Bahir Dar, Ethiopia
Bahir Dar, Ethiopia

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Bitew A.,Andassa Livestock Research Center | Taye M.,Andassa Livestock Research Center | Kebede A.,Andassa Livestock Research Center | Mekuriaw G.,Bahir Dar University | And 3 more authors.
Livestock Research for Rural Development | Year: 2010

Milk yield and calf growth performance of cattle under partial suckling system were studied at Andassa Livestock Research Centre from 2002-2008. The results of the study showed that mean partial lactation and daily milk yield of Fogera cows was 291 and 0.99 kg, respectively. Parity of cow and year of calving significantly affected both partial lactation and daily milk yield, while season of calving had no significant effect on both parameters. The mean lactation length was 292 days. Season of calving, parity of cow and year of calving significantly affected lactation length. Linear relationship between partial lactation milk yield and lactation length was observed. The overall mean birth weight obtained in the current study was 22.7 kg. Birth weight was significantly affected by breed of calf and birth year. The overall mean weights (kg) of calf at one month, three months, six months, nine months and at one year of age were 40.7, 56.5, 80.4, 121 and 120 kg, respectively. Weight at one month was significantly affected by all the fixed effects considered. The weights at three and six months of age were significantly affected by breed of calf and year of birth only. The overall mean daily body weight gain (g) from birth to one month, three months, six months, nine months and one year of age were 591, 374, 321, 359 and 272, respectively. Calf growth showed a significant correlation with the length of suckling period only until six months. Results of the present study showed that milk yield data generated through partial hand milking (two teats) revealed the existence of variability within the herd and improvements in productivity could be achieved through long term genetic selection. Weaning of calves could be practiced at six months of age to prevent the negative effect of longer suckling time on reproduction performance of the dam so as to increase calf crop productivity. Milk yield and calf growth performance of Fogera cattle and their crossbred under improved nutrition needs to be studied.


Teffera A.,Bahir Dar Agricultural Mechanization and Food Science Research Center | Tekeste S.,Bahir Dar Agricultural Mechanization and Food Science Research Center | Denekew Y.,Andassa Livestock Research Center
Livestock Research for Rural Development | Year: 2012

Hay is the oldest and most important conserved fodder. The aim of haymaking is to store feed for later on-farm use. Traditional haymaking practice in Ethiopia has many problems. Delayed or early harvesting, improper handling system during harvesting, transportation, and storage stages are identified as main causes of feed loss. This project is, therefore, intended to evaluate and demonstrate manual hay presses so as to assist users in haymaking and baling practice. Two hay press models, vertical and horizontal hay presses, were manufactured and after preliminary test, practical on field test was conducted at two sites. Besides, discussions were made with farmers and their opinions were recorded. The test result has shown that, the average pressing rate, bale density, and baling time of vertical hay press was 45.2 kg h-1, 86.5 kg m -3 and 14.1 min per piece. Likewise, similar parameters of the horizontal type were 36.9 kg hr-1, 72.3 kg m -3 and 17.4 min per piece, respectively. It was observed that most of the respondent farmers preferred vertical type press due to its lower energy requirement and better output. Therefore, the vertical hay press model is recommended for further promotion.


Addisu B.,Andassa Livestock Research Center | Mesfin B.,Sirinka Agricultural Research Center | Kindu M.,ILRI | Duncan A.,ILRI
Livestock Research for Rural Development | Year: 2012

