Toronto, Canada
Toronto, Canada

Time filter

Source Type

Abdurrahman Z.B.,McMaster University | Kastner M.,Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute | Harada L.,Anaphylaxis Canada | Bantock L.,Anaphylaxis Canada | And 2 more authors.
Allergy, Asthma and Clinical Immunology | Year: 2013

Background: Insufficient knowledge of food allergy and anaphylaxis has been identified by caregivers as an important barrier to coping, and a potential cause of fear and anxiety, particularly for those with children newly diagnosed with food allergy.The purpose of the study was to better understand the experiences of caregivers of children with a first allergic reaction to food, and to identify any deficiencies in the information received at diagnosis.Methods: A mixed-methods study consisting of an online survey administered to the Anaphylaxis Canada online registry (a patient support group database of approximately 10,000 members), and a follow-up qualitative interview with a subset of survey participants. Analysis consisted of frequency analysis (quantitative and qualitative data) and descriptive statistics to calculate proportions and means with standard deviations. Qualitative analyses were guided by the constant comparative method of grounded theory methodology.Results: Of 293 survey respondents, 208 were eligible to complete the survey (first allergic reaction to food within 12 months of the study), and 184 respondents consented. Identified gaps included education about food allergy, anaphylaxis management, for example, how to use epinephrine auto- injectors, and coping strategies for fear and anxiety. The qualitative follow-up study supported these findings, yielding 3 major themes: 1) lack of provision of information following the episode on the recognition and management of food allergy related allergic reactions, 2) prolonged wait times for an allergist, and 3) significant family anxiety.Conclusions: The online survey highlighted multiple deficiencies at diagnosis, findings which were supported by the follow up qualitative study. Results will inform the development of educational strategies for patients newly diagnosed with food allergy. © 2013 Abdurrahman et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Muraro A.,University of Padua | Roberts G.,St Marys Hospital | Roberts G.,University of Southampton | Worm M.,Charité - Medical University of Berlin | And 30 more authors.
Allergy: European Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology | Year: 2014

Anaphylaxis is a clinical emergency, and all healthcare professionals should be familiar with its recognition and acute and ongoing management. These guidelines have been prepared by the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) Taskforce on Anaphylaxis. They aim to provide evidence-based recommendations for the recognition, risk factor assessment, and the management of patients who are at risk of, are experiencing, or have experienced anaphylaxis. While the primary audience is allergists, these guidelines are also relevant to all other healthcare professionals. The development of these guidelines has been underpinned by two systematic reviews of the literature, both on the epidemiology and on clinical management of anaphylaxis. Anaphylaxis is a potentially life-threatening condition whose clinical diagnosis is based on recognition of a constellation of presenting features. First-line treatment for anaphylaxis is intramuscular adrenaline. Useful second-line interventions may include removing the trigger where possible, calling for help, correct positioning of the patient, high-flow oxygen, intravenous fluids, inhaled short-acting bronchodilators, and nebulized adrenaline. Discharge arrangements should involve an assessment of the risk of further reactions, a management plan with an anaphylaxis emergency action plan, and, where appropriate, prescribing an adrenaline auto-injector. If an adrenaline auto-injector is prescribed, education on when and how to use the device should be provided. Specialist follow-up is essential to investigate possible triggers, to perform a comprehensive risk assessment, and to prevent future episodes by developing personalized risk reduction strategies including, where possible, commencing allergen immunotherapy. Training for the patient and all caregivers is essential. There are still many gaps in the evidence base for anaphylaxis. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


Sheth S.S.,McGill University | Waserman S.,McMaster University | Kagan R.,North York General Hospital | Alizadehfar R.,McGill University | And 11 more authors.
Annals of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology | Year: 2010

