Angelita and Joaquim Gama Institute

São Paulo, Brazil

Angelita and Joaquim Gama Institute

São Paulo, Brazil
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Habr-Gama A.,Angelita and Joaquim Gama Institute | Habr-Gama A.,University of Sao Paulo | Gama-Rodrigues J.,Angelita and Joaquim Gama Institute | Gama-Rodrigues J.,University of Sao Paulo | And 7 more authors.
International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics | Year: 2014

Purpose To review the risk of local recurrence and impact of salvage therapy after Watch and Wait for rectal cancer with complete clinical response (cCR) after chemoradiation therapy (CRT). Methods and Materials Patients with cT2-4N0-2M0 distal rectal cancer treated with CRT (50.4-54 Gy + 5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy) and cCR at 8 weeks were included. Patients with cCR were enrolled in a strict follow-up program with no immediate surgery (Watch and Wait). Local recurrence-free survival was compared while taking into account Watch and Wait strategy alone and Watch and Wait plus salvage. Results 90 of 183 patients experienced cCR at initial assessment after CRT (49%). When early tumor regrowths (up to and including the initial 12 months of follow-up) and late recurrences were considered together, 28 patients (31%) experienced local recurrence (median follow-up time, 60 months). Of those, 26 patients underwent salvage therapy, and 2 patients were not amenable to salvage. In 4 patients, local re-recurrence developed after Watch and Wait plus salvage. The overall salvage rate for local recurrence was 93%. Local recurrence-free survival at 5 years was 69% (all local recurrences) and 94% (after salvage procedures). Thirteen patients (14%) experienced systemic recurrence. The 5-year cancer-specific overall survival and disease-free survival for all patients (including all recurrences) were 91% and 68%, respectively. Conclusions Local recurrence may develop in 31% of patients with initial cCR when early regrowths (≤12 months) and late recurrences are grouped together. More than half of these recurrences develop within 12 months of follow-up. Salvage therapy is possible in ≥90% of recurrences, leading to 94% local disease control, with 78% organ preservation. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Perez R.O.,Angelita and Joaquim Gama Institute | Perez R.O.,University of Sao Paulo | Habr-Gama A.,Angelita and Joaquim Gama Institute | Gama-Rodrigues J.,Angelita and Joaquim Gama Institute | And 11 more authors.
Cancer | Year: 2012

BACKGROUND: Neoadjuvant chemoradiation (CRT) therapy may result in significant tumor regression in patients with rectal cancer. Patients who develop complete tumor regression have been managed by treatment strategies that are alternatives to standard total mesorectal excision. Therefore, assessment of tumor response with positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) after neoadjuvant treatment may offer relevant information for the selection of patients to receive alternative treatment strategies. METHODS: Patients with clinical T2 (cT2) through cT4NxM0 rectal adenocarcinoma were included prospectively. Neoadjuvant therapy consisted of 54 grays of radiation and 5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy. Baseline PET/CT studies were obtained before CRT followed by PET/CT studies at 6 weeks and 12 weeks after the completion of CRT. Clinical assessment was performed at 12 weeks after CRT completion. PET/CT results were compared with clinical and pathologic data. RESULTS: In total, 99 patients were included in the study. Twenty-three patients were complete responders (16 had a complete clinical response, and 7 had a complete pathologic response). The PET/CT response evaluation at 12 weeks indicated that 18 patients had a complete response, and 81 patients had an incomplete response. There were 5 false-negative and 10 false-positive PET/CT results. PET/CT for the detection of residual cancer had 93% sensitivity, 53% specificity, a 73% negative predictive value, an 87% positive predictive value, and 85% accuracy. Clinical assessment alone resulted in an accuracy of 91%. PET/CT information may have detected misdiagnoses made by clinical assessment alone, improving overall accuracy to 96%. CONCLUSIONS: Assessment of tumor response at 12 weeks after CRT completion with PET/CT imaging may provide a useful additional tool with good overall accuracy for the selection of patients who may avoid unnecessary radical resection after achieving a complete clinical response. © 2011 American Cancer Society.