The study was carried out in June 2010 in selected villages of Amhara region of Ethiopia, representing three levels of market quality (high, medium and low), with the general objective of developing a systematic understanding of the links between market opportunities and productivity increases in livestock, with a focus on dairy production. The present report focuses on production aspects of dairy intensification in Amhara region. Findings showed that feeding of concentrates for dairy cattle was more prominent in high market quality sites compared to medium and low market quality sites, which indicated the level of feed intensification as the market quality improved. The contribution of grazing to total diet was higher for indigenous than crossbred cows. Indigenous cows were allowed to graze freely throughout the year and were expected to meet their feed requirement from grazing, especially in the wet and harvest (crop aftermath grazing) seasons, and supplemented during the dry season when the condition of grazing pasture deteriorated. Crossbred cows that demanded better nutrition for better milk production were only allowed to graze for a limited number of hours in a day when grazing pasture was in better condition. They were mostly kept indoors during the dry season to meet their feed requirements through stall feeding. The proportion of crossbred cows exceeded that of indigenous cows in high market quality sites but the reverse applied in medium and low market quality sites. Milk yield data indicated that there is room for increasing average productivity by improving management practices. Due consideration should be given to alleviate the problems in reproductive and milk yield performance to increase productivity and improve dairy-derived income.


Getachew T.,Debre Berhan Agricultural Research Center | Gizaw S.,Debre Berhan Agricultural Research Center | Lemma S.,Debre Berhan Agricultural Research Center | Taye M.,Andassa Livestock Research Center
Tropical Animal Health and Production | Year: 2011

On-farm survey of farmers' breeding practices, breeding objectives, and selection criteria and on-station feedlot performance evaluation of Washera sheep were undertaken in Ethiopia. The survey revealed that most (79.8%) of the farmers had no breeding ram. The mating system was predominantly uncontrolled. A majority (75.5%) of the sheep owners reported that they herded their sheep flock by mixing with other livestock species mainly with cattle. During grazing, 44.6% of the farmers mix their sheep flock with neighboring sheep flocks. The major sheep production objective was to generate income from the sale of live sheep. Fast growth, appearance, coat color, and pedigree performance were important ram selection criteria, respectively. Ability to breed at early age, pedigree information, mothering ability, and lambing interval were important selection criteria for ewe, respectively. The on-station performance study involved evaluation of feedlot gains and carcass production under five levels of feeding regimes (300, 400, 500, 600, and 700 g day -1 of concentrate feed) for a period of 93 days. The results indicated that the feedlot growth and carcass performance of Washera sheep were very high, with average daily weight gains of up to 126 g and carcass weight of 16 kg, with the optimal level of supplementation for Washera sheep being at 500 g of concentrate per day for a period of 93 days. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Tekeba E.,Andassa Livestock Research Center | Tekeba E.,University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna | Wurzinger M.,University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna | Zollitsch W.,University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna
Livestock Research for Rural Development | Year: 2012

A field study was conducted in the north-western part of Ethiopia to evaluate the effect of urea molasses multi-nutrient block (UMMB) supplementation on productive and reproductive performance and economics of feed supplementation in local Fogera (F) and Holstein Friesian (HF) x F crossbred dairy cows (F 1) during the dry season. The study was conducted simultaneously in a rural subsistence crop-livestock production system using 18 second and third parity Fogera cows and in a market-oriented peri-urban livestock production system using 16 HF x F crossbred dairy cows of similar parity as the Fogera cows. All cows were in their early stage of lactation and the feed types used were the existing dry period farm-specific feeding practices without (control) and with UMMB supplementation (experimental diet). Regardless of the production systems, dairy genotypes showed a significant improvement in daily saleable milk and milk energy off-take, milk quality traits, postpartum ovarian activities, body weight gain, body condition and benefit-cost ratio due to UMMB supplementation. Even though supplementation with UMMB had an overall positive effect on biological as well as economic parameters, the response of cows in the two production systems varied for different traits: crossbred cows showed a particularly strong response in daily milk off-take, improved postpartum oestrus activity and had a greater benefit- cost ratio than Fogera cows in the rural subsistence production system. In general, UMMB was shown to be a viable tool for securing sufficient energy and nutrient intake under on-farm conditions. However, cows with a greater genetic potential will show a higher performance if supplied with sufficient quantities of nutrients and energy than a local genotype. Therefore, under situations of restricted availability of UMMB, first priority in supplementation should be given to crossbred cows over local cows.


