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Rome, NY, United States

Grant
Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Air Force | Program: STTR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 150.00K | Year: 2015

ABSTRACT: Our goal is to develop theoretical frameworks for efficient multisensor fusion of high dimensional data for target detection localization and tracking. We plan to develop novel algorithms based upon our previous research on copula theory to perform inference with multi-modal correlated sensor data. Copulas describes the dependence between random variables and allow one to optimally exploit the inherent low-dimensional characteristics of high dimensional data. They are popular in high-dimensional statistical applications as they allow one to easily model and estimate the distribution of random vectors by estimating marginals and copulae separately. There are many parametric copula families available that capture more information than traditional approaches while still maintaining low data communication rates to the central fusion center. We will evaluate achievable performance limits of the developed algorithms and compare the efficiency to several benchmark algorithms. Testing will be performed on physics based simulated data sets. The benchmark techniques we will consider will include conventional fusion of Kalman state spaces, principal component analysis (PCA) based methods and parametric likelihood-based approaches. The research output is expected to have significant implications in coping with the data deluge problem at individual sensors employed for detection, estimation and tracking in sensor and radar networks. ; BENEFIT: The proposed approach will permit improved sensor fusion of heterogeneous data sets with only a small increase in communication requirements over traditional fusion approaches. The technology benefits Air Force ISR and missile defense systems. Commercial applications include aviation radar systems as well as emerging multisensor systems.


Grant
Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Navy | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 79.84K | Year: 2012

The focus of this research will be on developing an automated simulation tool called E3Expert-Plus that will predict and mitigate intrasystem (cosite) interference while integrating with existing databases of radio frequency (RF) component and equipment characteristics. As part of this effort we will develop detailed requirements for interfacing with the DoD Joint Spectrum Center"s JSC Equipment, Tactical and Space (JETS) database, including the filtering and extraction of the necessary RF subsystem data using keyword search, data mining and filtering schemes. We will demonstrate the validity of the approach and the compatibility of a suitable simulation tool with the JETS database for extracting relevant data to create accurate simulation models for cosite analysis. This includes extracting relevant information on communications systems, electro-optical/infrared sensors, Global Positioning Systems, inertial navigation systems, processors and other types of electronics equipment. We will also develop a Phase II implementation plan that includes database integration as well as any additional subsystem and component models that will be developed as part of the work. In particular, we propose to develop a conceptual framework consisting of an analytical approach and process definition that meets the technical objective of this R & D. Cosite tool demonstrations will focus on interior cavity coupling problems using JETS data (or equivalent) as well as selected exterior RF problems.


Grant
Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Air Force | Program: STTR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 150.00K | Year: 2015

ABSTRACT: The focus of this research will be on developing a model and associated computational tool called HPEM-Expert that is consistent with the Directed RF Energy Assessment Model 2, (DREAM2), which describes and predicts the effects of a high-power electromagnetic (HPEM) signal on a mobile target, to improve on the existing DREAM tool. Our approach will be to develop a modeling and simulation (M&S) based capability that is compatible with and enhances the DREAM framework and methodology. A proven toolkit framework design will be used that employs an innovative fault-tree based Sneak Circuit Analysis (SCA) approach to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed concept to successfully function in a relevant scenario provided by the government. This framework will combine computational electromagnetics (CEM) solvers with a circuit solver and an SCA module to provide a solid foundation for establishing accurate front-door and back-door coupling models. This will set the stage for Phase II during which we will refine the framework and develop and demonstrate the failure analysis process as well as validate the new capability through detailed component testing and simulation. The initial product to be developed and demonstrated in Phase I will lead to a mature capability that will increase the Air Forces ability to protect its own electronic systems from HPEM effects, as well as to determine the level of damage incurred by/to potential adversaries.; BENEFIT: The product of this STTR project will increase the Air Forces ability to protect its own electronic systems from HPEM events. The commercial sector can also similarly benefit from the technology. For example, the EMI problems encountered on military aircraft are also a serious problem for the commercial airline industry. Commercial aircraft manufacturers currently use relatively crude codes (e.g., spreadsheets) or "back of the envelope" calculations to study EMI and safety problems associated with incident fields from ground radars and other high power sources. Such a sophisticated tool will allow for much greater accuracy and efficiency, which will in turn provide significant time and cost savings as well as enhance safety. Optimizing the design, performance, and application of HPEM-Expert can ultimately help to promote company competitiveness and productivity in these market niches. Also, as a result of the universal need for wireless communication and information collection, there is an increasing need for robust and hardened complex information systems to be integrated on host platforms.


