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Coleman R.E.,Park University | Winter M.C.,Park University | Cameron D.,University of Leeds | Bell R.,Andrew Love Cancer Center | And 9 more authors.
British Journal of Cancer | Year: 2010

Background:Pre-clinical studies have demonstrated synergistic anti-tumour effects of chemotherapy (CT) and zoledronic acid (ZOL). Within the AZURE trial, designed to determine whether the addition of ZOL to neoadjuvant therapy improves disease outcomes, a subgroup received neoadjuvant CT. We report a retrospective evaluation comparing pathological response in the primary tumour between treatment groups.Methods:In total, 205 patients received neoadjuvant CTZOL (CTZOL, n102; CT, n103). The primary end point was pathologically assessed residual invasive tumour size (RITS) at surgery. Secondary end points were pathological complete response (pCR) rate and axillary nodal involvement. Following review of surgical pathology reports (n195), outcome differences between groups were assessed adjusting for potential response modifiers.Results:Baseline characteristics and CT treatments were similar. In multivariate analysis, allowing for biological and clinical factors known to influence tumour response, the adjusted mean RITS in CT and CTZOL groups were 27.4 and 15.5 mm, respectively, giving a difference in means of 12 mm (95% confidence interval: 3.5-20.4 mm; P0.006). The pCR rate was 6.9% in the CT group and 11.7% in the CTZOL group (P0.146). There was no difference in axillary nodal involvement (P0.6315).Conclusion:These data suggest a possible direct anti-tumour effect of ZOL in combination with CT, warranting formal evaluation in prospective studies. © 2010 Cancer Research UK All rights reserved.


Cameron D.,University of Edinburgh | Brown J.,University of Leeds | Dent R.,University of Toronto | Dent R.,National Cancer Center | And 22 more authors.
The Lancet Oncology | Year: 2013

Background: The addition of bevacizumab to chemotherapy improves progression-free survival in metastatic breast cancer and pathological complete response rates in the neoadjuvant setting. Micrometastases are dependent on angiogenesis, suggesting that patients might benefit from anti-angiogenic strategies in the adjuvant setting. We therefore assessed the addition of bevacizumab to chemotherapy in the adjuvant setting for women with triple-negative breast cancer. Methods: For this open-label, randomised phase 3 trial we recruited patients with centrally confirmed triple-negative operable primary invasive breast cancer from 360 sites in 37 countries. We randomly allocated patients aged 18 years or older (1:1 with block randomisation; stratified by nodal status, chemotherapy [with an anthracycline, taxane, or both], hormone receptor status [negative vs low], and type of surgery) to receive a minimum of four cycles of chemotherapy either alone or with bevacizumab (equivalent of 5 mg/kg every week for 1 year). The primary endpoint was invasive disease-free survival (IDFS). Efficacy analyses were based on the intention-to-treat population, safety analyses were done on all patients who received at least one dose of study drug, and plasma biomarker analyses were done on all treated patients consenting to biomarker analyses and providing a measurable baseline plasma sample. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00528567. Findings: Between Dec 3, 2007, and March 8, 2010, we randomly assigned 1290 patients to receive chemotherapy alone and 1301 to receive bevacizumab plus chemotherapy. Most patients received anthracycline-containing therapy; 1638 (63%) of the 2591 patients had node-negative disease. At the time of analysis of IDFS, median follow-up was 31·5 months (IQR 25·6-36·8) in the chemotherapy-alone group and 32·0 months (27·5-36·9) in the bevacizumab group. At the time of the primary analysis, IDFS events had been reported in 205 patients (16%) in the chemotherapy-alone group and in 188 patients (14%) in the bevacizumab group (hazard ratio [HR] in stratified log-rank analysis 0·87, 95% CI 0·72-1·07; p=0·18). 3-year IDFS was 82·7% (95% CI 80·5-85·0) with chemotherapy alone and 83·7% (81·4-86·0) with bevacizumab and chemotherapy. After 200 deaths, no difference in overall survival was noted between the groups (HR 0·84, 95% CI 0·64-1·12; p=0·23). Exploratory biomarker assessment suggests that patients with high pre-treatment plasma VEGFR-2 might benefit from the addition of bevacizumab (Cox interaction test p=0·029). Use of bevacizumab versus chemotherapy alone was associated with increased incidences of grade 3 or worse hypertension (154 patients [12%] vs eight patients [1%]), severe cardiac events occurring at any point during the 18-month safety reporting period (19 [1%] vs two [<0·5%]), and treatment discontinuation (bevacizumab, chemotherapy, or both; 256 [20%] vs 30 [2%]); we recorded no increase in fatal adverse events with bevacizumab (four [<0·5%] vs three [<0·5%]). Interpretation: Bevacizumab cannot be recommended as adjuvant treatment in unselected patients with triple-negative breast cancer. Further follow-up is needed to assess the potential effect of bevacizumab on overall survival. Funding: F Hoffmann-La Roche. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Coleman R.E.,University of Sheffield | Marshall H.,University of Leeds | Cameron D.,University of Edinburgh | Dodwell D.,University of Leeds | And 17 more authors.
New England Journal of Medicine | Year: 2011