Moges F.,Andassa Livestock Research Center | Mellesse A.,Hawassa University | Dessie T.,International Livestock Research Institute ILRI
African Journal of Agricultural Research | Year: 2010

A survey was conducted in Bure district, North West Ethiopia, from 2007 to 2008 to assess the existing village chicken production system. A participatory rural appraisal and a formal survey were used to collect all the relevant data, using a multi-stage sampling technique. Seven farmer administrative kebeles (two from high land, three from mid altitude and two from low land agro-ecologies) and a total of 280 village chicken owner households were considered for the study. The result revealed that the dominant (83%) chicken production system was an extensive/traditional type of production, using a majority (97%) of local chicken ecotypes, managed mainly on scavenging with seasonal supplementation of home grown grains and household food leftovers. The purposes of chicken production were sale for income (51.4%), egg hatching for replacement (45%), consumption (44.3%), use of birds for cultural and/or religious ceremonies (36.4%) and egg production (40.7%). The average flock size per household was 13 (ranged 1 - 57), with a hen to cock ratio of 3.7:1. Only 22.1% of chicken owners prepared a separate overnight house for birds and the rest (77.9%) kept birds in various night sheltering places. The result revealed that 97.5% of interviewed chicken owners experienced chicken disease problems, mainly Newcastle disease (98.2%). The result indicated that 95% of village chicken owners used only traditional means to treat sick birds. The average age of cockerels at first mating and pullets at first egg were 24.6 weeks and 27.5 weeks, respectively. The average number of eggs laid/clutch was 16 (ranged 8 - 28) and the number of total clutch periods/hen/year was 4 (ranged 2 - 6). The annual egg production performance of local hens, under farmer's management condition, was 60 eggs/hen (ranged 24 -112). The average number of eggs incubated/hen was 13 and 11 chicks, on average, were hatched from them. The average hatchability performance of local hens was 81.7%. However, survivability of young chicks was only 60.5% (ranged 0 -100%). High hatchability performance of local hens (81.7%) and high mortality of young chicks (39.5%) were the two contradictory features for the existing village chicken production system of the district. Seasonal diseases outbreaks (84.3%) and predation (11.4%) were the major causes of chicken loss in the district. Women were the major responsible members of the household involved in various chicken husbandry activities like cleaning bird's house (38.6%), feeding birds (81.7%), selling birds (83%) and selling eggs (54.6%). Only 37.5% of interviewed chicken owners got appropriate extension services related to modern chicken management practices. The result of the study revealed that there is a great interest to boost up the existing village chicken production and productivity. This should be considered as an opportunity and potential to design and implement interventions, aimed at improving production and productivity of village chicken in the district. © 2010 Academic Journals.


Tekeba E.,Andassa Livestock Research Center | Wurzinger M.,University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna | Baldinger L.,University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna | Zollitsch W.J.,University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna
Livestock Research for Rural Development | Year: 2013

An experiment was conducted on station, using a nested design in order to evaluate the effects of a Urea Molasses Multi-Nutrient Block (UMMB) supplementation of typical dry season, roughage based diets on the performance of mid lactating local Fogera and their F1 Holstein Friesian crosses in Ethiopia. Eight cows each from both breeds were assigned to a forage-based control diet and an experimental diet with UMMB supplementation. Highly significant differences were observed between treatments for most production traits. However, Fogera and crossbred dairy cows showed a different response pattern for some traits. Crossbred dairy cows were superior over Fogera for milk production, reproductive performance and benefit-cost ratio regardless of UMMB supplementation. Conversely, Fogera cows had higher milk solid contents and supplementing them with UMMB had a greater effect on milk fat than in crossbred cows. It is concluded that supplementing dairy cows with UMMB during the dry season is basically a helpful measure to maintain production. Depending on the availability of UMMB, priority in supplementation however, should be given to cows with a high genetic potential for milk production.