Smith F.M.,University of Cumbria | Rao C.,Imperial College London | Perez R.O.,Angelita and Joaquim Gama Institute | Perez R.O.,University of Sao Paulo | And 5 more authors.
Diseases of the Colon and Rectum | Year: 2015

BACKGROUND: In elderly and comorbid patients with rectal cancer, radical surgery is associated with significant perioperative mortality. Data suggest that a watch-and-wait approach where a complete clinical response is obtained after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy might be oncologically safe. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine whether patient age and comorbidity should influence surgeon and patient decision making where a complete clinical response is obtained. DESIGN: Decision-analytic modeling consisting of a decision tree and Markov chain simulation was used. Modeled outcome parameters were elicited both from comprehensive literature review and from a national patient outcomes database. SETTINGS: Outcomes for 3 patient cohorts treated with neoadjuvant therapy were modeled after either surgery or watch and wait. PATIENTS: Patients included 60-year-old and 80-yearold men with mild comorbidities (Charlson score <3) and 80-year-old men with significant comorbidities (Charlson score >3). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Absolute survival, disease-free survival, and quality-adjusted life years were measured. RESULTS: The model found that absolute survival was similar in 60-year-old patients but was significantly improved in fit and comorbid 80-year-old patients at 1 year after treatment where watch and wait was implemented instead of radical surgery, with a survival advantage of 10.1% (95% CI, 7.9-12.6) and 13.5% (95% CI, 10.2-16.9). At all of the other time points, absolute survival was equivalent for both techniques. There were no short-or long-term differences among any patient groups managed either by radical surgery or watch and wait in terms of either disease-free survival or quality-adjusted life years. LIMITATIONS: Oncologic data for the watch-and-wait approach used for this study is derived from only a small number of studies pertaining to a highly selected group of patients. The 90-day postoperative mortality rate derived from the United Kingdom population-based study might be lower in other countries or individual institutions. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests competing effects of oncologic and surgical risk when using watch-and-wait management and that elderly and comorbid patients have the most to gain from this approach. © The ASCRS 2015.


Habr-Gama A.,Angelita and Joaquim Gama Institute | Sabbaga J.,Angelita and Joaquim Gama Institute | Sabbaga J.,Instituto Do Cancer Do Estado Of Sao Paulo Icesp | Gama-Rodrigues J.,Angelita and Joaquim Gama Institute | And 9 more authors.
Diseases of the Colon and Rectum | Year: 2013

Background: No immediate surgery (Watch and Wait) has been considered in select patients with complete clinical response after neoadjuvant chemoradiation to avoid postoperative morbidity and functional disorders after radical surgery. Objective: The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the long-term results of patients who had a complete clinical response following an alternative chemoradiation regimen and were managed nonoperatively. DESIGN: This is a prospective study. SETTINGS: This study was conducted at a single center. PATIENTS: Seventy consecutive patients with T2-4N0- 2M0 distal rectal cancer were studied. Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy included 54 Gy and 5-fluorouracil/leucovorin delivered in 6 cycles every 21 days. Patients were assessed for tumor response at 10 weeks from radiation completion. Patients with incomplete clinical response were referred to immediate surgery. Patients with complete clinical response were not immediately operated on and were monitored. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcomes measured were the initial complete clinical response rates after 10 weeks and the sustained complete clinical response rates after 12 months from chemoradiotherapy. Results: One patient died during chemoradiotherapy because of cardiac complications. Forty-seven (68%) patients had initial complete clinical response. Of these, 8 developed local regrowth within the first 12 months of follow-up (17%). Thirty-nine sustained complete clinical response at a median follow-up of 56 months (57%). An additional 4 patients (10%) developed late local recurrences (>12 months of follow-up). Overall, 35 patients never underwent surgery (50%). LIMITATIONS: This study is limited by the short followup and small sample size. CONCLUSION: Extended chemoradiation therapy with additional chemotherapy cycles and 54 Gy of radiation may result in over 50% of sustained (>12 months) complete clinical response rates that may ultimately avoid radical rectal resection. Local failures occur more frequently during the initial 12 months of follow-up in up to 17% of cases, whereas late recurrences are less common but still possible, leading to 50% of patients who never required surgery. Strict follow-up may allow salvage therapy in the majority of these patients (see Video, Supplemental Digital Content 1, http://links.lww. com/DCR/A113.).


Perez R.O.,Angelita and Joaquim Gama Institute | Perez R.O.,University of Sao Paulo | Habr-Gama A.,Angelita and Joaquim Gama Institute | Habr-Gama A.,University of Sao Paulo | And 7 more authors.
Diseases of the Colon and Rectum | Year: 2013