BACKGROUND: Data suggest that the adjuvant use of bisphosphonates reduces rates of recurrence and death in patients with early-stage breast cancer. We conducted a study to determine whether treatment with zoledronic acid, in addition to standard adjuvant therapy, would improve disease outcomes in such patients. METHODS: In this open-label phase 3 study, we randomly assigned 3360 patients to receive standard adjuvant systemic therapy either with or without zoledronic acid. The zoledronic acid was administered every 3 to 4 weeks for 6 doses and then every 3 to 6 months to complete 5 years of treatment. The primary end point of the study was disease-free survival. A second interim analysis revealed that a prespecified boundary for lack of benefit had been crossed. RESULTS: At a median follow-up of 59 months, there was no significant between-group difference in the primary end point, with a rate of disease-free survival of 77% in each group (adjusted hazard ratio in the zoledronic acid group, 0.98; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.85 to 1.13; P = 0.79). Disease recurrence or death occurred in 377 patients in the zoledronic acid group and 375 of those in the control group. The numbers of deaths - 243 in the zoledronic acid group and 276 in the control group - were also similar, resulting in rates of overall survival of 85.4% in the zoledronic acid group and 83.1% in the control group (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.72 to 1.01; P = 0.07). In the zoledronic acid group, there were 17 confirmed cases of osteonecrosis of the jaw (cumulative incidence, 1.1%; 95% CI, 0.6 to 1.7; P <0.001) and 9 suspected cases; there were no cases in the control group. Rates of other adverse effects were similar in the two study groups. CONCLUSIONS: These findings do not support the routine use of zoledronic acid in the adjuvant management of breast cancer. (Funded by Novartis Pharmaceuticals and the National Cancer Research Network; AZURE Current Controlled Trials number, ISRCTN79831382.) Copyright © 2011 Massachusetts Medical Society.


Martin M.,Complutense University of Madrid | Bell R.,Andrew Love Cancer Center | Bourgeois H.,Clinique Victor Hugo Center Jean Bernard | Brufsky A.,University of Pittsburgh | And 15 more authors.
Clinical Cancer Research | Year: 2012

