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Campagne C.S.,Andromede Oceanologie | Salles J.-M.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Boissery P.,Agence de lEau Rhone Mediterranee Corse | Deter J.,Andromede Oceanologie | Deter J.,Montpellier University
Marine Pollution Bulletin | Year: 2015

Posidonia oceanica is a marine angiosperm endemic from the Mediterranean. Despite their protection, its meadows are regressing. The economic valuation of ecosystem services (ES) assesses the contribution of ecosystems to human well-being and may provide local policy makers help in territorial development. To estimate the economic value of P. oceanica seagrass and the meadows that it forms to better account its presence in coastal development, identification and assessment of ES provided are first performed. Then goods and benefits (GB) and their economical values are estimated. In total, 25ES are identified and 7. GB are economically evaluated. The economic value of GB provided by P. oceanica ranges between 25.3 million and 45.9 million. €/year which means 283-513. €/ha/year. Because of the lack of existing available data, only 7. GB linked to 11/25ES have been estimated. Despite this overall undervaluation, this study offers a value for coastal development policies to take into account. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Ruppe L.,University of Liege | Clement G.,CNRS Center for Research on Palaeobiodiversity and Palaeoenvironments | Herrel A.,CNRS Mechanical Adaptation and Evolution | Herrel A.,Ghent University | And 4 more authors.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America | Year: 2015

The underwater environment is more and more being depicted as particularly noisy, and the inventory of calling fishes is continuously increasing. However, it currently remains unknown how species share the soundscape and are able to communicate without misinterpreting the messages. Different mechanisms of interference avoidance have been documented in birds, mammals, and frogs, but little is known about interference avoidance in fishes. How fish thus partition the soundscape underwater remains unknown, as acoustic communication and its organization have never been studied at the level of fish communities. In this study, passive acoustic recordings were used to inventory sounds produced in a fish community (120 m depth) in an attempt to understand how different species partition the acoustic environment. We uncovered an important diversity of fish sounds, and 16 of the 37 different sounds recorded were sufficiently abundant to use in a quantitative analysis. We show that sonic activity allows a clear distinction between a diurnal and a nocturnal group of fishes. Moreover, frequencies of signals made during the day overlap, whereas there is a clear distinction between the different representatives of the nocturnal callers because of a lack of overlap in sound frequency. This first demonstration, to our knowledge, of interference avoidance in a fish community can be understood by the way sounds are used. In diurnal species, sounds are mostly used to support visual display, whereas nocturnal species are generally deprived of visual cues, resulting in acoustic constraints being more important. © 2015, National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Source


Holon F.,Andromede Oceanologie | Boissery P.,Agence de lEau Rhone Mediterranee Corse | Guilbert A.,Andromede Oceanologie | Freschet E.,Andromede Oceanologie | And 2 more authors.
Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science | Year: 2015

Shallow Posidonia oceanica beds (0 to-15m), the most common seagrass in the Mediterranean, were mapped from aerial photographs dating from the 1920's and from 2012 along 800km of coastline in South-Eastern France (Provence-Alpes-Côte-d'Azur region). Changes in P.oceanica bed spatial distribution (limits and extent) during these 85 years were analyzed in terms of concordance (remaining areas), positive discordance (expanding areas) or negative discordance (lost areas). Lost areas were linked with direct or indirect impacts of coastal development (artificialized coastlines (namely harbours, ports of refuge, landfills, artificial beaches, groynes and pontoons, submarine pipelines and aquatic farms) visible on the photographs. The comparison showed that 73% of the shallow limits have declined. Considering spatial extent, remaining seagrass meadows areas accounted for the major part (85%), while lost areas accounted for 13% and expanding areas for 1.1%. Lost areas were mainly linked with artificial coastlines but 44% remained with undetermined causes (invisible pressures and/or mixed effects). The analysis of 96 coastal facilities creating the artificial (namely man-made) coastlines showed that the highest impact over the longest distance (5km) was caused by harbours. Only artificial beaches had such a distant impact. Pontoons were the least surrounded by lost seagrass meadows areas. These quantitative data offer important information for marine conservation. © 2015. Source


Holon F.,Andromede Oceanologie | Holon F.,IRD Montpellier | Mouquet N.,IRD Montpellier | Boissery P.,Agence de lEau Rhone Mediterranee Corse | And 5 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Ecosystem services provided by oceans and seas support most human needs but are threatened by human activities. Despite existing maps illustrating human impacts on marine ecosystems, information remains either large-scale but rough and insufficient for stakeholders (1 km2 grid, lack of data along the coast) or fine-scale but fragmentary and heterogeneous in methodology. The objectives of this study are to map and quantify the main pressures exerted on near-coast marine ecosystems, at a large spatial scale though in fine and relevant resolution for managers (one pixel = 20 & 20 m). It focuses on the French Mediterranean coast (1,700 km of coastline including Corsica) at a depth of 0 to 80 m. After completing and homogenizing data presently available under GIS on the bathymetry and anthropogenic pressures but also on the seabed nature and ecosystem vulnerability, we provide a fine modeling of the extent and impacts of 10 anthropogenic pressures on marine habitats. The considered pressures are man-made coastline, boat anchoring, aquaculture, urban effluents, industrial effluents, urbanization, agriculture, coastline erosion, coastal population and fishing. A 1:10 000 continuous habitat map is provided considering 11 habitat classes. The marine bottom is mostly covered by three habitats: infralittoral soft bottom, Posidonia oceanica meadows and circalittoral soft bottom. Around two thirds of the bottoms are found within medium and medium high cumulative impact categories. Seagrass meadows are the most impacted habitats. The most important pressures (in area and intensity) are urbanization, coastal population, coastal erosion and man-made coastline. We also identified areas in need of a special management interest. This work should contribute to prioritize environmental needs, as well as enhance the development of indicators for the assessment of the ecological status of coastal systems. It Copyright: © 2015 Holon et al. Source


Descamp P.,Andromede Oceanologie | Holon F.,Andromede Oceanologie | Ballesta L.,Andromede Oceanologie | Guilbert A.,Andromede Oceanologie | And 4 more authors.
Marine Pollution Bulletin | Year: 2011

Posidonia oceanica is an endemic seagrass from the Mediterranean Sea. It is an indicator of water quality and of the ecological state of coastal ecosystems. The aim of this paper is to test acoustic telemetry for monitoring the position of P. oceanica meadow limits with varied types. After evaluating the accuracy of the system, we present results from a spatiotemporal survey of P. oceanica meadows on nine sites located on the French coast. The method has been demonstrated to be highly efficient for high precision underwater mapping regardless of meadow type, with 1cm accuracy for a distance of 40m between the base and the pointer. A temporal survey led at Cerbere-Banyuls shows a weak global progression of 4m2 (progression of 26m2 - regression of 22m2) between 2006 and 2010. Finally, we discuss the cost and efficiency of this method, and wether it should be generalized for further studies. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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