ANBAS Corporation

Kita-ku, Japan

ANBAS Corporation

Kita-ku, Japan
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Horii Y.,Kyoto Institute of Technology | Horii Y.,ANBAS Corporation | Nagai K.,ANBAS Corporation | Nakashima T.,Kyoto Institute of Technology
Behavioural Brain Research | Year: 2013

When mammals are exposed to an odor, that odor is expected to elicit a physiological response in the autonomic nervous system. An unpleasant aversive odor causes non-invasive stress, while a pleasant odor promotes healing and relaxation in mammals. We hypothesized that pleasant odors might reduce a stress response previously induced by an aversive predator odor. Rats were thus exposed to pleasant and unpleasant odors in different orders to determine whether the order of odor exposure had an effect on the physiological response in the autonomic nervous system. The first trial examined autonomic nerve activity via sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve response while the second trial examined body temperature response. Initial exposure to a pleasant odor elicited a positive response and secondary exposure to an unpleasant odor elicited a negative response, as expected. However, we found that while initial exposure to an unpleasant odor elicited a negative stress response, subsequent secondary exposure to a pleasant odor not only did not alleviate that negative response, but actually amplified it. These findings were consistent for both the autonomic nerve activity response trial and the body temperature response trial. The trial results suggest that exposure to specific odors does not necessarily result in the expected physiological response and that the specific order of exposure plays an important role. Our study should provide new insights into our understanding of the physiological response in the autonomic nervous system related to odor memory and discrimination and point to areas that require further research. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Horii Y.,Kyoto Institute of Technology | Horii Y.,ANBAS Corporation | Nikaido Y.,Kyoto Institute of Technology | Nagai K.,ANBAS Corporation | Nakashima T.,Kyoto Institute of Technology
Behavioural Brain Research | Year: 2010

The odor of 2,5-dihydro-2,4,5-trimethylthiazoline (TMT), a synthetic compound isolated from fox feces, induces various emotional behavioral and stress responses. Here we examined the effect of TMT on behavioral responses and adrenal sympathetic nerve activity (ASNA) in rats. TMT increased freezing behavior, defensive-burying and defensive-attack, and decreased exploration, grooming and approach behaviors. On the other hand, butyric acid (BA), a pungent but non-predatory odor, increased defensive-burying only. TMT increased ASNA strongly, whereas the effects of BA increased ASNA extremely weakly. Furthermore, pre-treatment with the histaminergic H1-receptor antagonist diphenhydramine eliminated the effects of TMT on ASNA. These findings suggest that TMT odor affects autonomic neurotransmission via histaminergic neurons. Exposure to TMT odor likely regulates the controlling autonomic function and output to a motor system simultaneously, evoking behavioral stress responses. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Kishi S.,Kansai University | Shimoke K.,Kansai University | Nakatani Y.,Kansai University | Shimada T.,Kansai University | And 4 more authors.
Neuroscience Research | Year: 2010

The glucose analog 2-deoxy-d-glucose (2DG) depletes cells of glucose. Inhibition of glycosylation caused by glucose depletion induces endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress with subsequent apoptosis. Glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) is a molecular chaperone that acts within the ER. During ER stress, GRP78 expression is induced as part of the unfolded protein response (UPR). We found that nerve growth factor (NGF) prevented 2DG-triggered ER stress-mediated apoptosis, but not the induction of GRP78 expression, in PC12 cells. Surprisingly, GRP78 expression was further up-regulated when NGF was added to 2DG-treated PC12 cells. When a specific inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K), LY294002, was added to 2DG plus NGF-treated cells, both the effects of NGF on 2DG-induced apoptosis and GRP78 expression were significantly diminished. In addition, versipelostatin (VST), a specific inhibitor of GRP78 expression, and small interfering RNA (siRNA) against GRP78 mRNA also decreased both the effects of NGF on 2DG-induced apoptosis and GRP78 expression. RT-PCR and Western blot analyses revealed that enhanced production of nuclear p50 ATF6, but not spliced XBP1, mainly contributed to the NGF-induced enhancement of GRP78 expression in 2DG-treated cells. These results suggest that the NGF-activated PI3-K/Akt signaling pathway plays a protective role against ER stress-mediated apoptosis via enhanced expression of GRP78 in PC12 cells. © 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society.


