Andrews AFB, MI, United States
Andrews AFB, MI, United States

Andrews University is a university in Berrien Springs, Michigan. Founded in 1874 as Battle Creek College, it was the first higher education facility started by Seventh-day Adventists, and is the flagship university of the Seventh-day Adventist school system. Andrews is the largest evangelical Christian college or university in the state of Michigan, in terms of undergraduate and graduate enrollment.The university consists of eight schools or colleges, offering 130 undergraduate majors and 70 graduate majors. In addition, post-baccalaureate degrees are offered by all. It is accredited by the Adventist Accrediting Association and North Central Association of Colleges and Schools . Wikipedia.


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Quick N.J.,Andrews University
Proceedings. Biological sciences / The Royal Society | Year: 2012

The bottlenose dolphin, Tursiops truncatus, is one of very few animals that, through vocal learning, can invent novel acoustic signals and copy whistles of conspecifics. Furthermore, receivers can extract identity information from the invented part of whistles. In captivity, dolphins use such signature whistles while separated from the rest of their group. However, little is known about how they use them at sea. If signature whistles are the main vehicle to transmit identity information, then dolphins should exchange these whistles in contexts where groups or individuals join. We used passive acoustic localization during focal boat follows to observe signature whistle use in the wild. We found that stereotypic whistle exchanges occurred primarily when groups of dolphins met and joined at sea. A sequence analysis verified that most of the whistles used during joins were signature whistles. Whistle matching or copying was not observed in any of the joins. The data show that signature whistle exchanges are a significant part of a greeting sequence that allows dolphins to identify conspecifics when encountering them in the wild.


MacNeill S.,Andrews University
Sub-cellular biochemistry | Year: 2012

High-fidelity chromosomal DNA replication is vital for maintaining the integrity of the genetic material in all forms of cellular life. In eukaryotic cells, around 40-50 distinct conserved polypeptides are essential for chromosome replication, the majority of which are themselves component parts of a series of elaborate molecular machines that comprise the replication apparatus or replisome. How these complexes are assembled, what structures they adopt, how they perform their functions, and how those functions are regulated, are key questions for understanding how genome duplication occurs. Here I present a brief overview of current knowledge of the composition of the replisome and the dynamic molecular events that underlie chromosomal DNA replication in eukaryotic cells.


Burr J.,Andrews University
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) | Year: 2012

