Anderson, IN, United States

Anderson University, Indiana

www.anderson.edu
Anderson, IN, United States

Anderson University is an accredited private Christian liberal arts university in Anderson, Indiana. The college is affiliated with the Church of God . Anderson University is a member of the Council for Christian Colleges and Universities, and the Independent Colleges of Indiana society. In 2010, U.S. News & World Report ranked Anderson University among the best colleges and universities in the Midwest. The Princeton Review also has recognized Anderson University as one of the best colleges and universities in the Midwest for 2011. The university offers more than 60 undergraduate majors, as well as graduate programs in business, music, nursing, and theology. Wikipedia.

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Aliu E.,Barnard College | Archambault S.,McGill University | Arlen T.,University of California at Los Angeles | Aune T.,University of California at Los Angeles | And 87 more authors.
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2014

The high-frequency-peaked BL Lacertae object 1ES 0229+200 is a relatively distant (z = 0.1396), hard-spectrum (Γ 2.5), very-high-energy (VHE; E > 100 GeV) emitting γ-ray blazar. VHE measurements of this active galactic nucleus have been used to place constraints on the intensity of the extragalactic background light and the intergalactic magnetic field (IGMF). A multi-wavelength study of this object centered around VHE observations by Very Energetic Radiation Imaging Telescope Array System (VERITAS) is presented. This study obtained, over a period of three years, an 11.7 standard deviation detection and an average integral flux F(E > 300 GeV) = (23.3 ± 2.8stat ± 5.8sys) × 10-9 photons m-2 s -1, or 1.7% of the Crab Nebula's flux (assuming the Crab Nebula spectrum measured by H.E.S.S). Supporting observations from Swift and RXTE are analyzed. The Swift observations are combined with previously published Fermi observations and the VHE measurements to produce an overall spectral energy distribution which is then modeled assuming one-zone synchrotron-self-Compton emission. The χ2 probability of the TeV flux being constant is 1.6%. This, when considered in combination with measured variability in the X-ray band, and the demonstrated variability of many TeV blazars, suggests that the use of blazars such as 1ES 0229+200 for IGMF studies may not be straightforward and challenges models that attribute hard TeV spectra to secondary γ-ray production along the line of sight. © 2014. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.


Aliu E.,Barnard College | Aune T.,University of California at Los Angeles | Behera B.,German Electron Synchrotron | Beilicke M.,Washington University in St. Louis | And 84 more authors.
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2014

We present very high energy (VHE) imaging of MGRO J2019+37 obtained with the VERITAS observatory. The bright extended (∼2°) unidentified Milagro source is located toward the rich star formation region Cygnus-X. MGRO J2019+37 is resolved into two VERITAS sources. The faint, point-like source VER J2016+371 overlaps CTB 87, a filled-center remnant (SNR) with no evidence of a supernova remnant shell at the present time. Its spectrum is well fit in the 0.65-10 TeV energy range by a power-law model with photon index 2.3 ± 0.4. VER J2019+378 is a bright extended (∼1°) source that likely accounts for the bulk of the Milagro emission and is notably coincident with PSR J2021+3651 and the star formation region Sh 2-104. Its spectrum in the range 1-30 TeV is well fit with a power-law model of photon index 1.75 ± 0.3, among the hardest values measured in the VHE band, comparable to that observed near Vela-X. We explore the unusual spectrum and morphology in the radio and X-ray bands to constrain possible emission mechanisms for this source. © 2014. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved..


Acciari V.A.,Harvard - Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics | Aliu E.,University of Delaware | Arlen T.,University of California at Los Angeles | Aune T.,University of California at Santa Cruz | And 85 more authors.
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2010

We report on observations of very high energy γ rays from the shell-type supernova remnant (SNR) Cassiopeia A with the Very Energetic Radiation Imaging Telescope Array System stereoscopic array of four imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes in Arizona. The total exposure time for these observations is 22 hr, accumulated between September and November of 2007. The γ-ray source associated with the SNR Cassiopeia A was detected above 200 GeV with a statistical significance of 8.3σ. The estimated integral flux for this γ-ray source is about 3% of the Crab-Nebula flux. The photon spectrum is compatible with a power law dN/dE E -Γ with an index Γ = 2.61 0.24stat 0.2sys. The data are consistent with a point-like source. We provide a detailed description of the analysis results and discuss physical mechanisms that may be responsible for the observed γ-ray emission. © 2010. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.