Horii Y.,ANBAS Corporation | Shen J.,ANBAS Corporation | Fujisaki Y.,ANBAS Corporation | Yoshida K.,Hamari Chemicals Ltd. | Nagai K.,ANBAS Corporation
Neuroscience Letters | Year: 2012

L-Carnosine (β-alanyl- l-histidine), a dipeptide of the amino acids β-alanine and histidine, is found in mammalian tissues including those in the central nervous system and in skeletal muscles. In the present study, we examined the effects of intraduodenal (ID) injection of l-carnosine on splenic sympathetic nerve activity (splenic-SNA) in urethane-anesthetized rats and found that ID injection of 3.3. mg/kg of body weight of l-carnosine significantly suppressed splenic-SNA. Since it has been suggested that splenic-SNA reduction increases natural killer (NK) activity of splenic cells, which in turn elevates tumor immunity, we then investigated the effect of l-carnosine on the proliferation of human colon cancer cells transplanted into athymic nude mice. The findings of this study revealed that 1. mg/mL of l-carnosine solution given as the only drinking water inhibited tumor proliferation. These results suggest that l-carnosine suppresses splenic-SNA and inhibits cancer cell proliferation, probably by elevating NK activity. © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.


Kubomura D.,Yaizu Suisankagaku Industry Co. | Matahira Y.,Yaizu Suisankagaku Industry Co. | Nagai K.,Osaka University | Nagai K.,ANBAS Corporation | Niijima A.,Niigata University
Nutritional Neuroscience | Year: 2010

Anserine and L-carnosine are similar dipeptides synthesized by muscles of vertebrates. The functional role of anserine is unknown, although previous studies showed hypoglycemic effects of carnosine through autonomic nerves. Thus, we evaluated the effects of anserine on blood glucose levels and the neural activities. Intraperitoneal administration of specific doses of anserine to hyperglycemic rats reduced hyperglycemia and plasma glucagon concentrations, whereas thioperamide eliminated the effects of anserine. Intraduodenal injection of 0.1 mg anserine to anesthetized rats after laparotomy suppressed sympathetic nerve activity and enhanced activity of the vagal gastric efferent. In addition, oral administration of anserine reduced blood glucose levels during oral glucose tolerance testing in humans. These results suggest the possibility that anserine might be a control factor for the blood glucose, and that histaminergic nerves may be involved in the hypoglycemic effects of anserine. © 2010 W. S. Maney & Son Ltd.


Nagai K.,ANBAS Corporation | Nagai K.,Osaka University | Niijima A.,Niigata University | Horii Y.,ANBAS Corporation | And 4 more authors.
Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical | Year: 2014

This review summarizes the effects of olfactory stimulation with grapefruit and lavender oils on autonomic nerve activity and physiological function. Olfactory stimulation with the scent of grapefruit oil (GFO) increases the activity of sympathetic nerves that innervate white and brown adipose tissues, the adrenal glands, and the kidneys, decreases the activity of the gastric vagal nerve in rats and mice. This results in an increase in lipolysis, thermogenesis, and blood pressure, and a decrease in food intake. Olfactory stimulation with the scent of lavender oil (LVO) elicits the opposite changes in nerve activity and physiological variables. Olfactory stimulation with scent of limonene, a component of GFO, and linalool, a component of LVO, has similar effects to stimulation with GFO and LVO, respectively. The histamine H1-receptor antagonist, diphenhydramine, abolishes all GFO-induced changes in nerve activity and physiological variables, and the hitstamine H3-receptor antagonist, thioperamide, eliminates all LVO-induced changes. Lesions to the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus and anosmic treatment with ZnSO4 also abolish all GFO- and LVO-induced changes. These findings indicate that limonene and linalool might be the active substances in GFO and LVO, and suggest that the suprachiasmatic nucleus and histamine are involved in mediating the GFO- and LVO-induced changes in nerve activity and physiological variables. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Horii Y.,ANBAS Corporation | Fujisaki Y.,ANBAS Corporation | Fuyuki R.,ANBAS Corporation | Nagai K.,ANBAS Corporation | Nagai K.,Osaka University
Neuroscience Letters | Year: 2015

L-Carnosine is synthesized in mammalian muscles and brain and affects autonomic neurotransmission and physiological phenomena. To clarify the role of l-carnosine, the effects of intraduodenal administration of l-carnosine on muscle sympathetic nerve activity (muscle-SNA) and blood flow (BF) were examined. The changes in muscle-SNA and BF were examined using electrophysiological and Doppler flowmeter in urethane-anesthetized rats. The effect of propranolol, a β-adrenergic antagonist, on the increase in muscle BF due to l-carnosine was also examined. Low dose (1. μg/300. g body weight [bw]) of l-carnosine increased both muscle-SNA and muscle BF, while high dese (100. mg/300. g bw) of l-carnosine decreased both muscle-SNA and muscle BF. Furthermore, propranolol eliminated the increase in muscle BF caused by a low dose of l-carnosine. These results suggest that l-carnosine has dose-dependent effects on muscle BF via changes in muscle-SNA, and the β-adrenergic receptor is implicated in the increase in muscle BF due to l-carnosine. © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.


