiation regimen and were managed nonoperatively. DESIGN: This is a prospective study. SETTINGS: This study was conducted at a single center. PATIENTS: Seventy consecutive patients with T2-4N0- 2M0 distal rectal cancer were studied. Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy included 54 Gy and 5-fluorouracil/leucovorin delivered in 6 cycles every 21 days. Patients were assessed for tumor response at 10 weeks from radiation completion. Patients with incomplete clinical response were referred to immediate surgery. Patients with complete clinical response were not immediately operated on and were monitored. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcomes measured were the initial complete clinical response rates after 10 weeks and the sustained complete clinical response rates after 12 months from chemoradiotherapy. Results: One patient died during chemoradiotherapy because of cardiac complications. Forty-seven (68%) patients had initial complete clinical response. Of these, 8 developed local regrowth within the first 12 months of follow-up (17%). Thirty-nine sustained complete clinical response at a median follow-up of 56 months (57%). An additional 4 patients (10%) developed late local recurrences (>12 months of follow-up). Overall, 35 patients never underwent surgery (50%). LIMITATIONS: This study is limited by the short followup and small sample size. CONCLUSION: Extended chemoradiation therapy with additional chemotherapy cycles and 54 Gy of radiation may result in over 50% of sustained (>12 months) complete clinical response rates that may ultimately avoid radical rectal resection. Local failures occur more frequently during the initial 12 months of follow-up in up to 17% of cases, whereas late recurrences are less common but still possible, leading to 50% of patients who never required surgery. Strict follow-up may allow salvage therapy in the majority of these patients (see Video, Supplemental Digital Content 1, http://links.lww. com/DCR/A113.). Source

Campos F.G.,University of Sao Paulo | Habr-Gama A.,University of Sao Paulo | Habr-Gama A.,Angelita and Joaquim Gama Institute | Nahas S.C.,University of Sao Paulo | And 2 more authors.
Diseases of the Colon and Rectum | Year: 2012

During the last century, great improvements have been made in rectal cancer management regarding preoperative staging, pathologic assessment, surgical technique, and multimodal therapies. Surgically, there was a move from a strategy characterized by simple perineal excision to complex procedures performed by means of a laparoscopic approach, and more recently with the aid of robotic systems. Perhaps the most important advance is that rectal cancer is no longer a fatal disease as it was at the beginning of the 20th century. This achievement is definitely due in part to Ernest Mile's contribution regarding lymphatic spread of tumor cells, which helped clarify the natural history of the disease and the proper treatment alternatives. He advocated a combined approach with the rationale to clear "the zone of upward spread." The aim of the present paper is to present a brief review concerning the evolution of rectal cancer surgery, focusing attention on Miles' abdominoperineal excision of the rectum (APR) and its controversies and refinements over time. Although APR has currently been restricted to a small proportion of patients with low rectal cancer, recent propositions to excise the rectum performing a wider perineal and a proper pelvic floor resection have renewed interest on this procedure, confirming that Ernest Miles' original ideas still influence rectal cancer management after more than 100 years. © The ASCRS 2012. Source

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