BACKGROUND: Significant tumor downstaging among patients with rectal cancer following neoadjuvant chemoradiation has raised the issue of offering patients with small residual cancers restricted to the bowel wall an alternative treatment strategy to total mesorectal excision. Transanal endoscopic microsurgery may allow proper primary tumor resection with promising oncological outcomes, less postoperative morbidity, and minimal long-term sexual, urinary, and fecal continence disorders in comparison with radical resection. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the oncological outcomes of patients with residual rectal cancers restricted to the rectal wall (ypT0-2) following neoadjuvant chemoradiation and transanal endoscopic microsurgery. DESIGN: This study considered a prospective cohort of patients with residual rectal cancers following neoadjuvant chemoradiation treated by transanal endoscopic microsurgery and no additional systemic therapy. SETTINGS: This study was a single-institution experience. PATIENTS: Patients with adenocarcinoma of the rectum located no more than 7 cm from the anal verge and endorectal ultrasound- or magnetic resonance-staged cT2-4N0-2M0 treated by neoadjuvant chemoradiation (50.4-54 Gy and 5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy) were eligible for the study. Patients with small residual tumors (≤3 cm) radiologically staged ycT0-2N0 were treated by transanal endoscopic microsurgery. INTERVENTIONS: Transanal endoscopic microsurgery was performed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome measured was local recurrence. RESULTS: Of the 27 patients treated by transanal endoscopic microsurgery, 3 had ypT0, 6 had ypT1, and 18 had ypT2 cancers. All patients underwent R0 transanal endoscopic microsurgery excision. Local recurrence was observed in 4 (15%) patients after a median follow-up of 15 months. Only lymphovascular invasion was an independent predictive factor for local failure (p = 0.04). Tumor size, ypT status, T-status downstaging, lateral/radial margins, and tumor regression grade were not predictors of local failure. LIMITATIONS: This study was limited by the small sample size and limited follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: A local failure rate of 15% after transanal endoscopic microsurgery for patients with residual rectal cancers restricted to the bowel wall (ypT0-2) may limit the indication of this procedure to highly selected patients as an alternative to standard radical total mesorectal excision. © The ASCRS 2012.


Perez R.O.,University of Sao Paulo | Perez R.O.,Angelita and Joaquim Gama Institute | Habr-Gama A.,Angelita and Joaquim Gama Institute | Pereira G.V.,Northeast University | And 7 more authors.
Colorectal Disease | Year: 2012

Aim The study aimed to determine the value of postchemoradiation biopsies, performed after significant tumour downsizing following neoadjuvant therapy, in predicting complete tumour regression in patients with distal rectal cancer. Method A retrospective comparative study was performed in patients with rectal cancer who achieved an incomplete clinical response after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. Patients with significant tumour downsizing (>30% of the initial tumour size) were compared with controls (<30% reduction of the initial tumour size). During flexible proctoscopy carried out postchemoradiation, biopsies were performed using 3-mm biopsy forceps. The biopsy results were compared with the histopathological findings of the resected specimen. UICC (Union for International Cancer Control) ypTNM classification, tumour differentiation and regression grade were evaluated. The main outcome measures were sensitivity and specificity, negative and positive predictive values, and accuracy of a simple forceps biopsy for predicting pathological response after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. Results Of the 172 patients, 112 were considered to have had an incomplete clinical response and were included in the study. Thirty-nine patients achieved significant tumour downsizing and underwent postchemoradiation biopsies. Overall, 53 biopsies were carried out. Of the 39 patients who achieved significant tumour downsizing, the biopsy result was positive in 25 and negative in 14. Only three of the patients with a negative biopsy result were found to have had a complete pathological response (giving a negative predictive value of 21%). Considering all biopsies performed, only three of 28 negative biopsies were true negatives, giving a negative predictive value of 11%. Conclusion In patients with distal rectal cancer undergoing neoadjuvant chemoradiation, post-treatment biopsies are of limited clinical value in ruling out persisting cancer. A negative biopsy result after a near-complete clinical response should not be considered sufficient for avoiding a radical resection. © 2011 The Authors. Colorectal Disease © 2011 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.


Campos F.G.,University of Sao Paulo | Habr-Gama A.,University of Sao Paulo | Habr-Gama A.,Angelita and Joaquim Gama Institute | Nahas S.C.,University of Sao Paulo | And 2 more authors.
Diseases of the Colon and Rectum | Year: 2012

During the last century, great improvements have been made in rectal cancer management regarding preoperative staging, pathologic assessment, surgical technique, and multimodal therapies. Surgically, there was a move from a strategy characterized by simple perineal excision to complex procedures performed by means of a laparoscopic approach, and more recently with the aid of robotic systems. Perhaps the most important advance is that rectal cancer is no longer a fatal disease as it was at the beginning of the 20th century. This achievement is definitely due in part to Ernest Mile's contribution regarding lymphatic spread of tumor cells, which helped clarify the natural history of the disease and the proper treatment alternatives. He advocated a combined approach with the rationale to clear "the zone of upward spread." The aim of the present paper is to present a brief review concerning the evolution of rectal cancer surgery, focusing attention on Miles' abdominoperineal excision of the rectum (APR) and its controversies and refinements over time. Although APR has currently been restricted to a small proportion of patients with low rectal cancer, recent propositions to excise the rectum performing a wider perineal and a proper pelvic floor resection have renewed interest on this procedure, confirming that Ernest Miles' original ideas still influence rectal cancer management after more than 100 years. © The ASCRS 2012.