Open angle glaucoma (OAG) is a common cause of blindness. To assess the effects of medication compared with initial surgery in adults with OAG. We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (The Cochrane Library 2012, Issue 7), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE (January 1946 to August 2012), EMBASE (January 1980 to August 2012), Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences (LILACS) (January 1982 to August 2012), Biosciences Information Service (BIOSIS) (January 1969 to August 2012), Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) (January 1937 to August 2012), OpenGrey (System for Information on Grey Literature in Europe) (www.opengrey.eu/), Zetoc, the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com) and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 1 August 2012. The National Research Register (NRR) was last searched in 2007 after which the database was archived. We also checked the reference lists of articles and contacted researchers in the field. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing medications with surgery in adults with OAG. Two authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. We contacted study authors for missing information. Four trials involving 888 participants with previously untreated OAG were included. Surgery was Scheie's procedure in one trial and trabeculectomy in three trials. In three trials, primary medication was usually pilocarpine, in one trial it was a beta-blocker.The most recent trial included participants with on average mild OAG. At five years, the risk of progressive visual field loss, based on a three unit change of a composite visual field score, was not significantly different according to initial medication or initial trabeculectomy (odds ratio (OR) 0.74, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.54 to 1.01). In an analysis based on mean difference (MD) as a single index of visual field loss, the between treatment group difference in MD was -0.20 decibel (dB) (95% CI -1.31 to 0.91). For a subgroup with more severe glaucoma (MD -10 dB), findings from an exploratory analysis suggest that initial trabeculectomy was associated with marginally less visual field loss at five years than initial medication, (mean difference 0.74 dB (95% CI -0.00 to 1.48). Initial trabeculectomy was associated with lower average intraocular pressure (IOP) (mean difference 2.20 mmHg (95% CI 1.63 to 2.77) but more eye symptoms than medication (P = 0.0053). Beyond five years, visual acuity did not differ according to initial treatment (OR 1.48, 95% CI 0.58 to 3.81).From three trials in more severe OAG, there is some evidence that medication was associated with more progressive visual field loss and 3 to 8 mmHg less IOP lowering than surgery. In the longer-term (two trials) the risk of failure of the randomised treatment was greater with medication than trabeculectomy (OR 3.90, 95% CI 1.60 to 9.53; hazard ratio (HR) 7.27, 95% CI 2.23 to 25.71). Medications and surgery have evolved since these trials were undertaken.In three trials the risk of developing cataract was higher with trabeculectomy (OR 2.69, 95% CI 1.64 to 4.42). Evidence from one trial suggests that, beyond five years, the risk of needing cataract surgery did not differ according to initial treatment policy (OR 0.63, 95% CI 0.15 to 2.62).Methodological weaknesses were identified in all the trials. Primary surgery lowers IOP more than primary medication but is associated with more eye discomfort. One trial suggests that visual field restriction at five years is not significantly different whether initial treatment is medication or trabeculectomy. There is some evidence from two small trials in more severe OAG, that initial medication (pilocarpine, now rarely used as first line medication) is associated with more glaucoma progression than surgery. Beyond five years, there is no evidence of a difference in the need for cataract surgery according to initial treatment.The clinical and cost-effectiveness of contemporary medication (prostaglandin analogues, alpha2-agonists and topical carbonic anhydrase inhibitors) compared with primary surgery is not known.Further RCTs of current medical treatments compared with surgery are required, particularly for people with severe glaucoma and in black ethnic groups. Outcomes should include those reported by patients. Economic evaluations are required to inform treatment policy.


Bawden L.,Andrews University
Nature Nanotechnology | Year: 2015

Tunable bandgaps, extraordinarily large exciton-binding energies, strong light–matter coupling and a locking of the electron spin with layer and valley pseudospins have established transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) as a unique class of two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors with wide-ranging practical applications. Using angle-resolved photoemission (ARPES), we show here that doping electrons at the surface of the prototypical strong spin–orbit TMD WSe2, akin to applying a gate voltage in a transistor-type device, induces a counterintuitive lowering of the surface chemical potential concomitant with the formation of a multivalley 2D electron gas (2DEG). These measurements provide a direct spectroscopic signature of negative electronic compressibility (NEC), a result of electron–electron interactions, which we find persists to carrier densities approximately three orders of magnitude higher than in typical semiconductor 2DEGs that exhibit this effect. An accompanying tunable spin splitting of the valence bands further reveals a complex interplay between single-particle band-structure evolution and many-body interactions in electrostatically doped TMDs. Understanding and exploiting this will open up new opportunities for advanced electronic and quantum-logic devices. © 2015 Nature Publishing Group


Hahn A.C.,University of Glasgow | Perrett D.I.,Andrews University
Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews | Year: 2014

