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Monks H.,University of Southampton | Gowland M.H.,Anaphylaxis Campaign | MacKenzie H.,University of Portsmouth | Erlewyn-Lajeunesse M.,University of Southampton | And 3 more authors.
Clinical and Experimental Allergy | Year: 2010

Summary Background The peak incidence of deaths from anaphylaxis associated with nut allergy occurs in teenagers and young adults. During adolescence, the management of food allergy shifts from being the responsibility of parents to that of the young person. This is a group who therefore need special attention in the clinic. Objective This study aimed to understand the practical challenges that teenagers with food allergy experience using a qualitative approach and generate potential interventions for tackling these. Methods Teenagers aged 1118 years with food allergy completed a questionnaire about their food allergy and underwent a focused, semi-structured interview with open questions guided by a priori topic areas. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and analysed using a thematic approach. Results The study enrolled 18 teenagers with a median age of 15 years (10 females); the most common food allergens were peanuts and tree nuts. Three key themes emerged: avoidance of allergens, preparation for reactions and the treatment of reactions. The majority of teenagers reported eating foods labelled as 'may contain' an allergen as they perceive that they are actually very unlikely to contain an allergen. Many of the teenagers only carried their self-injectable adrenaline when they thought they are particularly at risk of a reaction. Some do not know how to appropriately treat an allergic reaction. More than half believed that educating other students at school about the seriousness of food allergies would make it easier to live with their food allergy. Conclusions A significant number of teenagers demonstrate risk-taking behaviour in the management of their food allergies. Teenagers also felt it would be helpful for their peers to be educated about food allergy. This novel strategy might help them to avoid trigger foods and enable teenagers to access help more readily if they suffer a reaction. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.


Brathwaite N.,Kings College | Du Toit G.,Paediatric Allergy | Sinnott L.,North West Specialised Commissioning Team | Forster D.,University of Nottingham | And 4 more authors.
Archives of Disease in Childhood | Year: 2011

Aims: The Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health (RCPCH) Science & Research Department was commissioned by the Department of Health to develop national care pathways for children with allergies; the venom allergy pathway is the seventh pathway. The pathways focus on defining the competences to improve the equity of care received by children with allergic conditions. Method: The RCPCH venom allergy pathway was developed by a multidisciplinary working group and was based on a comprehensive review of evidence. The pathway was reviewed by a broad group of stakeholders including the public and approved by the Allergy Care Pathways Project Board and the RCPCH Clinical Standards Committee. Results: The pathway results are presented in four parts: evidence review, mapping, external review and core knowledge documents. The entry points are defined and the ideal pathway of care is described from self-care through to follow-up. The evidence highlighted that venom immunotherapy is safe and effective for bee and wasp allergy and that there are real quality of life benefits for patients. The review also highlighted the value of measuring serum tryptase after reactions. Conclusions: The venom allergy pathway provides a guide for training and development of services to facilitate improvements in delivery as close to the patient's home as possible. The authors recommend that this pathway should be implemented locally by a multidisciplinary team with a focus on creating networks between primary, secondary and tertiary care to improve services for children with allergic conditions.


Fox A.T.,Paediatric Allergy | Arkwright P.D.,University of Manchester | Bhattacharya D.,Pharmacy | Brown T.,Paediatric Allergy | And 13 more authors.
Archives of Disease in Childhood | Year: 2011

Aims: The Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health (RCPCH) Science and Research Department was commissioned by the Department of Health to develop national care pathways for children with allergies; food allergy is the second pathway. The pathways focus on defining the competences required t o improve the equity of care received by children with allergic conditions. Method: The food allergy pathway was developed by a multidisciplinary working group and was based on a comprehensive review of the evidence. The pathway was reviewed by a broad group of stakeholders including the public and approved by the Allergy Care Pathways Project Board and the RCPCH Clinical Standards Committee. The National Institute of Health and Clinical Excellence simultaneously established a short guideline review of community practice for children with food allergy; close communication was established between the two groups. Results: The results are presented in two sections: a pathway algorithm and the competences. The entry points are defined and the ideal pathway of care is described from initial recognition and confirmed diagnosis through to follow-up. Conclusions: The range of manifestations of food allergy/intolerance is much more diverse than hitherto recognised and diagnosis can be problematic as many patients do not have classical IgE mediated disease. The pathway provides a guide for training and development of services to facilitate improvements in delivery as close to the patient's home as possible. The authors recommend that this pathway is implemented locally by a multidisciplinary team with a focus on creating networks.


Du Toit G.,Paediatric Allergy | Sinnott L.,North West Specialised Commissioning Team | Forster D.,The London Clinic | Austin M.,Anaphylaxis Campaign | And 4 more authors.
Archives of Disease in Childhood | Year: 2011

Aims: The Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health (RCPCH) was commissioned by the Department of Health to develop a drug allergy pathway. It focuses on defining the competences to improve the equity of care received by children. Method: The drug pathway was developed by a multidisciplinary working group and was based on a comprehensive review of evidence. The team decided to focus on IgE-mediated reactions as these have the greatest potential to be life-threatening. Results: The results are presented in four parts: evidence review, pathway mapping, external review and core knowledge documents. The evidence review found a high percentage of putative penicillin allergy is not confirmed by objective testing and that resensitisation to β-lactam drugs was infrequent. It also highlighted the importance of a detailed history and accurate diagnosis along with clear communication of test results to both family and primary care. Conclusions: This pathway demonstrates the spectrum of drug allergy is varied and may differ for young children compared with older children and adults. The authors highlight the paucity of evidence to support allergy testing for most drugs, in children, other than supervised incremental provocation tests (when indicated). Acute presentations require emergency health professionals to address underlying allergic issues, including recognition and avoidance of potential drug allergy triggers. Non-acute presentations may include multi-system symptoms which may have a broad differential diagnosis; this document signposts to the relevant partners in the RCPCH care pathway portfolio. Management combines a care package including a definitive diagnosis, initiating treatments and ongoing education.


Bailey S.,Brighton and Sussex Medical School | Kindratt T.B.,Brighton and Sussex Medical School | Smith H.,Brighton and Sussex Medical School | Reading D.,Anaphylaxis Campaign
Clinical and Translational Allergy | Year: 2014

A previous cross-sectional survey highlighted that restaurant staff in Brighton had gaps in their knowledge of food allergy, which could lead to the provision of unsafe meals to food-allergic customers. A food allergy training event was developed by a multi-disciplinary team (health service researcher, clinician, teacher and patient group representative) to equip restaurant staff with the knowledge and skills necessary to safely serve food-allergic customers. This evaluation summarises the training event's impact on participants' knowledge of food allergy and their satisfaction with the event. No attendee had previously attended any formal training on food allergy. The percentage of participants who answered all true-false questions correctly increased from 82% before the training event to 91% afterwards. The percentage of participants who were able to name at least three common allergens increased from 9% to 64%. Both quantitative and qualitative feedback was positive. Restaurant staff require a good understanding of food allergy to ensure that food-allergic customers are kept safe, and their restaurants operate within the law. This food allergy training event improved participants' absolute knowledge of food allergy, and attendees changed practice. Recommendations are made which could improve the impact and uptake of future food allergy training events. © 2014 Bailey et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

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