PubMed | Osaka University and ANBAS Corporation
Type: | Journal: Neuroscience letters | Year: 2015

L-Carnosine is synthesized in mammalian muscles and brain and affects autonomic neurotransmission and physiological phenomena. To clarify the role of l-carnosine, the effects of intraduodenal administration of l-carnosine on muscle sympathetic nerve activity (muscle-SNA) and blood flow (BF) were examined. The changes in muscle-SNA and BF were examined using electrophysiological and Doppler flowmeter in urethane-anesthetized rats. The effect of propranolol, a -adrenergic antagonist, on the increase in muscle BF due to l-carnosine was also examined. Low dose (1g/300g body weight [bw]) of l-carnosine increased both muscle-SNA and muscle BF, while high dese (100mg/300g bw) of l-carnosine decreased both muscle-SNA and muscle BF. Furthermore, propranolol eliminated the increase in muscle BF caused by a low dose of l-carnosine. These results suggest that l-carnosine has dose-dependent effects on muscle BF via changes in muscle-SNA, and the -adrenergic receptor is implicated in the increase in muscle BF due to l-carnosine.


PubMed | KIRIN Company and ANBAS Corporation
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2015

Obesity is the principal symptom of metabolic syndrome, which refers to a group of risk factors that increase the likelihood of atherosclerosis. In recent decades there has been a sharp rise in the incidence of obesity throughout the developed world. Iso--acids, the bitter compounds derived from hops in beer, have been shown to prevent diet-induced obesity by increasing lipid oxidation in the liver and inhibition of lipid absorption from the intestine. Whereas the sharp bitterness induced by effective dose of iso--acids precludes their acceptance as a nutrient, matured hop bittering components (MHB) appear to be more agreeable. Therefore, we tested MHB for an effect on ameliorating diet-induced body fat accumulation in rodents. MHB ingestion had a beneficial effect but, compared to iso--acids and despite containing structurally similar compounds, acted via different mechanisms to reduce body fat accumulation. MHB supplementation significantly reduced body weight gain, epididymal white adipose tissue weight, and plasma non-esterified free fatty acid levels in diet-induced obese mice. We also found that uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) expression in brown adipose tissue (BAT) was significantly increased in MHB-fed mice at both the mRNA and protein levels. In addition, MHB administration in rats induced the -adrenergic signaling cascade, which is related to cAMP accumulation in BAT, suggesting that MHB could modulate sympathetic nerve activity innervating BAT (BAT-SNA). Indeed, single oral administration of MHB elevated BAT-SNA in rats, and this elevation was dissipated by subdiaphragmatic vagotomy. Single oral administration of MHB maintained BAT temperature at a significantly higher level than in control rats. Taken together, these findings indicate that MHB ameliorates diet-induced body fat accumulation, at least partly, by enhancing thermogenesis in BAT via BAT-SNA activation. Our data suggests that MHB is a useful tool for developing functional foods or beverages to counteract the accumulation of body fat.


Horii Y.,ANBAS Corporation | Tanida M.,ANBAS Corporation | Shen J.,ANBAS Corporation | Hirata T.,Kobayashi Pharmaceutical Co. | And 3 more authors.
Neuroscience Letters | Year: 2010

Eucommia ulmoides Oliver leaf extracts (ELE) have been shown to exert a hypolipidemic effect in hamsters. Therefore, it was hypothesized that ELE might affect lipid metabolism via changes in autonomic nerve activities and causes changes in thermogenesis and body weight. We examined this hypothesis, and found that intraduodenal (ID) injection of ELE elevated epididymal white adipose tissue sympathetic nerve activity (WAT-SNA) and interscapular brown adipose tissue sympathetic nerve activity (BAT-SNA) in urethane-anesthetized rats and elevated the plasma concentration of free fatty acids (FFA) (a marker of lipolysis) and body temperature (BT) (a marker of thermogenesis) in conscious rats. Furthermore, it was observed that ID administration of ELE decreased gastric vagal nerve activity (GVNA) in urethane-anesthetized rats, and that ELE given as food reduced food intake, body and abdominal adipose tissue weights and decreased plasma triglyceride level. These findings suggest that ELE stimulates lipolysis and thermogenesis through elevations in WAT-SNA and BAT-SNA, respectively, suppresses appetite by inhibiting the activities of the parasympathetic nerves innervating the gastrointestinal tract, including GVNA, and decreases the amount of abdominal fat and body weight via these changes. © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

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