Grant
Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Army | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase II | Award Amount: 1000.00K | Year: 2012

This effort considers the problem of Automatic Modulation Classification (AMC) using multiple asynchronous sensors in non-cooperative environments under low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) regimes. The goal is to improve and demonstrate the performance of AMC systems on various weak signal scenarios in a multi-cast environment that a traditional single sensor would not be able to readily classify. Candidate approaches involve both distributed decision fusion as well as centralized data fusion of asynchronous sensor data for multi-hypothesis modulation classification. This effort will build upon the results of a prior phase study, where the asymptotic behavior of distributed modulation classification systems was analyzed and conditions under which asymptotic probability of error goes to zero were derived. Upper and lower bounds for probability of error were derived based on Chernoff and Bhattacharyya error exponents and Monte Carlo sampling techniques. The optimal fusion rule for multi-hypothesis testing was developed and comparisons were carried out with the majority fusion rule. A maximum likelihood based centralized fusion problem was also formulated where each sensor experiences a different SNR and the network is asynchronous, i.e. each sensor has a non-identical phase, frequency and timing offset. In this effort, a novel centralized data fusion algorithm with multiple asynchronous sensors will be developed. The problem of asynchronous sensor data fusion for AMC using multiple sensors is considered untapped. A novel Distributed Automatic Modulation Classification (DAMC) technology and innovative approach are presented that exploits asynchronous multiple sensor data in the most effective way possible for this purpose. For distributed fusion, the proposed technology, based on a theoretical understanding of independence and dependence (Copula theory), will enable the development of novel fusion methodologies for maximized classification performance. Additionally, for time critical applications, sequential classification procedures will be explored. Time and computational complexity are also considered in proposed algorithms in view of limited computational resources. New algorithms will be developed and existing ones will be enhanced in this phase, along with trials for distributed signal sensing. Classification hardware prototypes will be tested and a robustness test of the new methods will be presented. The development of real-time software implementing this system will be produced and demonstrated. The completion of this phase will result in a mature DAMC technology, which will be inserted into selected hardware and undergo operational tests with real world signal transmission and reception in a fully functional, distributed sensor network.


Grant
Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Navy | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase II | Award Amount: 149.43K | Year: 2014

This research effort is to develop a tool to model the electromagnetic vulnerability/interference (EMV/I) of electronic systems, subsystems and components to directed-energy HPM weapons. A complete HPM-Expert conceptual framework has been developed for performing simulation-based failure analyses that establishes HPM weapons"effects on targeted electronics associated with both front- and back-door coupling paths (e.g., communications systems, electro-optical/infrared sensors, Global Positioning Systems, inertial navigation systems, and processors). The focus is on device/component/circuit-level EMV/I and quantifying associated disturbance, disruption, or damage (DDD) thresholds. A combination of system-level analytical and numerical tools, statistical electromagnetics, domain decomposition, and sneak circuit analysis (SCA) techniques are integrated and applied to address this problem in the frequency domain and which can be extended into the time domain. This will lead to a mature capability that will increase the Navy"s ability to protect its own electronic systems from HPM attack, as well as to determine the level of damage incurred by the enemy. The objective of this proposed effort is two-fold: (i) develop a pre-prototype HPM-Expert computer modeling and simulation capability based on the refined conceptual framework and demonstrate it on a sample challenge problem to be postulated by the government; and (ii) develop a working prototype capability that integrates the various algorithms and tools into a single, stand-alone package consisting of an analytical approach and process definition that can be readily transitioned for use in selected military Programs of Record as well as commercialized in cooperation with one or more technology transition partners.

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