Acciari V.A.,Harvard - Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics | Aliu E.,Barnard College | Arlen T.,University of California at Los Angeles | Aune T.,University of California at Santa Cruz | And 87 more authors.
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2010

M87 is a nearby radio galaxy that is detected at energies ranging from radio to very high energy (VHE) gamma rays. Its proximity and its jet, misaligned from our line of sight, enable detailed morphological studies and extensive modeling at radio, optical, and X-ray energies. Flaring activity was observed at all energies, and multi-wavelength correlations would help clarify the origin of the VHE emission. In this paper, we describe a detailed temporal and spectral analysis of the VERITAS VHE gamma-ray observations of M87 in 2008 and 2009. In the 2008 observing season, VERITAS detected an excess with a statistical significance of 7.2 standard deviations (σ) from M87 during a joint multi-wavelength monitoring campaign conducted by three major VHE experiments along with the Chandra X-ray Observatory. In 2008 February, VERITAS observed a VHE flare from M87 occurring over a 4 day timespan. The peak nightly flux above 250GeV was (1.14 0.26) × 10-11 cm-2 s-1, which corresponded to 7.7% of the Crab Nebula flux. M87 was marginally detected before this 4 day flare period, and was not detected afterward. Spectral analysis of the VERITAS observations showed no significant change in the photon index between the flare and pre-flare states. Shortly after the VHE flare seen by VERITAS, the Chandra X-ray Observatory detected the flux from the core of M87 at a historical maximum, while the flux from the nearby knot HST-1 remained quiescent. Acciari etal. presented the 2008 contemporaneous VHE gamma-ray, Chandra X-ray, and Very Long Baseline Array radio observations which suggest the core as the most likely source of VHE emission, in contrast to the 2005 VHE flare that was simultaneous with an X-ray flare in the HST-1 knot. In 2009, VERITAS continued its monitoring of M87 and marginally detected a 4.2σ excess corresponding to a flux of 1% of the Crab Nebula. No VHE flaring activity was observed in 2009. © 2010. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.


Aliu E.,Barnard College | Archambault S.,McGill University | Arlen T.,University of California at Los Angeles | Aune T.,University of California at Los Angeles | And 102 more authors.
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2013

We report the discovery of an unidentified, extended source of very-high-energy gamma-ray emission, VER J2019+407, within the radio shell of the supernova remnant SNR G78.2+2.1, using 21.4 hr of data taken by the VERITAS gamma-ray observatory in 2009. These data confirm the preliminary indications of gamma-ray emission previously seen in a two-year (2007-2009) blind survey of the Cygnus region by VERITAS. VER J2019+407, which is detected at a post-trials significance of 7.5 standard deviations in the 2009 data, is localized to the northwestern rim of the remnant in a region of enhanced radio and X-ray emission. It has an intrinsic extent of 0°.23±0°.03 stat +0°.04 -0°.02sys and its spectrum is well-characterized by a differential power law (dN/dE = N0 × (E/TeV)-Γ) with a photon index of Γ = 2.37±0.14stat ±0.20sys and a flux normalization of N0 = 1.5±0.2stat±0.4 sys×10-12 photon TeV-1cm -2s-1. This yields an integral flux of 5.2±0.8 stat±1.4sys×10-12 photon cm -2 s-1 above 320 GeV, corresponding to 3.7% of the Crab Nebula flux. We consider the relationship of the TeV gamma-ray emission with the GeV gamma-ray emission seen from SNR G78.2+2.1 as well as that seen from a nearby cocoon of freshly accelerated cosmic rays. Multiple scenarios are considered as possible origins for the TeV gamma-ray emission, including hadronic particle acceleration at the SNR shock. © 2013. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.


Zehner N.A.,Anderson University, Indiana | Dietrick S.M.,Anderson University, Indiana | Tirrell D.A.,California Institute of Technology | Kennedy S.B.,Anderson University, Indiana
Biomacromolecules | Year: 2015

A recombinant protein, ATCTA, consisting of three domains, α-helix (A), thrombin cleavage site (T), and water-soluble coil (C), forms hydrogels via the self-association of its flanking α-helices into tetrameric bundles, which act as cross-links for the hydrogel network. In the presence of thrombin, the hydrogel degrades due to the thrombin cleavage sites. To better understand the proteolysis reaction in ATCTA, we performed a series of kinetic experiments on the proteins ATC, CTA, CTATC, and ATCTA. The KM and kcat of ATC and CTA were determined to be 88 ± 5 μM and 6.4 ± 0.1 s-1 and 91 ± 9 μM and 6.1 ± 0.1 s-1, respectively. Using these kinetic parameters, a model based on a two-site internally cooperative mechanism was developed to describe the kinetics of proteins containing two cleavage sites. This model was then validated by comparing predicted results with kinetic data from the proteolysis of ATCTA. © 2015 American Chemical Society.

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