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Le Touquet – Paris-Plage, France

Guyader C.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Ceraline J.,University of Strasbourg | Gravier E.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Gravier E.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | And 10 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Almost all prostate cancers respond to androgen deprivation treatment but many recur. We postulated that risk of hormone escape -frequency and delay- are influenced by hormone therapy modalities. More, hormone therapies induce crucial biological changes involving androgen receptors; some might be targets for escape prevention. We investigated the relationship between the androgen deprivation treatment and the risk of recurrence using nude mice bearing the high grade, hormone-dependent human prostate cancer xenograft PAC120. Tumor-bearing mice were treated by Luteinizing-Hormone Releasing Hormone (LHRH) antagonist alone, continuous or intermittent regimen, or combined with androgen receptor (AR) antagonists (bicalutamide or flutamide). Tumor growth was monitored. Biological changes were studied as for genomic alterations, AR mutations and protein expression in a large series of recurrent tumors according to hormone therapy modalities. Therapies targeting Her-2 or AKT were tested in combination with castration. All statistical tests were two-sided. Tumor growth was inhibited by continuous administration of the LH-RH antagonist degarelix (castration), but 40% of tumors recurred. Intermittent castration or complete blockade induced by degarelix and antiandrogens combination, inhibited tumor growth but increased the risk of recurrence (RR) as compared to continuous castration (RRintermittent: 14.5, RRcomplete blockade: 6.5 and 1.35). All recurrent tumors displayed new quantitative genetic alterations and AR mutations, whatever the treatment modalities. AR amplification was found after complete blockade. Increased expression of Her-2/neu with frequent ERK/AKT activation was detected in all variants. Combination of castration with a Her-2/neu inhibitor decreased recurrence risk (0.17) and combination with an mTOR inhibitor prevented it. Anti-hormone treatments influence risk of recurrence although tumor growth inhibition was initially similar. Recurrent tumors displayed genetic instability, AR mutations, and alterations of phosphorylation pathways. We postulated that Her-2/AKT pathways allowed salvage of tumor cells under castration and we demonstrated that their inhibition prevented tumor recurrence in our model. © 2012 Guyader et al.

Havelange V.,Catholic University of Louvain | Ameye G.,Catholic University of Louvain | Theate I.,Catholic University of Louvain | Callet-Bauchu E.,Lyon University Hospital Center | And 19 more authors.
Genes Chromosomes and Cancer | Year: 2013

We previously showed that complex karyotypes (CK) and chromosome 13q abnormalities have an adverse prognostic impact in childhood Burkitt lymphomas/leukemias (BL) and diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCL). The aim of our study was to identify recurrent alterations associated with MYC rearrangements in aggressive B-cell lymphomas with CK. Multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization (M-FISH) was performed in 84 patient samples (59 adults and 25 children), including 37 BL (13 lymphomas and 24 acute leukemias), 12 DLBCL, 28 B-cell lymphomas with intermediate features (DLBCL/BL), 4 B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemias (BCP-ALL), and 3 unclassifiable B-cell lymphomas. New (cytogenetically undetected) abnormalities were identified in 80% of patients. We also refined one-third of the chromosomal aberrations detected by karyotyping. M-FISH proved to be more useful in identifying chromosomal partners involved in unbalanced translocations and in revealing greater complexity of 13q rearrangements. Most of the newly identified or refined recurrent alterations involved 1q, 13q and 3q (gains/losses), 7q and 18q (gains), or 6q (losses), suggesting that these secondary aberrations may play a role in lymphomagenesis. Several patterns of genomic aberrations were identified: 1q gains in BL, trisomies 7 in DLBCL, and 18q-translocations in adult non-BL. BCP-ALL usually displayed an 18q21 rearrangement. BL karyotypes were less complex and aneuploid than those of other MYC-rearranged lymphomas. BCP-ALL and DLBCL/BL were associated with a higher rate of early death than BL and DLBCL. These findings support the categorization of DLBCL/BL as a distinct entity and suggest that BL with CK are indeed different from other aggressive MYC-rearranged lymphomas, which usually show greater genetic complexity. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Canella C.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Demondion X.,Laboratoire danatomie | Marchiori E.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Cotten H.,Anatomie et cytologie pathologiques
European Journal of Radiology | Year: 2013