Background: Little is known about the impact of food labeling on the allergic consumer. Objective: To determine the proportion of food-allergic individuals attributing an accidental exposure to inappropriate labeling, failure to read a food label, or ignoring a precautionary statement and to identify factors associated with accidental exposures. Methods: Food-allergic individuals or their caregivers were recruited from a Canadian registry of individuals with a physician-confirmed diagnosis of peanut allergy and from allergy awareness organizations. Participants completed questionnaires regarding accidental exposures due to specific food labeling issues. The association between accidental exposures and characteristics of food-allergic individuals or their caregivers was estimated using multivariate logistic regression models. Results: Of 1,862 potential participants, 1,454 (78.1%) responded. Of the 47.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 45.1%-50.5%) of respondents who experienced an accidental exposure, 47.0% (95% CI, 43.1%-50.9%) attributed the event to inappropriate labeling, 28.6% (95% CI, 25.1%-32.2%) to failure to read a food label, and 8.3% (95% CI, 6.3%-10.7%) to ignoring a precautionary statement. Food-allergic individuals who were allergic to peanut, tree nut, fish, or shellfish were less likely to experience an accidental exposure due to the allergen not being identified in plain language. Conclusions: A considerable proportion of accidental exposures are attributed to inappropriate labeling, failure to read labels, and ignoring precautionary statements. Clear and consistent labeling of food allergens combined with increased consumer education is necessary to improve consumer confidence and compliance and to reduce accidental exposures. © 2010 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Cicutto L.,National Jewish Health | Cicutto L.,University of Toronto | Cicutto L.,University of Colorado | Julien B.,University of Toronto | And 10 more authors.
Allergy: European Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology | Year: 2012

Background: School personnel in contact with students with life-threatening allergies often lack necessary supports, creating a potentially dangerous situation. Sabrina's Law, the first legislation in the world designed to protect such children, requires all Ontario public schools to have a plan to protect children at risk. Although it has captured international attention, the differences a legislative approach makes have not been identified. Our study compared the approaches to anaphylaxis prevention and management in schools with and without legislation. Methods: Legislated (Ontario) and nonlegislated (Alberta, British Columbia, Newfoundland and Labrador, and Quebec) environments were compared. School board anaphylaxis policies were assessed for consistency with Canadian anaphylaxis guidelines. Parents of at-risk children and school personnel were surveyed to determine their perspectives on school practices. School personnel's EpiPen5 technique was assessed. Results: Consistency of school board policies with anaphylaxis guidelines was significantly better in a legislated environment (P = 0.009). Parents in a legislated environment reported more comprehensive anaphylaxis emergency forms (P < 0.001), while school personnel in nonlegislated environments reported more comprehensive forms (P = 0.004). Despite school personnel in both environments receiving EpiPen5 training (>80%), suboptimal technique was commonly observed. However, school personnel in the legislated environment had better technique (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Our results suggest that school boards in legislated environments have made greater efforts to support students at risk for anaphylaxis compared to nonlegislated environments. However, significant gaps exist in both environments, especially with respect to EpiPen5 administration, content, and distribution of anaphylaxis emergency forms, and awareness of school procedures by school personnel and parents. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.


Fenton N.E.,McMaster University | Elliott S.J.,University of Waterloo | Cicutto L.,University of Toronto | Clarke A.E.,McGill University | And 2 more authors.
Risk Analysis | Year: 2011

The risk perception research is widely focused on children as targets of risk. To date, very few studies have consulted with the impacted group to assess the perceptions of risk associated with the exposures of interest. Much less research has investigated the experiences of children at risk for anaphylaxis, their concerns, and the psychosocial stresses associated with risk. The present study explores the perceptions and experiences of Ontario students with anaphylaxis, and their parents regarding school as a safe place in order to inform school policy around risk management and coping. A "child-centered" analytical framework incorporating illustrative techniques within interpretative analysis is outlined. Five prominent themes: (a) social and environmental barriers to safety, (b) coping strategies, (c) emotional burden of responsibility, (d) balance of responsibility (transitions), and (e) redefining "normal" are discussed. Results found that "child-centered" techniques empowered children in a process that is meaningful and relevant to their lives. A preliminary framework for understanding what risk means to children highlighted the differences in how they cope in the public sphere of school. © 2010 Society for Risk Analysis.


