Section of Anatomic Pathology

Indian Hills Cherokee Section, United States

Section of Anatomic Pathology

Indian Hills Cherokee Section, United States
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Choi E.,Section of Anatomic Pathology | Childs-Sanford S.E.,Section of Zoological Medicine | Abou-Madi N.,Section of Zoological Medicine | King E.E.,Cornell University | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine | Year: 2016

An 8-yr-old, captive, female golden lion tamarin (Leontopithecus rosalia) with a 6-yr history of hyperbilirubinemia was examined for inappetence and weight loss. Physical examination and blood pressure monitoring under anesthesia revealed hypothermia and hypotension, and blood work revealed hypoglycemia, markedly elevated liver enzymes, including serum alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase, and confirmed the hyperbilirubinemia. A complete blood count suggested chronic lymphoid leukemia. The animal's condition deteriorated during recovery, and the animal died despite aggressive treatment. Grossly, there was micronodular cirrhosis of the liver, severe icterus, and diffuse osteopenia of all examined bones. Microscopic examination of the liver confirmed the micronodular cirrhosis and bone lesions were compatible with diffuse osteopenia and osteomalacia. This brief communication presents a case of chronic liver disease and lesions indicative of metabolic bone disease, also known as hepatic osteodystrophy. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first documented case of hepatic osteodystrophy in the veterinary literature. © 2016 by American Association of Zoo Veterinarians.

Carella M.,Medical Genetics Unit | Spreafico F.,Instituto Nazionale dei Tumori | Palumbo O.,Medical Genetics Unit | Palumbo O.,University of Bari | And 13 more authors.
American Journal of Medical Genetics, Part A | Year: 2010

We report on a boy with three cell lines: 46,XY, r(11)(p15.5, q25)[90]/45,XY,-11 [8]/47,XY, r(11)(p15.5,q25)x2[2], with minor anomalies and mental retardation who developed asynchronous bilateral Wilms tumors (WTs). Array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) performed on peripheral blood leukocytes of the patient led to the identification of a constitutional duplication of 4.8Mb at 11p15.5-11p15.4. This duplication was found to involve the chromosome of paternal origin, and occurred in tandem on the ring chromosome 11. Despite the constitutive duplication of the paternal 11p15 chromosome region, the patient showed no sign of Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. However, the molecular characterization of the two neoplasias was consistent with their independent origin and showed that they arose from the two distinct cellular clones with the ring chromosome, indicating that this anomaly is likely to have caused the patient's susceptibility to WT development. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Barbagallo G.M.V.,University of Catania | Paratore S.,Section of Anatomic Pathology | Caltabiano R.,University of Catania | Palmucci S.,University of Catania | And 8 more authors.
Neurosurgical Focus | Year: 2014

Object. The objective of this study was to report the authors' experience with the long-term administration of temozolomide (TMZ; > 6 cycles, up to 101) in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma and to analyze its feasibility and safety as well as its impact on survival. The authors also compared data obtained from the group of patients undergoing long-term TMZ treatment with data from patients treated with a standard TMZ protocol. Methods. A retrospective analysis was conducted of 37 patients who underwent operations for glioblastoma between 2004 and 2012. Volumetric analysis of postoperative Gd-enhanced MR images, obtained within 48 hours, confirmed tumor gross-total resection (GTR) in all but 2 patients. All patients received the first cycle of TMZ at a dosage of 150 mg/m2 starting on the second or third postsurgical day. Afterward, patients received concomitant radiochemotherapy according to the Stupp protocol. With regard to adjuvant TMZ therapy, the 19 patients in Group A, aged 30-72 years (mean 56.1 years), received 150 mg/m2 for 5 days every 28 days for more than 6 cycles (range 7-101 cycles). The 18 patients in Group B, aged 46-82 years (mean 64.8 years), received the same dose, but for no more than 6 cycles. O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter methylation status was analyzed for both groups and correlated with overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). The impact of age, sex, Karnofsky Performance Scale score, and Ki 67 staining were also considered. Results. All patients but 1 in Group A survived at least 18 months (range 18-101 months), and patients in Group B survived no more than 17 months (range 2-17 months). The long-term survivors (Group A), defined as patients who survived at least 12 months after diagnosis, were 51.3% of the total (19/37). Kaplan-Meier curve analysis showed that patients treated with more than 6 TMZ cycles had OS and PFS that was significantly longer than patients receiving standard treatment (median OS 28 months vs 8 months, respectively; p = 0.0001; median PFS 20 months vs 4 months, respectively; p = 0.0002). By univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression analysis, MGMT methylation status and number of TMZ cycles appeared to be survival prognostic factors in patients with glioblastoma. After controlling for MGMT status, highly significant differences related to OS and PFS between patients with standard and long-term TMZ treatment were still detected. Furthermore, in Group A and B, the statistical correlation of MGMT status to the number of TMZ cycles showed a significant difference only in Group A patients, suggesting that MGMT promoter methylation was predictive of response for long-term TMZ treatment. Prolonged therapy did not confer hematological toxicity or opportunistic infections in either patient group. Conclusions. This study describes the longest experience so far reported with TMZ in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastomas, with as many as 101 cycles, who were treated using GTR. Statistically significant data confirm that median survival correlates with MGMT promoter methylation status as well as with the number of TMZ cycles administered. Long-term TMZ therapy appears feasible and safe. © AANS, 2014.

PubMed | Section of Anatomic Pathology
Type: | Journal: Infectious agents and cancer | Year: 2011

Cancer statistics report an increased incidence of OSCC and OPSCC around the world. Though improvements in screening and early diagnosis have dramatically reduced the incidence of this neoplasm in recent years, the 5-year-disease-free survival, is still poor, specially for oropharyngeal cancer, despite the great scientific and financial efforts. Recently, several papers showed that HPV may be involved at least in the pathogenesis of a subgroup of oral and cervical SCC, leading to distinct molecular characteristics compared with HPV-negative ones. Nevertheless, OPSCCs associated with HPV infection seem to show a better prognosis and affect younger patients (< 40 yrs.), especially females. Therefore, there is the need to properly assess oropharyngeal SCC subgroups: 1) not HPV associated/classic oral SCC: less responsive to anticancer drugs: needs novel post-surgical treatment; 2) HPV associated/oral SCC: needs several management options and suitable target therapy against the virus, and/or immune-stimulating therapy. Further issues are: 1) the disclosure of putative targets for more efficient molecular therapy, which may work as cervical cancer post-surgical treatment, in anticipation of the effects of global prevention performed by WHO anti-HPV vaccination programs; 2) careful identification of precancerous lesions in both sites; dysplasia is currently treated by excisional or ablative procedures, which dont consider the concept of field carcinogenesis. In fact, it is probable that near or far from an excised precancerous lesion new foci of cell transformation may exist, which are not yet macroscopically evident, but, if detected, would put the patient into a high risk subgroup.Comparing findings reported in the recent literature, the data of this state of the art about HPV might add useful informations concerning oropharyngeal carcinogenesis. Moreover, our review would be useful in order to define novel perspectives of treatment choice for Head & Neck cancer patients, by combining well known chemotherapeutical drugs with new molecular target therapy.

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