Purpose: Denosumab was shown to be superior to zoledronic acid in preventing skeletal related events (SRE) in patients with breast cancer and bone metastases in a randomized, double-blind phase III study. We evaluated further results from this study related to skeletal complications and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Experimental Design: Patients were randomized 1:1 to receive subcutaneous denosumab 120 mg (n = 1,026) and intravenous placebo, or intravenous zoledronic acid 4 mg (n = 1,020) and subcutaneous placebo every 4 weeks. Analyses reported here include the proportion of patients with one or multiple onstudy SREs, time to first radiation to bone, time to first SRE or hypercalcemia of malignancy, and change in HRQoL (functional assessment of cancer therapy-general). Results: Fewer patients receiving denosumab than zoledronic acid had an on-study SRE (31% vs. 36%, P = 0.006). The incidence of first radiation to bone was 12% (n = 123) with denosumab versus 16% (n = 162) with zoledronic acid. Denosumab prolonged the time to first radiation to bone by 26% versus zoledronic acid (HR, 0.74; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.59-0.94, P = 0.012) and prolonged the time to first SRE or hypercalcemia of malignancy by 18% (HR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.70-0.95; P = 0.007). Ten percent more patients had a clinically meaningful improvement in HRQoL with denosumab relative to zoledronic acid, regardless of baseline pain levels. Conclusions: Denosumab was superior to zoledronic acid in reducing bone-related complications of metastatic breast cancer and maintained HRQoL, providing an efficacious, well-tolerated treatment option for patients with bone metastases from breast cancer. ©2012 AACR.


Coleman R.,University of Sheffield | Cameron D.,University of Edinburgh | Dodwell D.,University of Leeds | Bell R.,Andrew Love Cancer Center | And 12 more authors.
The Lancet Oncology | Year: 2014

Background: The role of adjuvant bisphosphonates in early breast cancer is uncertain. We therefore did a large randomised trial to investigate the effect of the adjuvant use of zoledronic acid on disease-free survival (DFS) in high-risk patients with early breast cancer. Methods: In the AZURE trial, an open-label, international, multicentre, randomised, controlled, parallel-group phase 3 trial, women (age ≥18 years) with stage II or III breast cancer were randomly assigned (1:1) by a central automated 24-h computer-generated telephone minimisation system (balanced for number of involved axillary lymph nodes, tumour stage, oestrogen receptor status, type and timing of systemic therapy, menopausal status, statin use, and treatment centre) to receive standard adjuvant systemic treatment alone (control group) or with 4 mg intravenous zoledronic acid every 3-4 weeks for six doses, then every 3 months for eight doses, followed by every 6 months for five doses, for a total of 5 years of treatment. The primary endpoint was disease-free survival (DFS). Secondary endpoints were invasive DFS (IDFS), overall survival, time to bone metastases, time to distant recurrence, and subgroup analyses of variables included in the randomisation. All patients have completed study treatment. Results from the intention-to-treat final analysis of this fully recruited study are presented after a median follow-up of 84 months (IQR 66-93). This final efficacy analysis was planned to take place after 940 DFS events. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00072020. Findings: 3360 women were recruited from 174 centres in seven countries between Sept 4, 2003, and Feb 16, 2006. The number of DFS events did not differ between groups: 493 in the control group and 473 in the zoledronic acid group (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 0·94, 95% CI 0·82-1·06; p=0·30). IDFS (HR 0·93, 95% CI 0·82-1·05; p=0·22), overall survival (0·93, 0·81-1·08; p=0·37), and distant recurrences (0·93, 0·81-1·07; p=0·29) were much the same in both groups. Zoledronic acid reduced the development of bone metastases, both as a first event (HR 0·78, 95% CI 0·63-0·96; p=0·020) and at any time during follow-up (0·81, 0·68-0·97; p=0·022). The effects of zoledronic acid on DFS were not affected by oestrogen-receptor status. However, zoledronic acid improved IDFS in those who were over 5 years since menopause at trial entry (n=1041; HR 0·77, 95% CI 0·63-0·96) but not in all other (premenopause, perimenopause, and unknown status) menopausal groups (n=2318; HR 1·03, 95% CI 0·89-1·20). 33 cases of suspected osteonecrosis of the jaw have been reported, with 26 confirmed on central review, all in the zoledronic acid group (1·7%, 95% CI 1·0-2·4). Interpretation: These results suggest no overall benefit from the addition of zoledronic acid to standard adjuvant treatments for early breast cancer. However, zoledronic acid does reduce the development of bone metastases and, for women with established menopause, improved disease outcomes. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Graham P.H.,St George Hospital | Plant N.,St George Hospital | Graham J.L.,St George Hospital | Browne L.,St George Hospital | And 7 more authors.
International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics | Year: 2013