Kastner M.,University of Toronto | Harada L.,Anaphylaxis Canada | Waserman S.,McMaster University
Allergy: European Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology | Year: 2010

Diagnosis and management of anaphylaxis can be a challenge because reactions are often unexpected and progress quickly. The focus of anaphylaxis management has mostly been on the acute episode, with little attention given to the long-term management of patients at risk. This is compounded by conflicting information in current guidelines and a general lack of agreement among clinicians about which management strategies are the most appropriate. We systematically reviewed the literature to identify and summarize studies that investigated gaps in anaphylaxis management. Our search included MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and Evidence-Based Medicine Reviews. Studies were included if they addressed an outcome describing gaps in anaphylaxis knowledge, education, anaphylaxis management, and quality of life (QOL). Populations of interest were health care professionals involved in the care of patients at risk for anaphylaxis, and patients of any age, their parents, caregivers, and teachers in primary care, hospital or community settings. Of 5014 citations that were identified, the final 59 studies (selected from 75 full-text articles) met the inclusion criteria. Two hundred and two gaps were identified and classified according to major themes: gaps in knowledge and anaphylaxis management (physicians and patients); gaps in follow-up care (physicians); and QOL of patients and caregivers. Findings from this systematic review revealed gaps in anaphylaxis management at the level of physicians, patients, and the community. Findings will be used to provide a basis for developing interventional strategies to help address these deficiencies. © 2009 John Wiley & Sons A/S.


Chad L.,University of Toronto | Ben-Shoshan M.,McGill University | Asai Y.,McGill University | Cherkaoui S.,University of Montréal | And 5 more authors.
Allergy: European Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology | Year: 2013

Prompt epinephrine administration is crucial in managing anaphylaxis, but epinephrine auto-injectors (EAIs) are underutilized by patients and their families. Children with peanut allergy were recruited from the Allergy Clinics at the Montreal Children's Hospital, food allergy advocacy organizations and organizations providing products to allergic individuals. Parents of children who had been prescribed an EAI were queried on whether they were fearful of using it and on factors that may contribute to fear. A majority of parents (672/1209 = 56%) expressed fear regarding the use of the EAI. Parents attributed the fear to hurting the child, using the EAI incorrectly or a bad outcome. Parents whose child had longer disease duration or a severe reaction and parents who were satisfied with the EAI training or found it easy to use were less likely to be afraid. Families may benefit from simulation training and more education on the recognition and management of anaphylaxis. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


Xu Y.S.,McMaster University | Kastner M.,Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute | Harada L.,Anaphylaxis Canada | Xu A.,University of Western Ontario | And 2 more authors.
Allergy, Asthma and Clinical Immunology | Year: 2014

Background: Examining deaths caused by anaphylaxis may help identify factors that may decrease the risk of these unfortunate events. However, information on fatal anaphylaxis is limited. The objectives of our study were to examine all cases of fatal anaphylaxis in Ontario to determine cause of death, associated features, co factors and trends in mortality. The identification of these factors is important for developing effective strategies to overcome gaps in monitoring and treatment of patients with food allergies and risk for anaphylaxis. Methods: This was a retrospective case-series analysis of all causes of anaphylaxis-related deaths using data from the Ontario Coroner's database between 1986 and 2011. Quantitative data (e.g. demographic) were analyzed using descriptive statistics and frequency analysis using SPSS. Qualitative data were analyzed using content analysis of grounded theory methodology. Results: We found 92 deaths in the last 26 years related to anaphylaxis. Causes of death, in order of decreasing frequency, included food (40 cases), insect venom (30 cases), iatrogenic (16 cases), and idiopathic (6 cases). Overall, there appears to be a decline in the frequency of food related deaths, but an increase in iatrogenic causes of fatalities. We found factors associated with fatal anaphylaxis included: delayed epinephrine administration, asthma, allergy to peanut, food ingestion outside the home, and teenagers with food allergies. Conclusions: Our findings indicate the need to improve epinephrine auto-injector use in acute reactions, particularly for teens and asthmatics with food allergies. In addition, education can be improved among food service workers and food industry in order to help food allergic patients avoid potentially fatal allergens. The increasing trend in iatrogenic related anaphylaxis is concerning, and requires monitoring and more investigation. © 2014 Xu et al.Ltd.