Facial attractiveness provides a very powerful motivation for sexual and parental behavior. We therefore review the importance of faces to the study of neurobiological control of human reproductive motivations. For heterosexual individuals there is a common brain circuit involving the nucleus accumbens, the medial prefrontal, dorsal anterior cingulate and the orbitofrontal cortices that is activated more by attractive than unattractive faces, particularly for faces of the opposite sex. Behavioral studies indicate parallel effects of attractiveness on incentive salience or willingness to work to see faces. There is some evidence that the reward value of opposite sex attractiveness is more pronounced in men than women, perhaps reflecting the greater importance assigned to physical attractiveness by men when evaluating a potential mate. Sex differences and similarities in response to facial attractiveness are reviewed. Studies comparing heterosexual and homosexual observers indicate the orbitofrontal cortex and mediodorsal thalamus are more activated by faces of the desired sex than faces of the less-preferred sex, independent of observer gender or sexual orientation. Infant faces activate brain regions that partially overlap with those responsive to adult faces. Infant faces provide a powerful stimulus, which also elicits sex differences in behavior and brain responses that appear dependent on sex hormones. There are many facial dimensions affecting perceptions of attractiveness that remain unexplored in neuroimaging, and we conclude by suggesting that future studies combining parametric manipulation of face images, brain imaging, hormone assays and genetic polymorphisms in receptor sensitivity are needed to understand the neural and hormonal mechanisms underlying reproductive drives. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Craig W.J.,Andrews University
Nutrition in Clinical Practice | Year: 2010

Vegetarians exhibit a wide diversity of dietary practices, often described by what is omitted from their diet. When a vegetarian diet is appropriately planned and includes fortified foods, it can be nutritionally adequate for adults and children and can promote health and lower the risk of major chronic diseases. The nutrients of concern in the diet of vegetarians include vitamin B12, vitamin D, ω-3 fatty acids, calcium, iron, and zinc. Although a vegetarian diet can meet current recommendations for all of these nutrients, the use of supplements and fortified foods provides a useful shield against deficiency. A vegetarian diet usually provides a low intake of saturated fat and cholesterol and a high intake of dietary fiber and many health-promoting phytochemicals. This is achieved by an increased consumption of fruits, vegetables, whole-grains, legumes, nuts, and various soy products. As a result of these factors, vegetarians typically have lower body mass index, serum total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, and blood pressure; reduced rates of death from ischemic heart disease; and decreased incidence of hypertension, stroke, type 2 diabetes, and certain cancers than do nonvegetarians. © 2010 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.


Pribis P.,Andrews University | Shukitt-Hale B.,Tufts University
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2014

The inclusion of nuts in the diet is associated with a decreased risk of coronary artery disease, hypertension, gallstones, diabetes, cancer, metabolic syndrome, and visceral obesity. Frequent consumption of berries seems to be associated with improved cardiovascular and cancer outcomes, improved immune function, and decreased recurrence of urinary tract infections; the consumption of nuts and berries is associated with reduction in oxidative damage, inflammation, vascular reactivity, and platelet aggregation, and improvement in immune functions. However, only recently have the effects of nut and berry consumption on the brain, different neural systems, and cognition been studied. There is growing evidence that the synergy and interaction of all of the nutrients and other bioactive components in nuts and berries can have a beneficial effect on the brain and cognition. Regular nut consumption, berry consumption, or both could possibly be used as an adjunctive therapeutic strategy in the treatment and prevention of several neurodegenerative diseases and age-related brain dysfunction. A number of animal and a growing number of human studies show that moderate-duration dietary supplementation with nuts, berry fruit, or both is capable of altering cognitive performance in humans, perhaps forestalling or reversing the effects of neurodegeneration in aging. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.


Bhatti S.,Andrews University | Hailes S.,University College London
IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications | Year: 2010

Challenges face the Internet Architecture in order to scale to a greater number of users while providing a suite of increasingly essential functionality, such as multi-homing, traffic engineering, mobility, localised addressing and end-to-end packet-level security. Such functions have been designed and implemented mainly in isolation and retrofitted to the original Internet architecture. The resulting engineering complexity has caused some to think of 'clean slate' designs for the long-term future. Meanwhile, we take the position that an evolutionary approach is possible for a practical and scaleable interim solution, giving much of the functionality required, being backwards compatible with the currently deployed architecture, with incremental deployment capability, and which can reduce the current routing state overhead for the core network. By enhancing the way we use naming in the Internet Architecture, it is possible to provide a harmonised approach to multi-homing, traffic engineering, mobility, localised addressing and end-to-end packet-level security, including specific improvement to the scalability of inter-domain routing, and have these functions co-exist harmoniously with reduced engineering complexity. A set of proposed enhancements to the current Internet Architecture, based on naming, are described and analysed, both in terms of architectural changes and engineering practicalities. © 2006 IEEE.