Habr-Gama A.,University of Sao Paulo | Habr-Gama A.,Angelita and Joaquim Gama Institute | Perez R.,Angelita and Joaquim Gama Institute | Perez R.,University of Sao Paulo | And 4 more authors.
Surgical Oncology Clinics of North America | Year: 2010

Multimodality treatment of rectal cancer, with the combination of radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and surgery has become the preferred approach to locally advanced rectal cancer. The use of neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy (CRT) has resulted in reduced toxicity rates, significant tumor downsizing and downstaging, better chance of sphincter preservation, and improved functional results. A proportion of patients treated with neoadjuvant CRT may ultimately develop complete clinical response. Management of these patients with complete clinical response remains controversial and approaches including radical resection, transanal local excision, and observation alone without immediate surgery have been proposed. The use of strict selection criteria of patients after neoadjuvant CRT has resulted in excellent long-term results with no oncological compromise after observation alone in patients with complete clinical response. Recurrences are detectable by clinical assessment and frequently amenable to salvage procedures. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.


Perez R.O.,Angelita and Joaquim Gama Institute | Perez R.O.,University of Sao Paulo | Habr-Gama A.,Angelita and Joaquim Gama Institute | Juliao G.P.S.,Angelita and Joaquim Gama Institute | And 6 more authors.
Diseases of the Colon and Rectum | Year: 2011

BACKGROUND: Transanal endoscopic microsurgery may represent appropriate diagnostic and therapeutic procedure in selected patients with distal rectal cancer following neoadjuvant chemoradiation. Even though this procedure has been associated with low rates of postoperative complications, patients undergoing neoadjuvant chemoradiation seem to be at increased risk for suture line dehiscence. In this setting, we compared the clinical outcomes of patients undergoing transanal endoscopic microsurgery with and without neoadjuvant chemoradiation. METHODS: Thirty-six consecutive patients were treated by transanal endoscopic microsurgery at a single institution. Twenty-three patients underwent local excision after neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy for rectal adenocarcinoma, and 13 patients underwent local excision without any neoadjuvant treatment for benign and malignant rectal tumors. Chemoradiation therapy included 50.4 to 54Gy and 5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy. All patients underwent transanal endoscopic microsurgery with primary closure of the rectal defect. Complications (immediate and late) and readmission rates were compared between groups. RESULTS: Overall, median hospital stay was 2 days. Immediate (30-d) complication rate was 44% for grade II/III complications. Patients undergoing neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy were more likely to develop grade II/III immediate complications (56% vs 23%; P =.05). Overall, the 30-day readmission rate was 30%. Wound dehiscence was significantly more frequent among patients undergoing neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy (70% vs 23%; P =.03). Patients undergoing neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy were at significantly higher risk of requiring readmission (43% vs 7%; P =.02). CONCLUSION: Transanal local excision with the use of endoscopic microsurgical approach may result in significant postoperative morbidity, wound dehiscence, and readmission rates, in particular, because of rectal pain secondary to wound dehiscence. In this setting, the benefits of this minimally invasive approach either for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes become significantly restricted to highly selected patients that can potentially avoid a major operation but will still face a significantly morbid and painful procedure. © 2011 The ASCRS.


Habr-Gama A.,Angelita and Joaquim Gama Institute | Habr-Gama A.,University of Sao Paulo | Sao Juliao G.P.,Angelita and Joaquim Gama Institute | Perez R.O.,Angelita and Joaquim Gama Institute | Perez R.O.,University of Sao Paulo
Hematology/Oncology Clinics of North America | Year: 2015

Neoadjuvant chemoradiation (CRT) is considered one of the preferred treatment strategies for patients with locally advanced rectal cancer. This strategy may lead to significant tumor regression, ultimately leading to a complete pathologic response in up to 42% of patients. Assessment of tumor response following CRT and before radical surgery may identify patients with a complete clinical response who could possibly be managed nonoperatively with strict follow-up (watch-and-wait strategy). The present article deals with critical issues regarding appropriate selection of patients for this approach. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.

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