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Burlington, MA, United States

McLaughlin S.J.,and Hanson Inc. | Kalita P.K.,Urbana University | Kuhlenschmidt M.S.,Urbana University
Journal of Environmental Management | Year: 2013

Vegetative Filter Strips (VFS) have long been used to control the movement of agricultural nutrients and prevent them from reaching receiving waters. Earlier studies have shown that VFS also dramatically reduce both the kinetics and extent of Cryptosporidium parvum (C.parvum) oocysts overland transport. In this study, we investigated possible mechanisms responsible for the ability of VFS to reduce oocyst overland transport. Measurement of the kinetics of C.parvum adhesion to individual sand, silt, and clay soil particles revealed that oocysts associate over time, albeit relatively slow, with clay but not silt or sand particles. Measurement of oocyst overland transport kinetics, soil infiltration depth, distance of travel, and adhesion to vegetation on bare and vegetated soil surfaces indicate that oocysts move more slowly, and penetrate the soil profile to a greater extent on a vegetated surface than on a bare soil surface. Furthermore, we demonstrate a small fraction of the oocysts become attached to vegetation at the soil-vegetation interface on VFS. These results suggest VFS function to reduce oocyst overland transport by primarily decreasing oocyst surface flow enough to allow penetration within the soil profile followed by subsequent adhesion to or entrapment within clay particle aggregates, and to a lesser extent, adhesion to the surface vegetation. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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Non-metallic bottle stoppers. On-line retail store services featuring non-metallic bottle stoppers.

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Electric food warmers.

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Messenger bags; Shoulder bags.

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Nonmetal door and window hardware, namely, keys, guards and clasps.

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