Macqueen D.J.,Andrews University
Proceedings. Biological sciences / The Royal Society | Year: 2014

Whole genome duplication (WGD) is often considered to be mechanistically associated with species diversification. Such ideas have been anecdotally attached to a WGD at the stem of the salmonid fish family, but remain untested. Here, we characterized an extensive set of gene paralogues retained from the salmonid WGD, in species covering the major lineages (subfamilies Salmoninae, Thymallinae and Coregoninae). By combining the data in calibrated relaxed molecular clock analyses, we provide the first well-constrained and direct estimate for the timing of the salmonid WGD. Our results suggest that the event occurred no later in time than 88 Ma and that 40-50 Myr passed subsequently until the subfamilies diverged. We also recovered a Thymallinae-Coregoninae sister relationship with maximal support. Comparative phylogenetic tests demonstrated that salmonid diversification patterns are closely allied in time with the continuous climatic cooling that followed the Eocene-Oligocene transition, with the highest diversification rates coinciding with recent ice ages. Further tests revealed considerably higher speciation rates in lineages that evolved anadromy--the physiological capacity to migrate between fresh and seawater--than in sister groups that retained the ancestral state of freshwater residency. Anadromy, which probably evolved in response to climatic cooling, is an established catalyst of genetic isolation, particularly during environmental perturbations (for example, glaciation cycles). We thus conclude that climate-linked ecophysiological factors, rather than WGD, were the primary drivers of salmonid diversification.


Higher temperatures associated with climate change can cause changes in marine food webs, resulting in a diminished food supply for top consumers. In response, these consumer species must change strategies and behaviors in order to adapt. One change that has been observed in numerous species is an increase in cannibalism. Another is the timing of reproductive activities. Such changes can in turn lead to a cascade of changes throughout an ecosystem, affecting survival of individual species and the well-being of the entire system. El Niño events mimic some features of long-term climate change on short time scales, allowing for tests of some climate-related hypotheses in marine systems. This project will examine the impact of climate-change-related food shortages on organisms both theoretically, using mathematical models, and empirically, at a large colony of seabirds that function as an important indicator species. The work will provide cross-disciplinary training in mathematical biology for undergraduate, masters, and Ph.D. students. The project emphasizes training undergraduates and members from underrepresented groups. Undergraduate students will be involved at every stage of the research process, from data collection and analysis to joint authorship of peer-reviewed publications. The investigators engage the general public and wildlife managers through public lectures and interviews, and by working with biologists and managers from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. The results of this work have important implications for the management of natural populations responding to climate change.

In previous work the investigators demonstrated (1) a strong positive association between rising sea surface temperatures (SSTs) and increased egg cannibalism in glaucous-winged gulls (Larus glaucescens), which are important indicators of marine environmental quality; and (2) the existence of every-other-day ovulation synchrony in glaucous-winged gulls, with the degree of synchronization proportional to colony density. Proof-of-concept mathematical models suggest that the two traits may be co-adaptive, and that, in general, rising SSTs may initiate a cascade of changes in life history strategies in colonial seabirds. The objectives of this study are to (1) develop and analyze general mathematical models for exploring the interaction of SSTs, reduced environmental food availability, cannibalism, and reproductive synchrony in terms of population and adaptive dynamic responses to changes in food availability; (2) field test, in a specific system, predictions associated with two general hypotheses suggested by the mathematical models, namely, that cannibalism is an adaptive response to decreased food supply, which can be a consequence of increased SST, and that reproductive synchrony is an adaptive response to cannibalism; and (3) train undergraduate, masters, and Ph.D. students in interdisciplinary STEM research involving mathematical modeling and field research, intentionally emphasizing the training of underrepresented groups.

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