Ayenew Y.A.,University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna | Ayenew Y.A.,Andassa Livestock Research Center | Wurzinger M.,University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna | Wurzinger M.,Kenya International Livestock Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Tropical Animal Health and Production | Year: 2011

In order to evaluate the socio-economic characteristics of urban and peri-urban dairy production systems in the North western Ethiopian highlands, a field survey was conducted which included 256 farms. It is concluded that urban farmers tend to specialize on dairy production and support the family income from non-agricultural activities, while agricultural activities other than milk production forms an additional source of income in peri-urban farms. The specialization of urban dairy producers includes the more frequent use of crossbred cows with higher milk yield. Urban and peri-urban dairy production contributes to food security of the population and family income of the farmers' families, but also provides a job opportunity for otherwise unemployed people. Access to farm land, level of education and access to certain input services such as training, veterinary and credit services were identified as the major constraints for the future development of the dairy sector. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Taye M.,Andassa Livestock Research Center | Taye M.,Hawassa University | Abebe G.,Hawassa University | Gizaw S.,Debre Berhan Agricultural Research Center | And 4 more authors.
Tropical Animal Health and Production | Year: 2010

A study was conducted to evaluate growth performances of Washera sheep under smallholder production systems in the Yilmanadensa and Quarit districts of the Amhara National Regional State, Ethiopia. Data were collected and analysed on the growth of 690 lambs owned by 110 households from October 2004 to September 2007. Weight (kilograms) of Washera lambs at birth, 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months of age was 2.69 ± 0.02, 7.10 ± 0.16, 12.42 ± 0.11, 16.12 ± 0.91, 20.05 ± 0.55 and 23.47 ± 0.68, respectively. Birth weight was significantly (P < 0.05) affected by district, year of birth, parity of the dam, birth type and sex of lamb and by the interaction effect of parity by birth type and parity by sex of lamb. Weaning weight was also affected by year of birth, type of birth and sex of lamb. Yearling weight was affected by only year of birth and sex of birth. The average daily weight gain (ADG; grams) from birth to 30 days, birth to 90 days, 90 to 180 days and birth to 1 year of age was 143.37 ± 13.46, 107.09 ± 2.67, 39.78 ± 9.73 and 60.13 ± 1. 89, respectively. Growth rates from birth to 30 and 90 days of age were significantly (P < 0. 05) affected by birth year, birth type and sex. ADG from birth to 1 year of age was affected by lamb sex and district. The indigenous Washera sheep had faster growth rate than those sheep breeds of Ethiopia extensively studied thus far. Integrated efforts combining improved nutrition, health and participatory community-based breeding would help the smallholder farmers to utilise and conserve this immense sheep genetic resource of Ethiopia. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


PubMed | Andassa Livestock Research Center
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Tropical animal health and production | Year: 2010

A study was conducted to evaluate growth performances of Washera sheep under smallholder production systems in the Yilmanadensa and Quarit districts of the Amhara National Regional State, Ethiopia. Data were collected and analysed on the growth of 690 lambs owned by 110 households from October 2004 to September 2007. Weight (kilograms) of Washera lambs at birth, 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months of age was 2.69 +/- 0.02, 7.10 +/- 0.16, 12.42 +/- 0.11, 16.12 +/- 0.91, 20.05 +/- 0.55 and 23.47 +/- 0.68, respectively. Birth weight was significantly (P < 0.05) affected by district, year of birth, parity of the dam, birth type and sex of lamb and by the interaction effect of parity by birth type and parity by sex of lamb. Weaning weight was also affected by year of birth, type of birth and sex of lamb. Yearling weight was affected by only year of birth and sex of birth. The average daily weight gain (ADG; grams) from birth to 30 days, birth to 90 days, 90 to 180 days and birth to 1 year of age was 143.37 +/- 13.46, 107.09 +/- 2.67, 39.78 +/- 9.73 and 60.13 +/- 1.89, respectively. Growth rates from birth to 30 and 90 days of age were significantly (P < 0.05) affected by birth year, birth type and sex. ADG from birth to 1 year of age was affected by lamb sex and district. The indigenous Washera sheep had faster growth rate than those sheep breeds of Ethiopia extensively studied thus far. Integrated efforts combining improved nutrition, health and participatory community-based breeding would help the smallholder farmers to utilise and conserve this immense sheep genetic resource of Ethiopia.

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