Objective: The purpose of our study was to demonstrate that ultrasonography may allow a precise assessment of the course and relationships of the spinal accessory nerve (SAN). Material and methods: This study, initially undertaken in 7 cadavers, was followed by high-resolution ultrasonographic study in 15 volunteers (30 nerves) by two radiologists in consensus. The location, course and relations to the adjacent anatomic structures of the SAN were analyzed. Results: The precise course of the SAN between the lateroposterior border of the sternocleidomastoid muscle and the anterior border of the trapezius muscle could be identified by high-resolution ultrasonography. In contrast, clinical bone landmarks were not found helpful for the identification of the nerve. Conclusion: The SAN can be clearly depicted by means of ultrasonography. Knowledge of the nerve's precise location, which may evidence individual variations, may have useful clinical applications. © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

Cochand-Priollet B.,Anatomie et cytologie pathologiques | Schmitt F.C.,University of Porto | Totsch M.,Medical University of Graz | Vielh P.,Institute Gustave Roussy
Acta Cytologica | Year: 2011

Objectives: A 2007 conference held at the National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Md., USA, proposed a new terminology for classifying the results of thyroid fine-needle aspiration (FNA)-The Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytology (TBSRTC). The need to standardize thyroid FNA terminology was emphasized during the 35th European Congress of Cytology in 2009. An interobserver review study to assess the new terminology for analyzing the results of thyroid FNA was organized by the scientific committee of the European Federation of Cytology Societies. Study Design: Four experts in thyroid FNA examined and classified 116 FNAs according to the 6 levels of TBSRTC which are: nondiagnostic (ND); benign; atypia of undetermined significance/follicular lesion of undetermined significance (AUS/FLUS); follicular neoplasm/suspicious for a follicular neoplasm (FN/SFN), with those of Hürthle cell type reported as follicular neoplasm, Hürthle cell type/suspicious for a follicular neoplasm, Hürthle cell type (FNHCT/SFNHCT); suspicious (SUS), and malignant. Results: The total consensus was 62.1%; the cytopathologists disagreed on 44 cases, including 8 cases of AUS/FLUS and 18 of FN/SFN; 59% of the cases had no consensus. They agreed on 73 and 80% of the cases classified as benign and malignant, respectively, and on 58.3% of the SUS cases. The percentage of no consensus for each expert was between 32 and 39%. Conclusions: Disagreement regarding the use of TBSRTC terminology for classifying the results of thyroid FNA mainly occurred in the most-often criticized categories of AUS/FLUS and FN/SFN. © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

Di Filippo M.,UF Dyslipidemies Cardiobiologie | Di Filippo M.,INSA Lyon | Moulin P.,INSA Lyon | Roy P.,Service de Biostatistique | And 29 more authors.
Journal of Hepatology | Year: 2014

Background & Aims: Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis leading to fibrosis occurs in patients with abetalipoproteinemia (ABL) and homozygous or compound heterozygous familial hypobetalipoproteinemia (Ho-FHBL). We wanted to establish if liver alterations were more frequent in one of both diseases and were influenced by comorbidities. Methods: We report genetic, clinical, histological and biological characteristics of new cases of ABL (n = 7) and Ho-FHBL (n = 7), and compare them with all published ABL (51) and Ho-FHBL (22) probands. Results: ABL patients, diagnosed during infancy, presented mainly with diarrhea, neurological and ophthalmological impairments and remained lean, whereas Ho-FHBL were diagnosed later, with milder symptoms often becoming overweight in adulthood. Despite subtle differences in lipid phenotype, liver steatosis was observed in both groups with a high prevalence of severe fibrosis (5/27 for Ho-FHBL vs. 4/58 for ABL (n.s.)). Serum triglycerides concentration was higher in Ho-FHBL whereas total and HDL-cholesterol were similar in both groups. In Ho-FHBL liver alterations were found to be independent from the apoB truncation size and apoB concentrations. Conclusions: Our findings provide evidence for major liver abnormalities in both diseases. While ABL and Ho-FHBL patients have subtle differences in lipid phenotype, carriers of APOB mutations are more frequently obese. These results raise the question of a complex causal link between apoB metabolism and obesity. They suggest that the genetic defect in VLDL assembly is critical for the occurrence of liver steatosis leading to fibrosis and shows that obesity and insulin resistance might contribute by increasing lipogenesis. © 2014 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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