Purpose: A previous, unblinded study demonstrated that an alcohol-free barrier film containing an acrylate terpolymer (ATP) was effective in reducing skin reactions compared with a 10% glycerine cream (sorbolene). The different appearances of these products precluded a blinded comparison. To test the acrylate terpolymer principle in a double-blinded manner required the use of an alternative cream formulation, a moisturizing durable barrier cream (MDBC); the study was conducted by the Trans Tasman Radiation Oncology Group (TROG) as protocol 04.01. Methods and Materials: A total of 333 patients were randomized; 1 patient was ineligible and 14 patients withdrew or had less than 7 weeks' observations, leaving 318 for analysis. The chest wall was divided into medial and lateral compartments, and patients were randomized to have MDBC applied daily to the medial or lateral compartment and sorbolene to the other compartment. Weekly observations, photographs, and symptom scores (pain and pruritus) were collected to week 12 or resolution of skin reactions if earlier. Skin dose was confirmed by centrally calibrated thermoluminescent dosimeters. Results: Rates of medial and lateral compartment Common Toxicity Criteria (CTC), version 3, greater than or equal to grade 3 skin reactions were 23% and 41%, but rates by skin care product were identical at 32%. There was no significant difference between MDBC and sorbolene in the primary endpoint of peak skin reactions or secondary endpoints of area-under-the-curve skin reaction scores. Conclusions: The MDBC did not reduce the peak skin reaction compared to sorbolene. It is possible that this is related to the difference in the formulation of the cream compared with the film formulation. Skin dosimetry verification and double blinding are essential for radiation skin care comparative studies. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Singh M.S.,Andrew Love Cancer Center | Francis P.A.,Peter MacCallum Cancer Center | Michael M.,Peter MacCallum Cancer Center
Breast | Year: 2011

Tamoxifen has a key role in the management of women with hormone receptor (HR) positive breast cancer. It is the endocrine treatment of choice in premenopausal women with HR positive breast cancer and is also clinically indicated in significant numbers of post-menopausal women who have relative contraindications to aromatase inhibitors. Tamoxifen is a pro-drug that is metabolised to its active metabolites by the cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes including CYP2D6, CYP3A, CYP2B6, and CYP2C19. The CYP genes are polymorphic resulting in variable enzyme activity. Retrospective clinical data suggests that specific single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of CYP2D6 can lead to null or reduced enzyme activity resulting in worse outcomes for those individuals when treated with tamoxifen for HR positive breast cancer. There is however a lack of robust prospective clinical data on this subject. Commercial tests are now available for the genotyping of CYP2D6 with the aim of individualisation of tamoxifen therapy for patients with HR positive breast cancer. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressant drugs such as paroxetine and fluoxetine have also been used to manage tamoxifen induced hot flushes. These drugs potently inhibit the metabolism of tamoxifen by CYP2D6 and thus potentially may lessen the efficacy of tamoxifen. The genetic variations in other enzymes involved in tamoxifen metabolism (CYP3A, CYP2B6, CYP2C19) do not appear to cause any meaningful difference in the efficacy of tamoxifen. This review article will summarize the available published breast cancer data on the interaction between the relevant SNPs for CYP2D6, CYP3A, CYP2B6, and CYP2C19 and the efficacy of tamoxifen, their role in individualisation of hormonal therapy and the role of the commercially available genotyping kits. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Akartunali K.,University of Strathclyde | Mak-Hau V.,Deakin University | Tran T.,Andrew Love Cancer Center
Computers and Operations Research | Year: 2015

