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Akfirat F.S.,Gebze Institute of Technology | Aydin Y.,Marmara University | Ertugrul F.,Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey | Hasancebi S.,Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey | And 5 more authors.
Cereal Research Communications | Year: 2010

Bulk segregant analysis (BSA) was used to identify molecular markers associated with yellow rust disease resistance in wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.). DNAs isolated from the selected yellow rust tolerant and susceptible F 2 individuals derived from a cross between yellow rust resistant and susceptible wheat genotypes were used to established a "tolerant" and a "susceptible" DNA pool. The BSA was then performed on these DNA pools using 230 markers that were previously mapped onto the individual wheat chromosomes. One of the SSR markers (Xgwm382) located on chromosome group 2 (A, B, D genomes) was present in the resistant parent and the resistant bulk but not in the susceptible parent and the susceptible bulk, suggesting that this marker is linked to a yellow rust resistance gene. The presence of Xgwm382 was also tested in 108 additional wheat genotypes differing in yellow rust resistance. This analysis showed that 81% of the wheat genotypes known to be yellow rust resistant had the Xgwm382 marker, further suggesting that the presence of this marker correlates with yellow rust resistance in diverse wheat germplasm. Therefore, Xgwm382 could be useful for marker assisted selection of yellow rust resistances genotypes in wheat breeding programs. © 2010 Akadémiai Kiadó. Source

Yuksel S.,Anatolian Agricultural Research Institute | Akcura M.,Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University
Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry | Year: 2012

Pattern analysis, cluster and ordination techniques were applied to grain yield data of 24 cultivars of 2- and 6-rowed barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) grown in 26 environments in Turkey during 2004-2008 to identify patterns of genotype (G), environment (E) and genotype × environment interaction (GEI) in barley multi-environment trials (METs). Analysis of variance showed that 86.9% of the total sum of squares was accounted for by E. Of the remaining sum of squares, the contribution of GEI was almost 9 times that of the contribution of G alone. Knowledge of environmental and cultivar classification helped to reveal several patterns of GEI. This was verified by ordination analysis of the GEI matrix. Grouping environments based on cultivar performance resulted in the separation of different types of environments. Pattern analysis confirmed 2 mega-environments in the highest similarity level and allowed the discrimination and characterization of barley cultivar adaptation. The high-yielding environments (Eskişehir and Konya; first mega-environment) tended to be closer to one another, suggesting that they discriminate among barley cultivars similarly, whereas low-yielding environments tended to be more diverse (Afyon and Uşak; second megaenvironment). Cultivars with similar patterns in performance were separated into 5 clusters. The two 6-rowed (Ki{dotless}ral-97 and Çetin-00) and two 2-rowed barley cultivars (Şahin-91 and Aydan hani{dotless}m) with low to medium yields (3.60-3.84 t ha-1) contributed greatly to GEI and were highly adapted to high-yielding environments. The tall and later maturing 2-rowed barley cultivars (Karatay-94, İnce-04, Kalayci{dotless}-97, Özdemir-05, Tokak 157/37, and Keser) with high yields (4.35-4.18 t ha-1) were highly adapted to most of the environments studied. © TÜBİTAK. Source

Ercan S.,Marmara University | Ertugrul F.,TUBITAK - Marmara Research Center | Aydin Y.,Marmara University | Akfirat F.S.,Gebze Institute of Technology | And 6 more authors.
Biologia Plantarum | Year: 2010

Expressed sequenced tags containing simple sequence repeats (EST-SSRs) were used to identify molecular markers associated with yellow rust resistance in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). A cross between yellow rust resistant (PI178383) and susceptible (Harmankaya99) wheat genotypes was performed and respective DNA pools from the resistant and susceptible F2 seedlings were constructed. 78 EST-SSR primers were used for bulked segregant analysis and one EST-SSR marker (Pk54), identified as 200 bp fragment, was present in the resistant parent and resistant F2 hybrids but not in the susceptible ones. 108 wheat genotypes differing in yellow rust resistance were screened with Pk54 and 68 % of the wheat genotypes, known to be yellow rust resistant, had the Pk54 marker, further suggesting that the presence of this marker correlates with yellow rust resistance. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source

Cakmak I.,Sabanci University | Kalayci M.,Anatolian Agricultural Research Institute | Kaya Y.,BD International Agricultural research Institute | Torun A.A.,Cukurova University | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2010

Zinc (Zn) deficiency associated with low dietary intake is a well-documented public health problem, resulting in serious health and socioeconomic problems. Field experiments were conducted with wheat to test the role of both soil and foliar application of ZnSO4 in Zn concentration of whole grain and grain fractions (e.g., bran, embryo and endosperm) in 3 locations. Foliar application of ZnSO4 was realized at different growth stages (e.g., stem elongation, boot, milk, dough stages) to study the effect of timing of foliar Zn application on grain Zn concentration. The rate of foliar Zn application at each growth stage was 4 kg of ZnSO4 3 7H2O ha-1. Laser ablation (LA)-ICP-MS was used to follow the localization of Zn within grain. Soil Zn application at a rate of 50 kg of ZnSO4 3 7H2O ha-1 was effective in increasing grain Zn concentration in the Zn-deficient location, but not in the locations without soil Zn deficiency. In all locations, foliar application of Zn significantly increased Zn concentration in whole grain and in each grain fraction, particularly in the case of high soil N fertilization. In Zn-deficient location, grain Zn concentration increased from 11 mg kg-1 to 22 mg kg-1 with foliar Zn application and to 27 mg kg-1 with a combined application of ZnSO4 to soil and foliar. In locations without soil Zn deficiency, combination of high N application with two times foliar Zn application (e.g., at the booting and milk stages) increased grain Zn concentration, on average, from 28 mg kg-1 to 58 mg kg-1. Both ICP-OES and LA-ICP-MS data showed that the increase in Zn concentration of whole grain and grain fractions was pronounced when Zn was sprayed at the late growth stage (e.g., milk and dough). LA-ICP-MS data also indicated that Zn was transported into endosperm through the crease phloem. To our knowledge, this is the first study to show that the timing of foliar Zn application is of great importance in increasing grain Zn in wheat, especially in the endosperm part that is the predominant grain fraction consumed in many countries. Providing a large pool of Zn in vegetative tissues during the grain filling (e.g., via foliar Zn spray) is an important practice to increase grain Zn and contribute to human nutrition. © 2010 American Chemical Society. Source

Olgun M.,Eskiehir Osmangazi University | Aygun C.,Anatolian Agricultural Research Institute
Custos e Agronegocio | Year: 2011

The aim of this study was to determine relationship yield and yield components and to show efficiency of components on yield by using different statistical methods on data collected from berad wheat cultivars grown under rainfed conditions. Data of yield and yield components over the two years in the study were evaluated by statistical procedures; the correlation, multiple linear regression, path and factor analyse. Results in the study with respect to four statistical methods leaf area photosynthetic efficiency, green area photosynthetic efficiency, spike number per m2leaf area index, grain weight per spike and harvest index were the most important characteristics and they were highly effective on grain yield. Source

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