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Opdyke D.R.,Anchor QEA LLC | Oborny E.L.,BIO WEST Inc. | Vaugh S.K.,HDR | Mayes K.B.,Texas Parks and Wildlife Department
Hydrological Sciences Journal | Year: 2014

In 2007, the Texas legislature created a program to identify environmental flow standards statewide through the coordinated efforts of scientific and stakeholder groups and rulemaking by the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality. To aid in this task, a Hydrology-based Environmental Flow Regime (HEFR) method was developed that combines a suite of user-customizable hydrologic statistics with an implementation framework. Following the concepts of the Natural Flow Paradigm, the methodology includes the separation of a long-term hydrograph into key flow components (e.g. subsistence, base, high-flow pulse and overbank) defined by the Texas Instream Flow Program. Seasonal, annual and inter-annual flow component statistics were then coupled with biology, water quality and geomorphology overlays, where available, and with implementation rules applied to example large-scale water supply projects to support development of environmental flow standards for use in water rights permit conditions. The HEFR methodology and resulting flow recommendations are compared to two contemporary in-stream flow studies and adopted environmental flow standards. Subsistence flows were fairly similar. Baseflows were in a similar range, but fewer than three seasonal levels have sometimes been specified in in-stream flow studies. Episodic events are quite different in terms of magnitude, frequency, duration and applicable number. Editor D. Koutsoyiannis; Guest editor M. AcremanCitation Opdyke, D.R. Oborny, E.L. Vaugh, S.K. and Mayes, K.B. 2014. Texas environmental flow standards and the hydrology-based environmental flow regime methodology. Hydrological Sciences Journal, 59 (3-4), 820-830. © 2014 © 2014 IAHS Press. Source

O'Day P.A.,University of California at Merced | Vlassopoulos D.,Anchor QEA LLC
Elements | Year: 2010

Amending soils with mineral-based materials to immobilize contaminants is both old and new. Although mineral amendments have been used for decades in agriculture, new applications with a variety of natural and reprocessed materials are emerging. By sequestering contaminants in or on solid phases and reducing their ability to partition into water or air, amendments can reduce the risk of exposure to humans or biota. A variety of mineral types are commonly used to amend contaminated soils, with different modes of molecular-scale sequestration. Regulatory, social, and economic factors also influence decisions to employ mineral amendments as a treatment technology. Source

Rhee J.,Climate Center | Park S.,Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology | Lu Z.,Anchor QEA LLC
GIScience and Remote Sensing | Year: 2014

The relationship between land cover patterns and surface temperature was examined using random forest as well as simple linear regression for two urban sites in Denver, Colorado, USA. Among four land cover types of buildings, trees, grass, and roads and parking lots, only trees and roads and parking lots show significant spatial metrics affecting surface temperature using both the methods. For trees, total class area seems the most important factor affecting surface temperature (R2 = 0.47; percentage of increased mean standard error when mean patch area is excluded %IncMSE = 5.35 for Site B in July), followed by aggregation metrics measuring physical connectedness (R2 for patch cohesion index = 0.42) and patch isolation (%IncMSE for mean Euclidean nearest neighbor distance = 6.01 for Site A in July). For roads and parking lots, the existence of dominantly large patches is the most important factor (R2 for range in patch area = 0.40, for largest patch index = 0.40, for Site B in July), followed by total class area (R2 = 0.39 for Site B in July). Despite some limitations, the findings of this study provide useful information for alleviating urban heat stress especially during summer and reducing adverse impacts of urban drought. © 2014 Taylor and Francis. Source

Kroll C.N.,402 Baker Laboratory | Song P.,402 Baker Laboratory | Song P.,Anchor QEA LLC
Water Resources Research | Year: 2013

Often hydrologic regression models are developed with ordinary least squares (OLS) procedures. The use of OLS with highly correlated explanatory variables produces multicollinearity, which creates highly sensitive parameter estimators with inflated variances and improper model selection. It is not clear how to best address multicollinearity in hydrologic regression models. Here a Monte Carlo simulation is developed to compare four techniques to address multicollinearity: OLS, OLS with variance inflation factor screening (VIF), principal component regression (PCR), and partial least squares regression (PLS). The performance of these four techniques was observed for varying sample sizes, correlation coefficients between the explanatory variables, and model error variances consistent with hydrologic regional regression models. The negative effects of multicollinearity are magnified at smaller sample sizes, higher correlations between the variables, and larger model error variances (smaller R2). The Monte Carlo simulation indicates that if the true model is known, multicollinearity is present, and the estimation and statistical testing of regression parameters are of interest, then PCR or PLS should be employed. If the model is unknown, or if the interest is solely on model predictions, is it recommended that OLS be employed since using more complicated techniques did not produce any improvement in model performance. A leave-one-out cross-validation case study was also performed using low-streamflow data sets from the eastern United States. Results indicate that OLS with stepwise selection generally produces models across study regions with varying levels of multicollinearity that are as good as biased regression techniques such as PCR and PLS. ©2013. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved. Source

Van Geen A.,Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory | Bostick B.C.,Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory | Thi Kim Trang P.,Vietnam National University, Hanoi | Lan V.M.,Vietnam National University, Hanoi | And 17 more authors.
Nature | Year: 2013

Groundwater drawn daily from shallow alluvial sands by millions of wells over large areas of south and southeast Asia exposes an estimated population of over a hundred million people to toxic levels of arsenic. Holocene aquifers are the source of widespread arsenic poisoning across the region. In contrast, Pleistocene sands deposited in this region more than 12,000 years ago mostly do not host groundwater with high levels of arsenic. Pleistocene aquifers are increasingly used as a safe source of drinking water and it is therefore important to understand under what conditions low levels of arsenic can be maintained. Here we reconstruct the initial phase of contamination of a Pleistocene aquifer near Hanoi, Vietnam. We demonstrate that changes in groundwater flow conditions and the redox state of the aquifer sands induced by groundwater pumping caused the lateral intrusion of arsenic contamination more than 120 metres from a Holocene aquifer into a previously uncontaminated Pleistocene aquifer. We also find that arsenic adsorbs onto the aquifer sands and that there is a 16-20-fold retardation in the extent of the contamination relative to the reconstructed lateral movement of groundwater over the same period. Our findings suggest that arsenic contamination of Pleistocene aquifers in south and southeast Asia as a consequence of increasing levels of groundwater pumping may have been delayed by the retardation of arsenic transport. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. Source

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