PubMed | McGill University, Anaphylaxis Canada, University of Calgary, Allergy Asthma Information Association and 4 more.
Type: | Journal: Clinical and translational allergy | Year: 2015

We previously estimated that the annual rate of accidental exposure to peanut in 1411 children with peanut allergy, followed for 2227 patient-years, was 11.9% (95% CI, 10.6, 13.5). This cohort has increased to 1941 children, contributing 4589 patient-years, and we determined the annual incidence of accidental exposure, described the severity, management, location, and identified associated factors.Children with physician-confirmed peanut allergy were recruited from Canadian allergy clinics and allergy advocacy organizations from 2004 to May 2014. Parents completed questionnaires regarding accidental exposure to peanut over the preceding year. Five hundred and sixty-seven accidental exposures occurred in 429 children over 4589 patient-years, yielding an annual incidence rate of 12.4% (95% CI, 11.4, 13.4). Of 377 accidental exposures that were moderate or severe, only 109 (28.9%) sought medical attention and of these 109, only 40 (36.7%) received epinephrine. Of the 181 moderate/severe accidental exposures treated outside a health care facility, only 11.6% received epinephrine. Thirty-seven percent of accidental exposures occurred at home. In multivariate analyses, longer disease duration, recruitment through an allergy advocacy association, and having other food allergies decreased the likelihood of accidental exposures. Age13years at study entry and living with a single parent increased the risk.Despite increased awareness, accidental exposures continue to occur, mainly at home, and most are managed inappropriately by both health care professionals and caregivers. Consequently, more education is required on the importance of strict allergen avoidance and the need for prompt and correct management of anaphylaxis.


PubMed | University of Western Ontario, McMaster University, Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute, Anaphylaxis Canada and Independent MD
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Allergy, asthma, and clinical immunology : official journal of the Canadian Society of Allergy and Clinical Immunology | Year: 2015

Examining deaths caused by anaphylaxis may help identify factors that may decrease the risk of these unfortunate events. However, information on fatal anaphylaxis is limited. The objectives of our study were to examine all cases of fatal anaphylaxis in Ontario to determine cause of death, associated features, co factors and trends in mortality. The identification of these factors is important for developing effective strategies to overcome gaps in monitoring and treatment of patients with food allergies and risk for anaphylaxis.This was a retrospective case-series analysis of all causes of anaphylaxis-related deaths using data from the Ontario Coroners database between 1986 and 2011. Quantitative data (e.g. demographic) were analyzed using descriptive statistics and frequency analysis using SPSS. Qualitative data were analyzed using content analysis of grounded theory methodology.We found 92 deaths in the last 26 years related to anaphylaxis. Causes of death, in order of decreasing frequency, included food (40 cases), insect venom (30 cases), iatrogenic (16 cases), and idiopathic (6 cases). Overall, there appears to be a decline in the frequency of food related deaths, but an increase in iatrogenic causes of fatalities. We found factors associated with fatal anaphylaxis included: delayed epinephrine administration, asthma, allergy to peanut, food ingestion outside the home, and teenagers with food allergies.Our findings indicate the need to improve epinephrine auto-injector use in acute reactions, particularly for teens and asthmatics with food allergies. In addition, education can be improved among food service workers and food industry in order to help food allergic patients avoid potentially fatal allergens. The increasing trend in iatrogenic related anaphylaxis is concerning, and requires monitoring and more investigation.

Loading Anaphylaxis Canada collaborators
Loading Anaphylaxis Canada collaborators