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Oberbuchsiten, Switzerland

Trounson A.,Monash University | Kolaja K.,Cellular Dynamics | Petersen T.,Triangle Therapeutics | Weber K.,AnaPath GmbH | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Toxicology | Year: 2015

Stem cells have great potential in basic research and are being slowly integrated into toxicological research. This symposium provided an overview of the state of the field, stem cell models, described allogenic stem cell treatments and issues of immunogenicity associated with protein therapeutics, and tehn concentrated on stem cell uses in regenerative medicine focusing on lung and testing strategies on engineered tissues from a pathologists perspective. © The Author(s) 2015. Source

Wolf J.C.,Experimental Pathology Laboratories Inc. | Ruehl-Fehlert C.,Bayer AG | Segner H.E.,University of Bern | Weber K.,AnaPath GmbH | Hardisty J.F.,Experimental Pathology Laboratories Inc.
Aquatic Toxicology | Year: 2014

While the pathology peer review/pathology working group (PWG) model has long been used in mammalian toxicologic pathology to ensure the accuracy, consistency, and objectivity of histopathology data, application of this paradigm to ecotoxicological studies has thus far been limited. In the current project, the PWG approach was used to evaluate histopathologic sections of gills, liver, kidney, and/or intestines from three previously published studies of diclofenac in trout, among which there was substantial variation in the reported histopathologic findings. The main objectives of this review process were to investigate and potentially reconcile these interstudy differences, and based on the results, to establish an appropriate no observed effect concentration (NOEC). Following a complete examination of all histologic sections and original diagnoses by a single experienced fish pathologist (pathology peer review), a two-day PWG session was conducted to allow members of a four-person expert panel to determine the extent of treatment-related findings in each of the three trout studies. The PWG was performed according to the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) Pesticide Regulation (PR) 94-5 (EPA Pesticide Regulation, 1994). In accordance with standard procedures, the PWG review was conducted by the non-voting chairperson in a manner intended to minimize bias, and thus during the evaluation, the four voting panelists were unaware of the treatment group status of individual fish and the original diagnoses associated with the histologic sections. Based on the results of this review, findings related to diclofenac exposure included minimal to slightly increased thickening of the gill filament tips in fish exposed to the highest concentration tested (1000. μg/L), plus a previously undiagnosed finding, decreased hepatic glycogen, which also occurred at the 1000. μg/L dose level. The panel found little evidence to support other reported effects of diclofenac in trout, and thus the overall NOEC was determined to be >320. μg/L. By consensus, the PWG panel was able to identify diagnostic inconsistencies among and within the three prior studies; therefore this exercise demonstrated the value of the pathology peer review/PWG approach for assessing the reliability of histopathology results that may be used by regulatory agencies for risk assessment. © 2013 The Authors. Source

Krinke G.J.,AnaPath GmbH | Herrmann A.,Hoffmann-La Roche | Korner A.,NORD DTA Liaison | Landes C.,Hoffmann-La Roche | Sauner F.,Hoffmann-La Roche
Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology | Year: 2014

The representative areas for examination of the mouse peripheral nervous system are the spinal cord, containing central components of the peripheral nervous system that needs to be examined at least at cervical and lumbar level, the sciatic and the tibial nerve. Skeletal muscle samples should include the soleus muscle and the quadriceps femoris or long digital extensor, as well as the medial gastrocnemius. Examination can be extended to the thoracic spinal cord, lumbar dorsal root ganglia and spinal nerve roots, as well as the plantar nerve, and other areas of interest. Perfusion fixation is considered optimal for the nervous system; however, immersion fixation allows producing microscopic sections of excellent quality as well. Paraffin-embedded, hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections can be made from all areas, save for small nerves such as the tibial or plantar nerve, which are examined with advantage in hard plastic sections. It is possible to produce hard plastic sections also of the vertebral column, including the spinal cord, dorsal root ganglia and nerve roots. For special investigations, mice can be fixed in toto, decalcified, embedded and sectioned to reveal the areas of interest. In the mouse peripheral nerves, myelination progresses until the adult age. In aging peripheral nerves there is axonal atrophy, degeneration, nerve fiber loss, increase of collagen and sporadic demyelination, especially radiculoneuropathy. The dorsal root ganglia of untreated control animals show frequent cytoplasmic vacuolation. Axonal degeneration is distally, primary demyelination proximally accentuated. Mouse is not very sensitive to peripheral neurotoxicity: to induce toxic peripheral neuropathy mostly parenteral administration and/or newborn animals are used. Naturally occurring infection affecting the spinal cord and peripheral nerves is Theiler's encephalomyelitis virus inducing acute poliomyelitis or chronic demyelination. Any experimental results are to be assessed taking into account spontaneous, age-related, background changes. © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. Source

Weber K.,AnaPath GmbH | Hailey J.R.,GlaxoSmithCline | Mann P.C.,Experimental Pathology Laboratories Northwest | Seaton M.,FDA CDER | Funk K.A.,Experimental Pathology Laboratories
Toxicologic Pathology | Year: 2014

This continuing education course presented at the Society of Toxicologic Pathology's 31st Annual Symposium explored and defined the many roles that toxicologic pathologists serve Good Laboratory Practice (GLP)-conducted toxicology and carcinogenicity studies. © 2014 by The Author(s). Source

Schuler D.,Harlan Laboratories Ltd. | Chevalier H.-J.,AnaPath GmbH | Merker M.,Harlan Cytotest Cell Research GmbH | Morgenthal K.,Harlan Laboratories Ltd. | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Toxicologic Pathology | Year: 2011

Inhalation of vanadium pentoxide clearly increases the incidence of alveolar/bronchiolar neoplasms in male and female B6C3F1 mice at all concentrations tested (1, 2 or 4 mg/m 3), whereas responses in F344/N rats was, at most, ambiguous. While vanadium pentoxide is mutagenic in vitro and possibly in vivo in mice, this does not explain the species or site specificity of the neoplastic response. A nose-only inhalation study was conducted in female B6C3F1 mice (0, 0.25, 1 and 4 mg/m3, 6 h/day for 16 days) to explore histopathological, biochemical (α-tocopherol, glutathione and F2-isoprostane) and genetic (comet assays and 9 specific DNA-oxo-adducts) changes in the lungs. No treatment related histopathology was observed at 0.25 mg/m3. At 1 and 4 mg/m3, exposure-dependent increases were observed in lung weight, alveolar histiocytosis, sub-acute alveolitis and/or granulocytic infiltration and a generally time-dependent increased cell proliferation rate of histiocytes. Glutathione was slightly increased, whereas there were no consistent changes in α-tocopherol or 8-isoprostane F2α. There was no evidence for DNA strand breakage in lung or BAL cells, but there was an increase in 8-oxodGuo DNA lesions that could have been due to vanadium pentoxide induction of the lesions or inhibition of repair of spontaneous lesions. Thus, earlier reports of histopathological changes in the lungs after inhalation of vanadium pentoxide were confirmed, but no evidence has yet emerged for a genotoxic mode of action. Evidence is weak for oxidative stress playing any role in lung carcinogenesis at the lowest effective concentrations of vanadium pentoxide. © 2011 The Japanese Society of Toxicologic Pathology. Source

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