In this paper, we propose and study a unified mixed-integer programming model that simultaneously optimizes fluence weights and multi-leaf collimator (MLC) apertures in the treatment planning optimization of VMAT, Tomotherapy, and CyberKnife. The contribution of our model is threefold: (i) Our model optimizes the fluence and MLC apertures simultaneously for a given set of control points. (ii) Our model can incorporate all volume limits or dose upper bounds for organs at risk (OAR) and dose lower bound limits for planning target volumes (PTV) as hard constraints, but it can also relax either of these constraint sets in a Lagrangian fashion and keep the other set as hard constraints. (iii) For faster solutions, we propose several heuristic methods based on the MIP model, as well as a meta-heuristic approach. The meta-heuristic is very efficient in practice, being able to generate dose- and machinery-feasible solutions for problem instances of clinical scale, e.g., obtaining feasible treatment plans to cases with 180 control points, 6750 sample voxels and 18,000 beamlets in 470 seconds, or cases with 72 control points, 8000 sample voxels and 28,800 beamlets in 352 seconds. With discretization and down-sampling of voxels, our method is capable of tackling a treatment field of 8000-64,000cm3, depending on the ratio of critical structure versus unspecified tissues. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Noor S.M.,Deakin University | Noor S.M.,University of Malaya | Bell R.,Andrew Love Cancer Center | Ward A.C.,Deakin University
Critical Reviews in Oncology/Hematology | Year: 2011

Traditional treatments for leukemia and myeloproliferative disorders have involved invasive clinical regimes, including chemotherapy, phlebotomy, and bone marrow transplantation, together with supportive care. These have been of variable effectiveness and have often elicited adverse, sometimes life-threatening side effects. Perturbation of key signal transduction pathways has become a consistent finding in the pathophysiology of leukemia and related diseases. This has allowed the development of specific pharmacological agents targeting deviant pathway component(s). Of this class of therapeutics those directed at the leukemic oncoproteins BCR-ABL and PML-RARα have provided proof-of-concept of the approach and are now established mainstream therapies. Specific inhibitors for the JAK2 tyrosine kinase are now in active development for myeloproliferative disorders and may become a new class of targeted therapeutics. However, an emerging motif in the field is the convergence of multiple mutant pathways on key downstream messengers, such as STAT5 or PI3-kinase, which therefore constitute potential new therapeutic targets. © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.


Ameratunga M.,Andrew Love Cancer Center | Pavlakis N.,Royal North Shore Hospital | Gebski V.,University of Sydney | Broad A.,Andrew Love Cancer Center | And 3 more authors.
Asia-Pacific Journal of Clinical Oncology | Year: 2014

Aim: Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) are well established in treating metastatic pulmonary adenocarcinoma, especially patients with activating EGFR mutations. EGFR mutations are rare in pulmonary squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs). There are conflicting data supporting the efficacy of EGFR-TKIs in advanced lung SCC. We analyzed the impact of EGFR-TKIs on progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in unselected patients with lung SCC. Methods: We searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing EGFR-TKIs alone with placebo in patients with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer. RCTs in all settings (front line/maintenance/subsequent) were included. The primary outcome was OS in the SCC population. We used published hazard ratios (HRs), and when unavailable, unpublished data were sought. Pooled estimates of treatment effect on OS and PFS were calculated using the fixed-effects inverse variance weighted method. Results: Eight eligible RCTs were included: 2 first-line, 6 second-line or beyond, evaluating 1781 patients. Data were available for OS in four studies (second-li≠ N=1420) and for PFS in four studies (3 second-line, 1 first-li≠ N=788). EGFR-TKIs significantly prolonged OS with a HR of 0.88 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.78-1.00, P=0.04), and significantly prolonged PFS with a HR of 0.77 (95% CI 0.65-0.92, P=0.004). Conclusion: EGFR mutations are rare in lung SCC. However, EGFR-TKIs have a modest therapeutic effect compared to placebo in unselected patients with advanced pulmonary SCC, and can be considered in these patients. EGFR-mutation-independent mechanisms may explain efficacy of EGFR inhibitors in this setting. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

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